Good morning everyone. My name is Kaitlyn Groarke and my project is on firefighting. This is what happens when we get a call. The lights go on, the doors go up and the siren sounds.
We begin every company meeting with the firefighter prayer because it is a tradition.
Firefighting plays a vital role in any community. Over the years many changes have occurred in equipment, qualifications of personal, and the role of women.
In 1736 Benjamin Franklin founded the first fire company. He named it the Union Fire Company and placed it in Philadelphia. Members had to provide two buckets to carry water and also cloth bags to protect items saved from the fire. Once a month members would meet to teach more about firefighting techniques and to establish fire company policies. 30-40 men made a company so he decided to make a department. The companies in the department were Fellowship, Hand-in-Hand, Hand-in-Heart, and Friendship.Smith, Dennis. Dennis Smith's History of Firefighting in America 300 Years of Courage. : Dennis Smith, 1978. Print.
MalteseCross – There was an order called “Knights of Malta” and these brave knights did not go into combat to kill but to save. They developed a reputation for saving lives by serving as a stretcher-bearer. After a battle they would carry the victims back to the hospitals, sometimes using the shields as a stretcher. The symbol of Saint John was a red cross. The symbol for the Knights of Malta was the Maltese cross. Both emblems became symbolic for saving lives and property. Hydrant – The first hydrants were a hole in the water pipe and sealed with removable plugs. If there was another fire nearby then they could unplug the water plug and put the fire out with the fire buckets. That’s why hydrants are also called fireplugs or plugs.Gear – Gear is called bunkers. The word bunker was originally short boots and protective pants that duty firefighters would only wear at night. During the day the firefighters wore long coats and three-quarter pull up boots, this is no longer allowed by NFPA because many serious burns have occurred.Fire fighters were called “back steppers” because they would ride on the back of the truck. Apparatus -The first Swedesburg apparatus was built in 1952, a Ford 1000-gallon truck. Trucks were called “Steamers”. The reason fire trucks were red was because in 1920 Henry Ford wanted to make cars inexpensive as possible and only painted cars in black. All vehicles on road were black so the fire service painted their engines red in effort to stand out. Conway, W. Fred. Firefighting Lore Strange But True Stories From Firefighting History. New Albany, Indiana: Print.Walter, Andrea A., et al. Essentials of Firefighting and Emergency Response. 2nd ed. New York: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2004. Print.
The first female was an African American held slave. She belonged to the New York merchant in Benjamin Aymar. She worked on the Oceanus Engine Company #11 in New York in 1818. She’d wear a calico dress (plain-woven cotton cloth). In the blizzard of 1818 Molly helped the men on the dragropes and pulled the pumper to the fire through the deep snow.http://www.firefightercentral.com/history/first_woman_firefighters.htm
Wounded and fallen female firefighters have gone unnoticed and most people are not aware that these women exist.Some women hold positions in command In the United States there are approximately 30 to 40 thousand brave women, they are on the rise.http://becomeafireman.com/firefighter-news/female-firefighters/
This monument was constructed in October 4, 1981. It is a 7-foot stone with a sculptured Maltese cross. On the monument there is an engraved plaque with a message from President Ronald W. Reagan, which states, “Dedicated to the thousands of Firefighters who have lost their lives in the very act of saving others.”There are plaques that circle the monument that list the names of the men and women of fire communities who have died in the line of duty since 1981. Whenever a firefighter dies in the line of duty, fire officials post a notice of the death at the monument and lower flags at the site to half-staff. There is now a Wall of Honor place around the monument. The first plaque with names of firefighters who died in the line of duty in 2004. When you loose a firefighter, you loose a brother.http://www.firehero.org/memorialpark/memorial/
This scene is from the movie Ladder 49. Her husband Jack has died in the line of duty saving another man. The Chief and a Priest come in the Chief’s car and tells the family about their loss.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VC1KUShUygc&playnext_from=TL&videos=gZo8iPzDCWshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=seJzGlIYMlU&playnext_from=TL&videos=sDYO7pGD6zQ
In the fire service we have standards to follow.NFPA - stands for National Fire Protection Association. They are the professional qualification committee. NFPA sets training standards for various department positions as in firefighters, fire officers, hazardous materials responders, rescue specialists, driver and operators. OSHA – stands for Occupational Safety and Health Association. They enforce safety-related regulations in the workplace.Walter, Andrea A., et al. Essentials of Firefighting and Emergency Response. 2nd ed. New York: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2004. Print.
