Nov 7, 2012 TKF Site VisitsLandscapes of ResilienceAn integrated, transdisciplinary partnership toincrease understanding of how urbangreen spaces and the process of theircreation serve as catalyzingmechanisms within disrupted systems thatconfer resilience across scales. Keith Tidball, Erika Svendsen, Lindsay Campbell, Rebecca Salminen Witt, Traci Sooter, Nancy Chikaraishi, Jennifer Silva Brown, Christopher Cotten, and Donna Coble
Who we are – our two citytransdisciplinary team
Who we are – our two city transdisciplinary team Detroit, MI Joplin, MOacross scales, across borders
Red zones“Red Zones” refer to multiple settings(spatial and temporal) that may becharacterized as intense, potentiallyor recently hostile or dangerous,including those in post-disastersituations caused by natural disasterssuch as hurricanes and earthquakes,as well as those associated withterrorist attacks and war, or longerterm decline of capacity andresilience.
Red zones cont.OSSPs in Red Zones› Some will be sudden, some will be longer term or ‘slow-burn’.› But wherever a given city is on that gradient, green spaces, the act of greening, and its sacred symbolic resilience will form a common thread.› Our team is documenting this important role of OSSPs in ‘red zones,’ and furthering the understanding about the nature of red zones themselves, the gradient previously mentioned.› We are demonstrating OSSPs value as not simply optional decoration in the landscape, but as fundamental and critically important adaptations; as sources and demonstrations of resilience in the urban environment, at multiple scales.
The StoryDetroit & Joplin› Detroit and Joplin experienced different kinds of disturbance, at different places on the ‘red zone’ gradient.› They are now experiencing similar adaptations around the role of greening; using OSSPs as catalysts for rebirth and rebuilding. It is a fascinating and compelling story.› The research implications are easily applied to the larger idea of expanding the support for and presence of OSSPs nationally and internationally as a matter of strategy or policy.
Concept PathDetroit Concept› Through the elements of Path, Portal Destination and Surround, the Portal individual experience comes together within the context of a broader relationship with the surrounding community and landscape. Destination Surround
ConceptDetroit Concept reconnecting to self› Allows Detroiters to ’see’ and ‘know’ each other to strengthen a shared sense of culture and heritage. connecting to each other connecting to land
DesignDetroit Conceptual Master Plan› The park design reconnects Detroiters to themselves, the land, and each provide a deeper other to human experience.› It seeks to foster social awareness and dialogue, and build opportunities to recognize and share past and present social heritage and culture in the context of the natural environment.
DesignStory Markers› The site has the potential to be the heart of a radiating network of sacred moments within the City, in that is both highly visible and linked to a network of green open spaces. story marker =
ResearchDetroit Research Summary› What are the distinct attributes of OSSPs and OSSP creation in “slow-burn” contexts?› How do these attributes compliment and contrast with OSSPs and OSSP creation in sudden red zone contexts?
Next stop… Joplin, MO Detroit, MI Joplin, MOOSSPs across scales, across borders
Welcome to Joplin- Storm Facts › On May 22, 2011 an EF5 tornado cut a path 6 miles long by ¾ mile wide through Joplin › The storm continued for 21 miles across 2 counties › 161 people lost their lives, 3 inPhoto: Kansas City Star Books Cunningham park › Over 7,500 homes were destroyed or damaged › Over 5,000 buildings were destroyed or damaged
Importance of Cunningham Park› Cunningham Park is considered ground zero as the storm reached it’s highest intensity here› Contains 3 elements the people of Joplin consider memorials: • Victims Memorial, Childrens Reflecting Pond, Volunteer Tribute› At times over 1,200 people per day visit the park› Has become a gathering place for important events for the community • Six month anniversary • one year anniversary • 10,000 person walk of Unity
Worden’s Four Tasks of Mourning1. The Portal: Worden’s Task of Mourning #1: Accept the Reality of the Loss “Through the portal the individual crosses over into sacred space” - TKF Crossing over into acceptance of the new reality Could symbolize the crossing over of a threshold from one status or identity to another in the presence of witnesses such as married to widow, victim to survivor, etc.2. The Path: Worden’s Task of Mourning #2: Process the Pain of Grief Provides structure to the individual’s experience within the space and on their grief journey Provides a sense of safety Walking the path provides opportunity to reflect (meditation) on the loss and the rebuild (resilience)3. The Destination: Worden’s Task of Mourning #3: Adjust to a World Without the Deceased (or what was lost) “A defined point toward which the individual moves on the path.” - TKF “Destination is an end-point to which the individual is drawn, having moved through the portal and walked on the path.” - TKF Symbolizes renewal of the community4. The Surround: Worden’s Task of Mourning #4: Reinvest in Society while maintaining an enduring connection to the deceased (or what was lost) “Provided through plantings, fencing, trees, sculpture, or whatever else provides an encompassing sense of boundary, safety and enclosure within the OSSP.” –TKF Outline of houses, Bench and Journal all symbolize enduring connection, we move on but don’t forget Symbolizes the resilience of the community
