Landscapes of Resilience - Resilience 2014 Session 44

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How does the creation and Care of Green Spaces Affect Resilience in Times of Crisis?

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  • I have spent a good deal of the past ten years, since 9/11, thinking about these two questions.
  • What’s the premise of the book? Creation and access to green spaces promotes individual human health, especially in therapeutic contexts among those suffering traumatic events. But what of the role of access to green space and the act of creating and caring for such places in promoting social health and well-being? Greening in the Red Zone asserts that creation and access to green spaces confers resilience and recovery in systems, from individual human systems to regional and landscape scale systems, which have been disrupted by violent conflict, crisis, or disaster. This edited volume provides evidence for this assertion through cases and examples. The contributors to this volume use a variety of research and policy frameworks to explore how creation and access to green spaces in extreme situations might contribute to resistance, recovery, and resilience of social-ecological systems.
  • Now, getting back to Greening in Red Zones, and the relationships between Greening in Red Zones and human security or environmental justice, Before I go much further, I need to make sure we are clear on some definitions--
  • Greening can enable or enhance recovery from conflict and hasten transitions to peace in situations where community members actively participate in greening, which in turn results in measurable benefits for themselves, their community, and the environment.
  • Landscapes of Resilience - Resilience 2014 Session 44

    1. 1. Landscapes of Resilience — Understanding How the Creation and Care of Green Spaces Can Affect Resilience in Times of Crisis Session 44
    2. 2. Project funding from:
    3. 3. • Speed Talks – 5 min x 4 presenters (25 mins) • Speed Dating – Break into three small groups (15 mins) • Roundtable Wrap-up one ? ea. for Lindsay, Traci, & Keith Road map for today…
    4. 4. Research and experience suggest that green spaces serve as catalyzing mechanisms that confer resilience within systems across individual, family, community, and social-ecological scales and over time—including immediately post-disturbance, during stages of recovery, and over long term processes of neighborhood and community change. Today Real-world cases -- How might the benefits of these catalytic spaces come from the physical design, the way in which site users interact with green space, and the processes involved in site creation and maintenance? – How do acts of civic engagement, active stewardship, and collective remembering in post-disaster recovery contexts “fit in” to social-ecological resilience ?
    5. 5. Presentation given May, 2014 RESILIENCE 2014 Montpellier , France Keith G. Tidball, PhD kgtidball@cornell.edu www.civicecology.org Community-based Ecological Restoration to Enhance Resilience and Transitions after Surprise and Crisis in the
    6. 6. Why do humans turn to nature, and restoring nature, in the wake of conflict and disaster? Of what use might greening in human vulnerability and security contexts be in managing social-ecological systems for resilience and transitions to peace?
    7. 7. GREENING IN THE RED ZONE Greening in the Red Zone -- • creation and access to green spaces confers resilience and recovery in systems disrupted by violent conflict or disaster. • provides evidence for this assertion through cases and examples. • a variety of research and policy frameworks to explore how creation and access to green spaces in extreme situations might contribute to resistance, recovery, and resilience of social-ecological systems.
    8. 8. What is a red zone? “Red Zones” refer to multiple settings (spatial and temporal) that may be characterized as intense, potentially or recently hostile or dangerous, including those associated with terrorist attacks and war, as well as in post-disaster situations caused by natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes.
    9. 9. What is greening? • “Greening” is an active and integrated approach to the appreciation, stewardship and management of living elements of social-ecological systems. • Greening takes place in cities, towns, townships and informal settlements in urban and peri-urban areas, and in the battlefields of war and of disaster. • Greening sites vary -- from small woodlands, public and private urban parks and gardens, urban natural areas, street tree and city square plantings, botanical gardens and cemeteries, to watersheds, whole forests and national or international parks. • Greening involves active participation with nature and in human or civil society (Tidball and Krasny 2007)—and thus can be distinguished from notions of ‘nature contact’ (Ulrich 1993) that imply spending time in or viewing nature, but not necessarily active stewardship.
    10. 10. Some examples Replanting of the Urban Forest of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Living Memorials creation throughout NYC, Washington D.C. , and Shanksville, PA after 9/11 Establishment of Band-e- Amir National Park in the midst of conflict in Afghanistan Conservation efforts in demilitarized border lands in the Korean peninsula and between Greece and Cyprus Restoration of Iraq’s wetlands, supported by community-based natural resources management among Iraq’s Marsh Arabs & partnerships with the scientific community
    11. 11. Why GRZ? • Contributes shared sense of identity / rebuilding identity post-crisis • Leads to improved psychological, cognitive, and social health • Fosters deeper sense of self-worth as an individual contributes to the community’s overall well-being • Serves as basis for framing place meaning and identity, and for empowerment through demonstrable opportunities for community organizing • Restarts ecosystem services producing systems • Because greeners often form partnerships with NGOs, government, and universities, greening contributes additional benefits to polycentric governance approaches
    12. 12. Joplin, MO USA (Tornado 2011) NYC,NY USA (Hurricane Sandy 2012) Sudden surprise vs. long term degradation (or rigidity) of system? Little vs big? Regional differences? Institutional differences?
    13. 13. Traci
    14. 14. Lindsay
    15. 15. GREEN SPACEAND STEWARDSHIP IN NEW YORK CITY’S POST-SANDY WATERFRONT COMMUNITIES 6 May 2014 Resilience 2014 Lindsay K. Campbell, Erika S. Svendsen, Nancy J. Falxa-Raymond, Gillian Baine USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station – NYC Urban Field Station
    16. 16. Research questions • What are the uses, functions, and values of parkland as conveyed through people’s behaviors, descriptions, and narratives? • How have perceptions of and interactions with parkland been influenced by Hurricane Sandy?
    17. 17. Study area Source: http://www.nycgovparks.org/
    18. 18. Social Assessment of Park Users • Spatially explicit: • Interior zones • Edge • Observations of: • Human activities • Signs of human use • Randomized interviews
    19. 19. Civic Stewardship -- Frank Charles Memorial Park • First responders: informal group of retired friends • Chronic disturbance: tides and aging • Acute disturbance: Sandy
    20. 20. • Physical features & material qualities: what’s there • Park amenities and infrastructure • Natural features (shade, breeze, views, etc.) • Proximity • Activities: what you do • Sports & rec • Socializing • Stewardship, nature rec • Work • Benefits: what you get • Enjoyment • Refuge (quiet, peace, solace, etc.) • Place attachment: what is sustained • Social ties and networks: family and friends • Historical legacies Why do you come to this park?
    21. 21. Acknowledgements USDA Forest Service NYC Parks & Recreation Natural Areas Conservancy The TKF Foundation Jamaica Bay Restoration Corps www.nrs.fs.fed.us/nyc

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