In our company the line officers have certain responsibilities, as any other company does. The Chief runs the firehouse and fire ground for example saying what needs to be done and where at the event. The Deputy Chief is second in command; he is in charge of radio operations. Our Assistant Chiefs’ – oversee interior operationsThe Asst 1 is in charge of water rescue operations.The Asst 2 is in charge of rescue company operations.The Asst 3 is in charge of engine company operations. The Lieutenant is a crew leader and in charge of hand powered tools.Our Safety Officer checks the building and personnel for safety concerns on fire ground. He is also our President and takes care of concerns in the firehouse and makes final decisions with the Chief. The Chief Engineer maintains the apparatus and tools. Fire Police Captain is in charge of traffic control around the fire scene.
Exterior is Anything needed outside of the building (ex: hand tools and hand lights.) You must be 14 years old and it’s a 42 hour class.Interior is Anything done inside of the building (ex: Putting the fire out, overhaul)Prerequisites are exterior. You must be 18 years old and its a 60 hour class.VRT known as Vehicle Rescue Training – You must be patient, Use extrication tools to complete rescueYou must be 18 years old and it’s a 48 hour class.Water Rescue -Familiarize students with water rescue and dangers associated with it. Prerequisites are needing to swim 50 yards and a current CPR cardIt’s a 16.5 hour class.Hazmat – Hazardous materials - Increase 1st responders knowledge of that type, nature and physiological effects in hazmat materials.You must be 16 years old and it’s a 24 hour class. Officer training – Education on how to command the fire scene and usually for firefighters that want to become a line officer. Long list of certifications that needs to be done or you cant become an officer.It’s a 40 hour class.http://dps.montcopa.org/dps/cwp/view,A,1603,Q,52809.asp#1331
Chief’s carCommand – they were the first person at the scene so therefore they are running the call. Accountability – everyone has at least two tags and one is left in the truck. The other is given to command to know who has gone inside the building. You can cut open these tags and get that person’s medical information incase an emergency occurs. Washington, Neil. Firefighting Heroes of fire and rescue through history and around the world. : Anness Publishing Ltd, 2005. Print.
Needs to find a hydrant near by and establish a water supply.Fire suppression is when firefighters put fire out.Washington, Neil. Firefighting Heroes of fire and rescue through history and around the world. : Anness Publishing Ltd, 2005. Print.
Has hand tools to gain entry inside the building.Extrication tools - which are to extricate a patient from any entrapped area (jaws, O cutters) Lighting – We have light towers and generated lights incase it is dark outAir cascade - which is a air tank that fills air packs and supplies power to air powered tools.Washington, Neil. Firefighting Heroes of fire and rescue through history and around the world. : Anness Publishing Ltd, 2005. Print.
Performs many functions at the fire like having a 105-foot ladder and a water tank. Its main priority is Ventilation. There is horizontal ventilation, which is the windows and vertical which is the roof. The crew also needs to search the building and rescue whoever needs rescuing. Pipepoles are used for overhaul Washington, Neil. Firefighting Heroes of fire and rescue through history and around the world. : Anness Publishing Ltd, 2005. Print.
The Fire police ride the traffic unit. The Traffic unit is in charge of controlling traffic and crowd at all events They have road closure and detour signs onboard the truck. Washington, Neil. Firefighting Heroes of fire and rescue through history and around the world. : Anness Publishing Ltd, 2005. Print.
Used for Water and Ice RescueThe Marine carries: boats, ropes, PFDs, line guns, ice suits.Recovery – the decision has been made that the life has been lost and new operations begin to locate the victim. Washington, Neil. Firefighting Heroes of fire and rescue through history and around the world. : Anness Publishing Ltd, 2005. Print.
There are three layers in personal equipment; fire-resistive outer shell, vapor barrier, and thermal barrier. The TPP (thermal protective performance) for coats and pants are 35 seconds. The wearer will sustain life-threatening injuries after 35 seconds of flame contact exposure. The wearer has basically half of that, 17 seconds, before burns occur. If gear is dirty, has moisture (including perspiration), and fabric compression (from the SCBA), it can reduce the TPP of the gear.HelmetNomex hoodBunker jacketBunker pantsGlovesBootsSurvivor light SCBA - Self Contained Breathing Apparatus also known as a air pack – gives 30 or 45 minutes of fresh breathing air.Gorrell, Gena K. The Story of Firefighting Catching Fire. Canada: Tundra Books, 1999. Print.Walter, Andrea A., et al. Essentials of Firefighting and Emergency Response. 2nd ed. New York: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2004. Print.
