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MGT 3200 Exam #3

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  • 1. EXAM #3MOTIVATION1. What are the 5 needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? (Know what each need is & be able to recognize whatneed is being satisfied in a given situation)• Physiological  need for food, water, air, & sex• Safety  need for security, stability, & freedom from fear or threat• Social  need for friendship, affection, acceptance, & interaction w/ others• Esteem  need for personal feelings of achievement, self-esteem, recognition & respect from peers• Self-Actualization  a feeling of self-fulfillment or the realization of one’s potential; maximum personal motivation, the need 4 growth & development, be all that you can be! o Peak experience2. According to Maslow, what motivates your behavior?• To fulfill the lowest unsatisfied need in the hierarchy• Self-Actualization is never fully satisfied3. What does Maslow believe about satisfied needs?• Once a need is satisfied, it’s no longer motivational• “Lower” needs would have to be satisfied before the next “higher” need could motivate behavior4. If a need is frustrated, what will the employee experience, according to Maslow? Can the employee still bemotivated if his/her needs are frustrated?• The state of “stuckedness” (being stuck)• You can’t go up or down• The employee can no longer be motivated (productivity will suffer)5. What needs are typically unsatisfied in most organizations? Why is this the case? What would help satisfythese needs?• Esteem & self actualization because most jobs are specialized• Enriched or craft would help satisfy these needs6. What need is the highest level of personal motivation? How many people reach this level? Is it ever fullysatisfied or fulfilled?• Self-actualization (being all that you can be, maximizing potential)• Very few do• Never fully satisfied. Reach it only temporarily.7. What is a peak experience?• The best you can be at that moment in time; “in the zone”• Monetary self actualization- at that one moment in time you are the best you can be8. What does the research say about Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?• Only found 2-3 needs that motivate behavior rather than the 5 proposed• Everyone does not climb the hierarchy in the same progression• Satisfied needs can still motivate an employee’s behavior o Maslow has been wrong on a number of accounts9. What is a cafeteria style benefits plan?• Pick and choose the benefits that you need/desire (health & life insurance) 1
  • 2. 10. How would you apply Maslow’s theory of motivation if you were a manager?• People are motivated by different needs so they will find different things rewarding• Managers should motivate differently because everyone is at a different point on the hierarchy (“tailor the motivation to fit the individual”)• People can move up or down in the hierarchy & different things can motivate them over time11. What are the 3 needs in ERG theory that can motivate behavior?• (E) Existence Needs• (R) Relatedness Needs• (G) Growth Needs12. How do the 3 needs in ERG theory match up to the 5 needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?• Existence  similar to Maslow’s physiological & safety needs (2)• Relatedness  similar to Maslow’s social & self-esteem needs (2)• Growth  similar to Maslow’s self-actualization need (1) o Maslow’s theory repackaged to be more consistent with current research13. What does Alderfer’s ERG theory say about a satisfied need?• Can still motivate behavior14. What is the frustration-regression principle in ERG theory? What does it say about need frustration?• If a higher level need is frustrated, you can regress down to a lower level need, & still maintain motivation15. What does Herzberg say is the opposite of job satisfaction? The opposite of job dissatisfaction?• Job Satisfaction = No Job Satisfaction• Job Dissatisfaction = No Job Dissatisfaction o The factors that caused an employee to be satisfied were different from the ones that caused them to be dissatisfied16. What is a motivator factor & what is it related to in 2-factor theory? (Be able to recognize what aremotivators on the job.) Motivators are like what need in Maslow’s hierarchy?• Motivators  factors that produced job satisfaction, related to job enrichment• Motivator Factors: interesting, challenging work, achievement, recognition, advancement, sense of fulfillment• In Maslow’s hierarchy: esteem & self-actualization (INTRINSIC FACTORS) – Internal17. What is a hygiene factor & what is it related to in 2-factor theory? (Be able to recognize what are hygieneson the job.) Hygienes are like what needs in Maslow’s hierarchy?• Hygienes  factors related to job dissatisfaction, related to job context (work setting); cannot motivate• Hygiene Factors: pay, benefits, co-workers, supervisors, working conditions, company policy• In Maslow’s hierarchy: physiological, safety, & social (EXTRINSIC FACTORS) – External18. What does Herzberg advocate as the only way to motivate employees (i.e., make them job satisfied)?• Job enrichment19. What is the effect of good pay, good supervision, good benefits, etc…on job dissatisfaction? Can hygienefactors motivate people according to Hertzberg?• It prevents dissatisfaction• Causes NO job dissatisfaction• Hygienes can’t motivate people according to Hertzberg 2
