Components of an Effective Lesson and Teacher Expectancies RPDP Reference
IntroductionWhat is the purpose of the Introduction? Sets the stage for learning – get students on the same page as you. Presents a brief outline of activities and expectations of student work and behavior. Students will know “today is a lecture, article, lab/activity, and/or video… - which will eliminate the student asking “what are we doing today?” – Preview of day’s agenda.
Introduction continued Connects the day’s experience with what was done yesterday and provides a map to where this day fits within the unit plan. The teacher’s introduction includes stating the daily objectives and connects them to previously learned material, and provides the “hook” to peak student interest.
Daily ReviewReasons why daily review is a necessary part of class routine. Provides immediate and meaningful feedback. Ensures accountability for doing homework when teacher circulates the room. Provides formative assessment for teacher to gauge where students are with the concepts in order for the teacher to effectively plan experiences to address misconceptions identified via the review. Provides students the opportunity for short-term memory review.
Daily ReviewWhen daily review should be conducted during the class period and whatthe benefits are for the student. Can be used at different points within a lesson. Serves as a check for misconceptions/issues still present with students about the concepts. Used after a concept has been explored in an activity or laboratory investigation or during lecture, to highlight key points students should get from the experience. For reasons provided in the answer to the previous slide on Daily Review.
Objectives and Connections Systems should be in place to ensure that students understand the objective(s) of your lesson. Students should understand the relationships between the objectives for the day and your introduction. Objectives are posted on the board, printed on activities and labs, displayed on the overhead/media projector to which students can refer. Students are required to copy them in to their notebook/interactive journal. The teacher’s introduction includes stating the daily objectives and connects them to previously learned material – students see them, hear them, write them (visual, auditory, and tactile addressed).
Asking Questions???How do students benefit from interactions when the instructor asks questions orally? Students benefit only if enough time for reflections is provided following the posing of the question – in other words – allow adequate wait time. Ensure that ALL students hear the question and that ALL students hear the answer. Asking the question addresses the auditory learners – in order to reach the majority of learners, have students write the question in to their journal/notebook and answer (tactile, and visual) – this is not appropriate for all questions, but for key points, this is very beneficial.
Concept DevelopmentHow do you plan class experiences in order to address the variety ofstudents’ needs within your class? Use a variety of techniques; visual, auditory, and tactile… Provide opportunities for development of skills in problem solving, reasoning, and communication. Use appropriate vocabulary and notation in context (teacher is the model) and connect students’ informal language to precise science terms and vocabulary.
Concept Development cont’d Conduct ongoing assessment (formal and informal) to ensure student focus on key points. Provide linkages (connections) to previously learned material and/or to future work. Appropriate transitions – do not linger too long doing the same thing, keep in mind the needs of your audience (about as long on an activity as the students are old).
Note-taking How do you impress upon your students the importance of note-taking, as a skill for preparing a resource and as a useful study tool? Study guide High school prep SQ3R model (SIOP) Vocabulary reflection ???
Techniques you can incorporate… At times, student notebooks appear unorganized and incomplete, what are techniques you can incorporate in order to ensure students are taking meaningful and useful class notes? Gaining in popularity are AVID/Interactive Notebooks (or modifications of) that organize student note-taking by providing specific areas within the journal to place Objectives/titles, IN questions, THROUGH area to record data, analyze investigations (including graphs), lecture notes…, and OUT questions to connect the experiences of the day. Model for students HOW to take effective notes – practice the process and provide a format.
Techniques you can incorporate…cont’d Write notes as you read text or as you lecture (avoid displaying complete sets of notes and expect the students to continually copy) Hold students accountable for notebook maintenance – do NOT expect what you are NOT willing to inspect. Hold notebooks in the classroom, periodically check (sample 3 -5) to assess whether students are making the connections (using IN/OUT question responses).
Reasons Backward Assessment Model (BAM) is anessential component of teacher planning… BAM promotes a collaborative process, using the expertise of teachers teaching the same material/course. BAM promotes consistency in experience for students in different classes. An “A” from one teacher more closely correlates to an “A” from another teacher as class experiences and assessment formats were similar.
Reasons Backward Assessment Model (BAM) is anessential component of teacher planning…cont’d Through this type of planning, balanced instruction is more easily achieved – as the BAM unit is developed, a map (blueprint) places all of the unit’s objectives, and student experiences in one location for easy reference. BAM unit binders provide new teachers a valuable resource for planning AND provides a reference to engage in dialogue with veteran teachers.
Build Success Upon Success Identify areas/levels where students can experience some success in order to achieve the intended learning outcome. Scaffold the experiences in order to provide students a feeling of achievement on a task and build on that achievement to more completely develop the concept and solidify it in the students.
Closure… Whether teaching on an 80-block schedule or on an abbreviated 30-minute assembly schedule; Closure is a vital component of your lesson. Summarizes the lesson and/or unit of study. Opportunity for students to explain what they have learned AND apply it. Promotes linkages with prior learning, including attaching learned facts to the conceptual framework. Makes generalizations when appropriate.