Forcible entry (married couple: hooligan bar and axe) – gain entryLadders – put on sides of building if an emergency happensHose – cleaned after used on every callWallington, Neil. Firefighting A Pictorial History. : Parragon, 1997. Print.
Saws – on the rescue when someone needs to be rescuedTic – Gas meter –MDC – Mobile Data Computer and Radios – we go responding on both radio and computerWallington, Neil. Firefighting A Pictorial History. : Parragon, 1997. Print.
Wet barrel hydrants – have water in the barrel up to the valves of each outlet. They are used in areas where it usually isn’t freezing like in California and Florida. Each outlet is controlled by a separate valve and can add an additional line if an outlet is available. Dry barrel hydrants – are used in areas where freezing temperatures could damage the hydrant. It uses a valve at the base of the hydrant to control water flow to all outlets. Walter, Andrea A., et al. Essentials of Firefighting and Emergency Response. 2nd ed. New York: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2004. Print.
Fire alarms Building fires –Commercial - school (no floors)–Non-Commercial – house (floors)Rescues –Vehicle –Residential –Commercial –Water Vehicle firesCarbon monoxide – (gas meters)Brush HazmatStandby’s – if a company is busy on a fire call usually a building fire, the next due company’s are dispatched. That dispatched company runs calls for the busy company until they are back in service. Masoff, Joy. FIRE! Mexico: Scholastic Inc., 1998. Print.
This fire was a 2nd Alarm Fire in Lansdowne, PA. At this fire, crews had numerous lines in the building. There was heavy fire in the basement that extended to the 1st floor of a 3-story balloon frame building. (Which are wood studs ran from the foundation to the roof and floors were “hung” on the studs. Fire could enter the wall space and run straight to the attic.) Evacuation tones were sounded but one firefighter lost his escape through the interior and had to be helped to exit through a 3rd floor window. These tones are alerted when a building is about to collapse or the room is too smoky to see where you’re going. The command needs everyone out of the building so they have County sound the tones while everyone sounds their sirens.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EvQbPXQqjSA
911 :ALWAYS call 911 in case of an Emergency. Stop, Drop and Roll :Stop, Drop and Roll when you’re on fireSmoke detectors :If you have a working smoke detector it will cut the change of a fire in half. Change your batteries when you change your clock. Also, check them monthly and replace the every 10 years. Escape Plans :ALWAYS have two family escape plans and meeting areas Fire prevention week is in October.
This was the Gettysburg Convention in 2008 we won 3rd place in marching and Engine 2 won 1st place.This group picture is from last years banquet after we received our awards. I won the 2008 JR FF of the yearThe BS also come and says Thanks for being around to help the community on 9-11-09.
For my application I had Boy Scout Troop 525 and Girl Scout Troop 701 come explore the firehouse and explain firefighting to them. These children already serve the community but hopefully one day they will want to become a volunteer firefighter to continue serving the community.
Thank you to the Officers and Members of the Swedesburg Volunteer Fire Company for allowing me to utilize the equipment needed for my project.
questions/commentsexplain class activity
by: Kaitlyn Groarke
UNIQUE TO ME
Firefighting plays a vital role in
any community. Over the
years many changes have
occurred in equipment,
qualifications of personnel,
and the role of women.
Thank you to the Officers and Members of
the Swedesburg Volunteer Fire Company
for allowing me to utilize the equipment
needed for my project.
• 310 Jefferson Street Swedesburg
• Walter, Andrea A., et al. Essentials of Firefighting and Emergency Response. 2nd
ed. New York: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2004. Print.
• Gorrell, Gena K. The Story of Firefighting Catching Fire. Canada: Tundra Books,
• Masoff, Joy. FIRE! Mexico: Scholastic Inc., 1998. Print.
• Wallington, Neil. Firefighting A Pictorial History. : Parragon, 1997. Print.
• Conway, W. Fred. Firefighting Lore Strange But True Stories From Firefighting
History. New Albany, Indiana: Print.
• Smith, Dennis. Dennis Smith's History of Firefighting in America 300 Years of
Courage. : Dennis Smith, 1978. Print.
• Washington, Neil. Firefighting Heroes of fire and rescue through history and
around the world. : Anness Publishing Ltd, 2005. Print