  • 3. 20. If I gave you an example of a person holding a certain type of job (e.g. specialized or enriched) & havingeither good or poor hygienes (e.g. pay, benefits, & supervision), you will be able to tell me what the person isexperiencing in terms of job satisfaction or no job satisfaction & job dissatisfaction or no job dissatisfaction).• Plastic Surgeon (Enriched Job): JS + No JDS (good hygienes)  Best-Case Scenario• Taco Bell drive-thru worker (Specialized Job): No JS + JDS (bad hygienes)  Worst-Case Scenario• Sauley’s brother (Specialized Job with good hygienes): No JS + No JDS  Neutral21. What are the problems with Herzberg’s 2-factor theory?• Some people’s hygienes are other people’s motivators• Sample was not representative of the entire work force (based on interviews with accountants and engineers)• Way he conducted the interviews led to biased responses (self-serving bias)• One best way theory of motivation22. What is the basic premise behind goal setting theory?• There is a direct relationship between our intentions (goal) and our behavior (performance/motivation)• Serve to energize behavior and to direct attention and action23. What does SCARF mean in goal setting theory?• S  goals should be Specific in terms of what’s desired & when it’s desired by• C  Challenging yet achievable• A  Accepted by the subordinate (owns/committed to the goal)• R  Rewards for goal attainment• F  Feedback about goal related performance24. How does one build greater acceptance of specific & challenging goals?• Rewards for goal attainment• Participation in goal setting by the employee• Autocratic tell & sell method25. How does participation in goal setting increase performance?• They have increased acceptance; it makes the person feel like it’s their goal26. When does participation in goal setting not work?• Management & labor don’t trust each other• Employee does not want to participate• Manager is an autocrat• Uncomfortable with subordinates creating goals27. What is the autocratic tell-sell method of goal setting? When do you use it?• Where the manager, acting alone, sets goals for employees• Tells employee the goals, then sells employee on the goals o Need to explain reason, importance, and value behind goals [selling]• Used when: selling participation doesn’t work, mgt & labor don’t trust each other, when the manager’s an autocrat• Both are effective if used in the right situation28. In reinforcement theory, what is Thorndike’s law of effect?• Behaviors followed by positive consequences tend to be repeated and behaviors followed by negative or no consequences tend to not be repeated o Called transactional management 3
  • 4. 29. What is positive reinforcement? What does it do to the frequency of the behavior?• Providing a positive consequence when a behavior occurs• Increases frequency of the behavior• Increases likelihood behavior will be repeated30. What is negative reinforcement? What does it do to the frequency of the behavior?• Taking away of a negative consequence when a behavior occurs o Also known as avoidance learning  do the behavior to avoid punishment• Increases frequency of the behavior• Increases likelihood behavior will be repeated31. What is extinction? What does it do to the frequency of the behavior?• No consequence is provided when a behavior occurs o “If you ignore it long enough it will go away”• Decreases frequency of the behavior• Decreases likelihood behavior will be repeated32. What is an extinction spike?• An increase in frequency of the undesirable response/behavior for a period of time before it starts to decrease in frequency33. What is punishment? What does it do to the frequency of the behavior?• Providing negative consequence when a behavior occurs• Decreases frequency of the behavior• Decreases likelihood behavior will be repeated34. What are the problems with punishment?• Only tells you what you have done wrong• Doesn’t replace the bad behavior with a good behavior• May result in the employee getting sad or mad, causing performance to go down35. What is the leave-alone zap trap? What does the manager do when you perform well? What does themanager do when you perform poorly or make a mistake?• When everything is going good manager leaves you alone & does nothing for good performance, but when you perform poorly are punish• Manager only associates with negative consequences36. What kind of work climate is created by the leave-alone zap manager?• One based upon fear & avoidance37. How do you overcome the leave-alone zap trap as a manager?• By walking around & catch them doing something right, give them a positive consequence/reward38. How many positive consequences to every negative consequence does it take for your subordinate not toperceive you as a punisher, in general?• 4:1  4 (+’s) to every 1 (-)• More or less depending on the situation39. What is the jellybean motivation trap? How does it affect motivation & performance? How do youovercome it? Rewards are only meaningful when they are tied to what?• Everybody gets the same positive consequence, regardless to their performance (afraid of conflict) 4
