INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONSIntroduction Creates favorable first impression Boosts self-confidenceConclusion Give speaker chance to emphasize main points Creates strong last impression
INTRODUCTIONFour Objectives Gain attention, interest Reveal topic Establish credibility, goodwill Preview body of speech
HOW TO GAIN ATTENTIONRelate topic to the audience ALWAYS relate topic to the audienceState importance of topicStartle the audience Make sure startle technique is related to topicArouse curiosityQuestion the audience Single question or a series of questionsBegin with a quoteTell a story
ESTABLISH CREDIBILIT Y AND GOODWILLWhat is Credibility? Perception of speaker’s qualificationsHow do I establish credibility? Research or firsthand experienceWhat is Goodwill? Perception of whether speaker has the best interests of audience in mind
PREVIEW BODY OF SPEECHPreview Statement Statement in introduction that identifies main points to be discussed in the body Tells audience what to listen for throughout the speech Generally at end of intro .
PREPARING THE INTRODUCTIONBe concise (10-20 percent of speech)Look for in potential introductory material in your researchBe creativeDon’t worry about exact wording until body speech is finishedFinally – Work it out in detail! Write out full content, how you will deliver and PRACTICE
THE CONCLUSIONSignal end of speechReinforce central idea
SIGNALING THE ENDDon’t leave your audience hanging!Verbal Cue In conclusion, one last thought, etc.Manner of Delivery Crescendo ending Speech builds in force until it reaches a zenith of power and intensity Dissolve Ending Final words fade like a spotlight, bring speech to emotional close .
REINFORCE IDEAS Conclusion reinforces the audience’s understanding of the central idea How to accomplish? (Separately or in Combination) Summarize main points Conclude with a quotation End with a dramatic statement Refer back to introduction