OSHA (OCCUPATIONAL SAFETYAND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION) HAZARD COMMUNICATIONS More about OSHA than you ever wanted to know!
OSHA TRAINING In 1983, the federal government established the OSHA hazard communication standard. This standard is designed to protect employees who use hazardous materials on the job. The Hazard Communication Standard states that companies which produce or use hazardous materials must provide their employees with information and training on the proper handling and use of these materials.
OSHA You, as an employee, have a right to know about the hazardous materials used in your work area and the potential effects of these materials upon your health and safety. Hazardous Materials - Any substance which has been determined to be either a health hazard or a physical hazard. Theoretically, anything that is not in tablet form is hazardous. Practically speaking, OSHA has stated that any material that is used in the same manner as it would commonly be used around the household is not considered hazardous. Terrorist threats – not officially OSHA concern – OSHA has released guidelines, and has released risk categories for facilities based on usage, purpose, etc. IUSO is rated under the “green zone”; an unlikely terrorist target.
WHERE TO FIND THE INFORMATION YOU NEEDYour most immediate source for information can be found on labels attached to containers which hold various hazardous materials.Your second source of information is Materials Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). Material Safety Data Sheets will be discussed in the next section.
OSHA REQUIRES THAT THE FOLLOWINGINFORMATION BE INCLUDED ON ALL LABELS:The product nameA warning statement, message or symbolOn commercial labels, manufacturers of hazardous materials must include their name and address. Many manufacturers also include a statement describing safe handling procedures.
HAZARD LABEL Each colored bar or small diamond represents a different class of hazard. The hazard classes found on labels include Health, Flammability, Reactivity, and in some cases, Special Hazards Each hazard class uses a different color and a rating scale from 0 - 4.
HEALTH HAZARDS The first hazard class is Health Hazards. This hazard class is colored BLUE. The rating scale for Health Hazards is listed below: 0 - No Hazard 1 - Slight Hazard 2 - Dangerous 3 - Extreme Danger 4 - Deadly
FLAMMABILITY HAZARDSThe second hazard class is Flammability Hazards. This hazard class is colored RED.The rating scale for flammability hazards is based on the flash point of the material. The flash point is the temperature at which the material gives off enough vapors to sustain ignition.
REACTIVE MATERIAL The third hazard class is for reactive material. This hazard class is colored YELLOW. The rating scale for Reactivity is listed below: 0 – Stable 1 - Normally Stable 2 – Unstable 3 – Explosive 4 - May Detonate
SPECIAL HAZARDSThe fourth hazard class is called Special Hazards. This hazard class iscolored WHITE.These special hazards are represented by the following symbols: W – Water Reactive OX - Oxidizer - Radioactive COR - Corrosive ACD - Acid ALK – Alkali
MSDS (MATERIAL DATA SAFETY SHEETS)A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) provides detailed information about aspecific hazardous material. An MSDS contains the following Information: Identity (name of substance) Physical Hazards (target organ) Health Hazards Routes of Body Entry Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) Carcinogenic Factors Safe-Handling Procedures Data of Sheet Preparation Control Measures Emergency First Aid Procedures (personal protective equipment) (emergency telephonenumber) Contact Information Special Instructions (for the manufacturer)
WHERE TO FIND MSDSINFORMATIONAll the computers in theHealth Center will have alink to MSDS informationon the bottom right cornerof the monitor.
MSDSMaterial Safety Data Sheets areavailable for ALL of the hazardousmaterials present in the workarea.
WHEN DO YOU USE AN MSDS?You should use an MSDS whenever you need additional information about a hazardous material that is not included on the product label.For example, you have spilled nitric acid on the floor, and you need to know how to clean it up safely. You need only refer to the "Safe- Handling Procedures" section of the nitric acid MSDS.
MSDS – BE PREPAREDSome chemicals, such as sodium hydroxide, are very dangerous. If you have an accident, you may not have time to look up the information you need in an MSDS.You should read the MSDS for the hazardous materials present in your work area before you work with them.
HOW TO FIND AN MSDSLocated on the bottom right corner of the desk top on all Health Center computers.Take time to read the MSDS which describe the hazardous materials present in your work area.Remember, knowing where MSDS are located and how to use them is your responsibility; it is part of your job.
PHYSICAL HAZARDS Physical Hazards are one of two major classes of hazardous materials covered by the OSHA Communication Standard. Physical hazards are those substances which threaten your physical safety. The most common types of physical hazards are: Fire Explosion Chemical Reactivity
MATERIALS USING THE FIRE SYMBOL Flammables can be gases, liquids or solids. Flammables ignite easily and burn rapidly. Liquid flammables have a flashpoint under 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Combustibles are similar to flammables, but they do not ignite as easily. Liquid combustibles have a flash point above 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Pyrophoric, or spontaneous combustion materials, burst into flames "on their own" at temperatures below 130 degrees Fahrenheit.
MATERIALS USING THE EXPLOSIVE SYMBOL Explosives are materials which release a tremendous amount of energy in the form of heat, light and expanding pressure within a very short period of time. Water Reactives react with water and may explode, or they may release a gas which is flammable. Unstable Reactives are chemicals that can react or can become self- reactive when subjected to shock, pressure or temperature.
MATERIALS USING THE FLAMING “O”SYMBOL Oxidizers cause other substances to burn more easily through a chemical reaction or change. Organic Peroxides contain oxygen and act as powerful oxidizers.
MATERIALS USING THE CYLINDERSYMBOLMany gases such asnitrogen, oxygen, andacetylene are used in themanufacturing process. Inorder to transport, store anduse these gases, they are"bottled" under greatpressure in tanks called gascylinders.