  • 5. • Motivation & performance goes down over time because the positive consequence has no meaning (isn’t special)• Rewards are only meaningful when they are tied to performance (actually earned)40. What is the rewarding on assumed needs trap? What do you turn a reward into when you fall into thistrap? How do you avoid this trap?• Supervisors often reward people based upon hunches of what I think is a positive reward (if I get lucky)• Reward will never be considered negative reinforcement• Get to know people and ask them what they find to be motivational41. What is the concern of equity theory?• Defining what individuals in our society consider to be fair and their reactions to being in situations they perceive as unfair42. What are the 4 basic postulates or tenants of equity theory?• Individuals strive to create and maintain a state of equity• When inequity is perceived, it creates tension in the individual• The greater the perceived inequity, the greater the tension, greater motivation to restore equity• Individuals perceive an unfavorable inequity more readily than a favorable one43. What is the difference between equity & equality?• Equity  what you do, should determine what you get; looks at inputs to determine outcomes• Equality  everybody gets the same, regardless of what they do44. What is more important in equity theory: perception or reality?• Perception because fair in reality may not be perceived as fair by all45. What is favorable inequity? Unfavorable inequity?• Favorable  being over-rewarded for the work you do (one that benefits you)• Unfavorable  being under-rewarded for the work you do (one that hurts you)46. When faced with unfavorable inequity, what are the different ways one can use to restore equity?• People respond negatively• Quit, take longer lunch, & breaks; theft goes up & do all this to make them feel even• Absentee & turnover will go up• Expect people to behave negatively when their under-rewarded47. When faced with unfavorable inequity, how do people normally restore equity? (Behaviorally orcognitively)• Through behavioral means48. When faced with favorable inequity, how do people normally restore equity? (Behaviorally or cognitively)• Through cognitive means49. What is an Entitled? Equity Sensitive? Benevolent? What does each type perceive as fair?• Entitled  taker wants to do less for more o Perceives over-rewarded is fair o Does the least amount of work• Equity Sensitive  take/give equally o Perceives equity as fair• Benevolent  giver wants to do more for less o Perceives under-rewarded is fair o Does the most amount of work 5
  • 6. 50. Which of the 3 types listed in question #49 is most prevalent? Least prevalent?• Most prevalent = equity sensitive• Least prevalent = benevolent• Least productive & least satisfied = entitled• Least likely to quit voluntarily = entitled & benevolent51. What are the problems with equity theory?• OMIT!LEADERSHIP52. What is leadership?• The art of influencing of individuals & groups to attain organizational goals willingly & harmoniously53. What is the difference between management & leadership?• Leadership is just 1 function of management o (Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Leading, Controlling…POSLC)• Just because you’re a great leader, doesn’t mean you’re a great manager54. What is the difference between leadership & supervision?• Leadership  based upon informal authority (personal power) o Do it b/c I set a good example & you trust me• Supervision  relies on formal authorities (position power) o Do it b/c I’m the boss55. What is reward power? Coercive power? Legitimate power? Expert power? Referent power? (be able torecognize when each is being used in a situation)• Reward Power  the capacity to allocate rewards to subordinates who comply with a manager’s request; like positive reinforcement• Coercive Power  the capacity to dispense punishments to subordinates who don’t comply with a manager’s request; like negative reinforcement• Legitimate Power  the right of the manager to request reasonable actions from subordinates and expect that they will comply o *Reward, Coercive, & Legitimate go together! *• Expert Power  the special knowledge or expertise that a manager may possess• Referent Power  the identification of the subordinate with the manager (set a good example) o *Expert & Referent go together *56. What power bases does a leader use? Supervisor use?• Leader = expert & referent• Supervisor = reward, coercive, legitimate57. Which of the power bases best exemplifies leadership? Supervision?• Leadership = referent• Supervision = legitimate58. What is the relationship between the 5 power bases & productivity?• Reward – no effect on productivity, but if used properly will increase productivity• Coercive – decreases productivity the more you use it 6