Application in the Gardens1. During the May 22, 2011 tornado over 8,500 homes were erased from the landscape of Joplin. Sitting at the high point of the area, the design suggests “penciling in” the outline of 3 homes that were destroyed on the site of the gardens. This metaphorical sketch of the homes responds to Worden’s first task, accepting the reality of the loss and our assignment of that task, the Portal. Visitors will pass through the same location of what was the portal of the lost home, the front door.2. The Path takes the visitor on a journey around the site allowing for Processing the Pain of Grief and promoting reflection. The directional nature of the path addresses the need for structure along the journey.3. Because of the vast number of people affected by the tornado, there are 4 areas that act as destination along the path with one destination having more hierarchy than the others. All four spaces include benches, a small bubbling water feature and OSSP journals; in addition, the fourth has a larger bubbling water feature and a water wall tiled with drawings made by local children adding hierarchy to the space and tranquil sound to the experience. All of the water features represent the renewal of the community. Planting beds surrounding the destinations contain native plants laced with a variety of fragrant species and alternating blooming seasons. The water features and plantings engage the visual, auditory, sense of touch and smell.4. Along with 11 native Missouri shade trees and native plantings the unifying circle of the “Butterfly Garden” provides a connection from space to space while also providing the encompassing sense of boundary, safety and enclosure within the OSSP. At the Overlook, the “outline” of the house also acts as surround; plaques telling the story of the tornado, the destruction, acts of heroism, miracle and survival all provide an enduring connection to the deceased (or what was lost) -We move on but do not forget
Architecture Master ElectiveMARC 531 ElectiveCarlo Scarpa detailsArt of the DetailDetails, when they are successful, are not mere decoration. They do not distract orentertain. They lead to an understanding of the whole of which they are an inherentpart. Peter Zumthor, Thinking ArchitectureWhen: Spring 2013Credits: 3 hoursInstructors: Nancy Chikaraishi, co-taught with Traci SooterCourse Description:This course will take a real-world project from conceptual design to buildable details.Precedent research will be a critical component of the exploration and development ofunderstanding detailing. This class will look at how architects have created details thatreinforce and express their design ideas. Each student will have the opportunity toinvestigate the various ways a specific detail has been used to express tectonics andmateriality leading to a greater understanding of the whole.Application of the Art of the Detail will be explored through design details of the JoplinButterfly Gardens and Overlook project in Cunningham Park, an “Open Space, SacredPlace” proposed for the City of Joplin. This project recreates the outline of three existinghomes erased by the 2011 Joplin tornado, a pavilion, five water features, story boards, abutterfly garden and four sacred spaces and benches. We will work with the Joplincommunity, contractors and sub-contractors as we develop creative details that are wellcrafted and sustainable while working within a budget. We plan to build this project in asubsequent class in the Fall 2013 semester.
ResearchLandscapes of resiliencePrimary Research questions:› How are natural resources and open space employed by communities as mechanisms to enhance resilient, adaptive processes of recovery?› What are the differences between and similarities across these processes in response to different perturbations and across different time scales?
ResearchResearch sub-themes› Discourse / nature narratives› Sacred space› Community processes / governance / stewardship› Individual / site user experiences
ResearchIndividual resilience research› Individual Resilience – capacity for positive adaptation (Masten, 2001) › Not simply lack of psychopathology› Fostering of protective factors (minimize risk)› Promotion of post-experience responses: › Optimism (Dispositional vs. Situational) › Constructive Coping› Comparative investigation into the role of fostering protective factors and psychological resilience (in both Joplin & Detroit OSSP users)
ResearchIndividual researchconducted› Joplin Impact Project – August 2011 › Examines the effect of the storm on residents’ psychological, social, and physical well being.› May/June2012 (12 month follow-up) Assessment of Joplin residents › Incorporated additional open-ended questions related to OSSP design for Joplin
ResearchOSSP Planning Grant researchin progress› Two site visits per location with participant observation by research team completed› TKF Book and Bench journal data analyzed via Leximancer › Executive Summary for web completed › Journal article in process – including analysis by site type› In-depth stakeholder interviews conducted and transcribed (N = 20)
ResearchCommunications plan› Mutual learning, site exchange visits, symposium at NYC Urban Field Station› Network of multi-media websites› Publications: whitepapers, journal articles, book chapters› Lessons learned presented at conferences› Training and messaging for urban forestry strike teams / disaster response teams
ConclusionJoplin & Detroit: Towards auniversal understanding of OSSPs