HEALTH HAZARDSHealth hazards are theother major class ofhazardous materialscovered by the OSHACommunicationStandard.
HAZARD POTENTIALHazard potential is the likelihood thata specific chemical or substance(toxic material) will cause an ill effectat a given dose.
HIGH TOXICITY – LOW DOSEAcetone is a highly toxic chemical. But youcould work safely with it, if you were outside orin a well ventilated room where your dosewould be very low.
LOW TOXICITY - HIGH DOSENitrogen gas has a low toxic rating. However, ifyou were in a confined space that had onlynitrogen gas in it (a very high dose), you wouldsoon die because of the lack of oxygen.
SAFE EXPOSURE LIMITSSafe exposure limits are based upon aTime Weighted Average, or TWA. TWAshave been established for all thechemicals you work with and limit theaverage amount of a chemical you can beexposed to over an eight hour day.
ROUTES OF EXPOSUREChemicals can enter the body in three ways:1. Inhalation2. Skin absorption3. Ingestion
INHALATIONInhalation is the most common route ofexposure for most health hazards. Thisincludes breathing in dust, fumes, oilmist, and vapors from solvents andvarious gases.
SKIN CONTACTSome chemicals are absorbed into the body through skin contact. If a chemical is readily absorbed into the skin, then the notation "skin" will appear along with the occupational exposure limits on the MSDS.Wearing aprons, gloves, eye protection, and other protective clothing is important when working with some chemicals.
WEARING GLOVES Select gloves that fit. Remove any rings, watches, or bracelets that might cut or tear your gloves. Wash your hands before and after wearing your gloves. Inspect your gloves before you use them. Look for holes and cracks that might leak. After working with chemicals, hold your gloved hands under running water to rinse away any chemicals or dirt before removing the gloves.
EYEWASH STATIONS If you accidentally get something in your eyes, go directly to the eyewash station and flush your eyes with water for 15 minutes. Be sure to hold your eyes open with your fingers and "look" directly into the water streams. DO NOT RUB YOUR EYES! Rubbing your eyes may scratch or embed particles into your eyes. Once you have flushed your eyes with water for 15 minutes, seek medical attention immediately.
INGESTIONOnly eat in designated “break” or non-work areas. If even a remote possibility of contamination exists (from bodily fluids or chemicals), food and drink is prohibited in work areas.Wash your hands and face with soap and water after working with chemicals before you eat, drink, or smoke.
MAIN TYPES OF HEALTH HAZARDS Corrosives - cause tissue damage and burns on contact with the skin and eyes. Primary Irritants - cause intense redness or swelling of the skin or eyes on contact, but with no permanent tissue damage. Sensitizers - cause an allergic skin or lung reaction. Acutely Toxic Materials - cause an adverse effect, even at a very low dose. Carcinogens - may cause cancer. Teratogens - may cause birth defects. Organ Specific Hazards - may cause damage to specific organ systems, such as the blood, liver, lungs, or reproductive system.
HEALTH HAZARD SYMBOLSThe Medical symbolis a general symbolused to identifymaterials which arehealth hazards.
HEALTH HAZARD SYMBOLSThe Skull andCrossbones is usedto identify hazardousmaterials which arepoisonous.
HEALTH HAZARD SYMBOLSThis symbol is usedto identify materialswhich areCorrosives.Corrosives causetissue damage andburns on contact withskin or eyes.
HEALTH HAZARD SYMBOLSThis symbol is usedto identify materialswhich areRadioactive.
HEALTH HAZARD SYMBOLSThis symbol is usedto identify hazardousBiological materials.
TRAINING AND COMMUNICATIONKnowing how to work safely with chemicals thatpose a hazard is an important activity. This is thereason for this training, safety meetings, MSDS,and various bulletins. You have a right to know,but you also have a responsibility to use theknowledge and skills to work safely.
PERSONAL MONITORINGMonitor yourself and others. Be on the lookoutfor any physical symptoms which would indicatethat you or your coworkers have beenoverexposed to any hazardous chemical.Symptoms, such as skin rashes, dizziness, eyeor throat irritations or strong odors, should bereported to your supervisor.
EMERGENCY EVACUATIONPROCEDURESMust have plan in place to deal with emergencies (fire, earthquake, flood, bomb threat, terrorism)Personnel evacuationFloor plan maps: Located in every room of the Health Center. Standard location is next to door frame.
FIRE PREVENTIONSmoke alarms, sprinklersIf fire extinguishers available, must be identified, trained personnel to operate themDon’t overload electrical circuits!
BLOODBORNE PATHOGENSPurpose: Protect workers from exposure to human bloodborne pathogens (Hepatitis B, C, HIV)Human blood, blood products or blood components are OSHA concerns
BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS Exposure Control Plan Education on symptoms and transmission of Hep. B, Hep. C and HIV Information on free Hep. B vaccine PPE Work Practice Controls (single-handed recapping, hand washing, prohibit eating/drinking in designated work areas) Housekeeping Containment and disposal of infectious waste
ERGONOMICS - REPETITIVE MOTIONINJURIES Some jobs require that you repeat the same hand motion over and over again. These kind of jobs may cause what is known as repetitive motion injuries. Early symptoms include numbness and tingling in the fingers and hand. If the problem persists, talk with your supervisor or safety manager.
OSHAFind more information at the OSHA web site: http://www.osha.gov/The Indiana Occupational Safety and Health Administration (IOSHA) web site: http://www.in.gov/dol/iosha.htm