  • 7. • Legitimate –no effect on productivity• Expert – increases productivity when you use them• Referent – increases productivity when you use them59. What are Theory X & Theory Y? How do they affect leadership?• Theory X  assumes that people dislike work; they must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened to get them to put forth effort (negative view) o Prefer to be directed o Wish to avoid responsibility o Autocratic leadership style; supervise; specialized jobs• Theory Y  assumes that people like to work; they would exercise self-direction and self-control (positive view) o Accept and seek responsibility o Need for achievement, responsibility, and a chance to be creative o Democratic leadership style; lead; enriched jobs60. What are the beliefs that underlie Theory X? Theory Y?• Theory X: o Negative (pick the positive ones for assumptions that don’t fit) o Lazy, ship less, no good; you can’t trust them, you can’t love them o You will supervise! o Specialized job• Theory Y: o Positive (pick the negative ones) o People will practice self-control, a need to be creative, a need for achievement o On the job o You will lead! o Enriched job61. What is meant by the phrase “these theories (x & y) can become self-fulfilling prophecies”?• a.k.a Pygmalion Effect – a Greek sculptor sculptured perfect woman & prayed to the Greek g-d’s to bring her to life & they granted him his wish• Where you bring your beliefs to life {I think you’re lazy, I treat you like you’re lazy…you become lazy! It’s a created effect!}62. What is the basic idea behind trait theory of leadership?• The physical and psychological characteristics that separates leaders from followers and effective from ineffective leaders63. What is the great man trait theory? Learned traits theory?• Great Man Trait Theory  view of leadership that leaders are born not made o NATURE perspective o Endowed with inherited qualities that made them effective leaders in any situation• Learned Traits Theory  transformed into a theory that held these traits could be learned o NURTURE perspective64. In general, what has the research revealed about traits separating leaders from followers?• Leaders tend to be slightly taller, slightly more intelligent, slightly more visible, & slightly more socially adept than followers65. What trait does reliably tell you if someone will be a leader or not? 7
  • 8. • Behavioral Flexibility = ability to perceive group member’s needs and goals and to adjust one’s approach accordingly;• The best way to lead depends upon the situation66. Why was the trait in #65 not identified until recently?• We look for consistency in behavior across situations when we say that we have a trait; so if shy, always shy so must be a shy person• Behavioral flexibility says as a situation changes your behavior changes so they saw inconsistency & that it couldn’t be a trait because traits are consistent67. What is the focus of behavioral theory (also known as the Ohio State Studies)?• Focuses on what leaders do & how they do it that affects subordinate satisfaction & performance68. What is initiating structure? Consideration? (Be able to recognize these behaviors in a situation)• 2 leadership behaviors identified in the Ohio State Studies• Initiating Structure  task-oriented; leader behavior oriented toward task; structuring subordinates for the purpose of goal attainment• Consideration  people-oriented; leader behavior oriented toward developing mutual trust; 2-way communication; respect for subordinates ideas & concern for their feelings69. Which combination of behaviors did behavioral theorists originally think would be the best in allsituations?• Hi IS & Hi C  though was best in the beginning• Hi IS & Lo C• Lo IS & Hi C• Lo IS & Lo C• After research was done all of the above could be the best (depending upon the situation)70. What is the major drawback of the behavioral theory (Ohio State Studies) as originally proposed?• Started off as one best way theory• Paid limited attention to the situation• In the end became a contingency theory of leadership71. What combination of behaviors is actually the best in behavioral theory?• It depends upon the situation; there is no best way72. What combination of behaviors does a Theory X manager exhibit? Theory Y manager exhibit?• Theory X = Hi IS & Lo C• Theory Y = Lo IS & Hi C• High Initiating Structure  specialized job design• Low Initiating Structure  enriched job design73. In Fielder’s contingency theory of leadership, work group performance is a function of what?• Match between a person’s leadership style and the “favorableness” of leadership situation74. According to Fiedler, what is your leadership style based on? As a result, does Fiedler believe you canchange your leadership style?• Depends upon person’s personality and is relatively fixed (can’t change it)75. What does Fiedler believe about leadership training that teaches you how to be flexible & change your styleto match the situation?• It is a total waste of time 8
  • 9. 76. What scale did Fiedler develop to measure your leadership style?• Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale (LPC)• Think of all the individuals with whom they have ever worked and using the scale, to describe the one person with whom they worked least well with• Measure of your value system as a leader, but not a good system because values doesn’t always translate to behaviors77. If you LPC score is low, what does that mean? What type of leader are you?• Described them in unfavorable terms (negative) because you have a low opinion of them• Task-oriented as a leader78. If your LPC score is high, what does that mean? What type of leader are you?• Described them in favorable terms (positive) because you have a high opinion of them• Relationship-oriented as a leader79. What are the 3 factors that determine situational favorableness? Which is more important? Leastimportant?• Situational Favorableness = you go from very favorable situations, to moderately favorable situations, to unfavorable situations• Basically says that a leader has very favorable (a lot of control), moderately favorable (some control), & unfavorable (very little control)80. When is a high LPC leader the best? Low LPC? Middle LPC? Why is the case according to Fiedler?• High LPC = most effective in middle situational favorability; they have some control• Low LPC = most effective in high and low situational favorability; they have lot of control or little control• Middle LPC = best across all situations-largely independent of situational factors o Task-oriented = good at extremes o Relationship-oriented = good in middle b/c it was the best match b/c the work group performed the best b/ c they were the best match81. What is another name for middle LPC leadership?• Behavioral flexibility• Being able to change your behavior to fit the situation82. What are the implications of Fiedlers contingency theory for managers?• Anyone can be a leader by carefully selecting situations• Leadership effectiveness can be enhanced by “engineering the job to fit the manager”-modifying the favorableness of the situation• Person’s leadership style depends upon personality• Leader Match (training program) = focuses on training the leader to change the favorability of the situation• Leader could diagnose the situation and then change/alter the situation to match his style for maximum work group effectiveness83. What does Fiedler recommend as a way to improve leadership effectiveness when a leader finds himself in asituation that does not match her style?• Change the situation to match your style84. What is Vick Vroom & Yetton’s normative theory of leadership really a theory of?• A theory of decision-making; how much subordinates are participating in making decisions85. What is the basic idea behind Vroom & Yetton’s normative theory of leadership?• There is no best level of subordinate participation 9
  • 10. • Depends upon the situation86. What is AI? AII? CI? CII? & GII? (Be able to recognize each decision making style)• A = Autocratic o AI  manager uses the information available without any input from subordinates & makes decision alone o AII  manager goes to subordinates individually, gets info from them (doesnt tell them why) & then makes the decision alone; not consulting with them• C = Consultative o CI  manager goes to individual subordinates one at a time, shares the problem with them one at a time, gets their ideas and suggestions, then makes the decision alone o CII  share the problem with the group all at once, then you make the decision all alone; youre consulting with them about a problem & then make the decision alone• G = Group o G  manager gets a group of subordinates together & presents the problem to the group, gets their suggestions & uses them to arrive at a joint decision; jointly make a decision about how to solve a problem• ** A2 & C1 are both individual but A2 ask for information & C1 you present the problem• ** C1 & C2 – one at a time (I) vs. all at once (II)87. What 2 situational factors in Vroom & Yetton’s normative theory of leadership determine the best decisionmaking method for the situation?• Decision quality & subordinate acceptance88. What is a feasible set?• Decision-making methods that work for the situation89. What is the minimum man hours rule & the employee’s development rule? When do you use these rules?(Be able to apply these rules to a feasible set)• Minimum Man Hours Rule – minimizes the time expended on a decision• Employee’s Development Rule – a manager should choose the most participative decision-making method90. What are the problems with Vroom & Yetton’s normative theory of leadership?• OMIT!91. What are the basic ideas behind reciprocal theory of leadership? What makes the theory reciprocal?• A manager can either lead or supervise the subordinate• Leader will choose either leadership or supervision depending upon whether the subordinate is perceived to be a member of the in-group or the out group (reciprocal)92. What determine whether a subordinate will be lead or supervised by his manager in reciprocal theory?• The factor that determines whether the subordinate is lead or supervised by the manager is the subordinate’s in- group or out-group membership• In-group = will be led (does better over time)• Out-group = will be supervised93. What has the research revealed when the manager is taught to lead the out-group as well as the in-group?• The out-group performs just as well as the in-group94. What is the basic idea behind implicit theory of leadership?• Leadership is in the eye of the beholder (follower)• People have stereotypes about how leaders should look and act 10
  • 11. • It may be more important to look like a leader than to actually be one95. What is the basic idea behind substitutes for leadership?• Factors in the situation that can neutralize a leader’s influence over subordinates satisfaction and performance96. What does substitutes for leadership say about leaders receiving credit & blame?• Sometimes leaders receive credit and blame for their subordinate’s performance when they don’t deserve it97.What factors substitute for leadership, making it irrelevant to subordinate satisfaction & performance?• Experienced and knowledgeable employees• Technology• Cohesive work groups• Satisfied employeesGROUPS98. How do formal & informal groups differ?• Group  2 or more people who interact regularly to achieve some common goal• Formal  deliberately created to achieve a specific goal; emphasize authority & position; will support organization’s goals; specialized roles & work duties• Informal  developed naturally and may not support an organization’s goals; emphasize personal & social relations; help satisfy social needs of employees99. What personal needs are satisfied by groups?• Safety = “strength in numbers”• Social = friendship, belonging, acceptance• Esteem = think you’re cool, admire personal qualities• Reality100. What is a reality need?• Use the other group members to see if your perceptions of reality are valid or not101. What are the 5 stages of group development & what happens at each stage?• Forming  orientation of employees (get to know one another, see what each person brings to the table)• Storming  intragroup conflict/hostilities/interpersonal conflicts likely to occur here as members vie for certain roles (conflict over who’s gonna do what & who’s gonna be in charge)• Norming  sense of solidarity begins to take hold (set up unwritten rules of behavior in groups to prevent conflicts; cohesiveness)• Performing  increased cooperation, problem solving, & task performance (highest level of group development)• Adjourning  task is complete, duties are terminated, members move onto other assignments, & things are wrapped up102. At what stage is group cohesiveness the greatest?• Norming103. At what stage is intragroup & interpersonal conflict most likely to occur?• Storming104. At what stage is the group likely to make the best decisions?• Performing 11
  • 12. 105. Which stage is most difficult to achieve?• Performing106. What is the relationship between group size & effectiveness?• As group size increases: o Friendliness of the group decreases o Member satisfaction decreases o Less participation by group members (social loading) o More domination by one or a few group members o Decision-making and teamwork become more difficult o Sub-groups/cliques form  EFFECTIVENESS DECREASES107. What is cohesiveness?• The desire of group members to remain part of a group108. What does cohesiveness have to do with a group’s influence over its members?• The greater the cohesiveness of the group, the more influence it has over its members109. What are the factors that increase & decrease cohesiveness?• Increase Cohesiveness  Anything that makes a group + o Small group size o Winning o High status group o Attractive group goals o External threat o Severe initiation o Lots of time spent together• Decrease Cohesiveness  Anything that makes a group – o Large group size o Losing o Poor public image o Unattractive group goals o Disagreeable tasks/demands110. What are the benefits & drawbacks of highly cohesive groups?• Benefits: o High morale/job satisfaction o Higher member self-esteem o Greater sense of security o Low absenteeism and turnover o Better teamwork/decision-making• Drawbacks: o Can limit creativity & originality due to conformity (main one) o Group think111. What is a norm?• An unwritten rule about how group members should behave in the group• Can be either prescriptive (what you should do) or proscriptive (what you shouldn’t do)• They define what’s acceptable and what’s not acceptable112. How do norms & cohesiveness interact to determine a group’s performance? 12
  • 13. • High cohesiveness groups are a double-edges sword: o High cohesiveness groups with high productivity norms are high performance teams • Unwritten rule is to produce as much as we can • BEST CASE SCENARIO o High cohesiveness groups with low productivity norms are low performance teams • Unwritten rule is to restrict our output • WORST CASE SCENARIO• Low cohesiveness groups have very little influence over their members performance o Low cohesive & high productivity norm = Average productivity o Low cohesive & low productivity norm = Average productivity The Book1. What are the 3 needs identified by McClelland that can motivate an individual’s behavior?• Need for Achievement• Need for Affiliation• Need for Power2. What is involved with each of these 3 needs?• Need for Achievement  a measure of a person’s desire for clear, self-set, moderately difficult goals, with feedback given based on goal achievement. High achievers are seen as self-starters, goal-oriented, or full of task initiatives, all traits that firms typically value.• Need for Affiliation  the desire to work with others, to interact with & support others, & to learn the lessons of life through the experiences of others. A pronounced desire for social acceptance can be a powerful motivating force in our daily lives. Work organizations are important social institutions, bringing people into regular contact with one another. The need for affiliation is Maslow’s social need, applied to the individual.• Need for Power  A desire to have influence & control over others. This need can be an important determinant of behavior. People dominate one another in many socially acceptable ways. People are submissive to the dominance of police, managers, tour guides, & others. It is natural & often informative to allow other people control over an aspect of our lives. Many people seek jobs that afford them the opportunity to fulfill a basic need in a socially acceptable manner, & success at many jobs actually requires people to be forceful & capable of exerting their will over others. In these positions, people with a high need for power will outperform those with a low need for power.3. What’s the difference between a contingent & noncontingent rewards?• Contingent Rewards - distributed based on a specific, preceding behavior {a sales clerk may receive a free weekend trip for having the highest sales in her department for the preceding quarter}• Noncontingent Rewards - not linked to any specific behavior {a paid holiday may be available to all staff regardless of their level of performance}4. What is the hot stove rule?• Suggests that being burned by a hot stove represents punishment at the most general level & in its most vivid form.5. According to the hot stove rule, punishment should be?• Swift, intense, impersonal, & consistent, & it should provide an alternative6. What is social learning theory?• Motivated behavior is a function of observing the success of other people & then doing what worked for them.• Rather than being merely a function of environmental conditioning, learning was influenced by an individual’s cognitive assessment of what behaviors were previously rewarded in the environment. 13
  • 14. 7. What are the steps in the social learning process?• Attention -- during which another person is observed while successful performing a behavior• Retention of the behavioral response to memory -- the observer remembers not only the specifics of the behavior but also its content• Reproduction of the behavior -- exactly as it was committed to memory in the appropriate context or situation• Motivation for the successful performance of the behavior -- the individual often administers a self-reward or is granted an external reward or recognition8. What is the Pygmalion effect?• A self-fulfilling prophecy whereby increasing a manager’s expectations of subordinates’ performance actually improves performance.9. What does Fiedler’s Cognitive Resource Theory say about stress & leadership effectiveness?• The degree of stress confronting the manager influences leader effectiveness. In stressful situations, the leader tended to focus on the source of the stress instead of the situation, thereby leading to ineffective performance.10. What’s the general message to leaders from Cognitive Resource Theory?• High-stress situations, leaders should rely on their experience; in low-stress situations, they should rely on their intelligence11. What is transformational leadership?• An inspirational form of leader behavior based on modifying followers’ beliefs, values, & ultimately their behavior.12. What is transactional leadership?• More closely related to both behavioral & situational leader behaviors.• Transactional leaders appeal to their followers’ rational exchange motive.• The process of keeping workers riveted to organizational goals.13. What are the different ways group norms are communicated?• Explicit statements by the group leader• Explicit statements by group members• Critical events in the group’s history• Past group experiences14. What is groupthink?• A “mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.”• Means suppressing or ignoring countervailing ideas that represent a threat to group consensus or unanimity.• Within the same group, groupthink can occur during one decision-making situation & not another. REVIEW QUESTIONS FROM CLASSA. Taco Bell drive-thru workers & static intercom… a. NO JS + JDS (bad hygienes) * worst case scenario *B. Dr. 90210… a. JS +_NO JDS (good hygienes) * best case scenario *C. Sauley’s brother = specialized, but good hygienes… a. No JS + NO JDS * neutral * 14
  • 15. D. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs… a. ALL ABOVE -- lowest unsatisfied need in the highest motivates behavior, satisfied need cannot motivate behavior, higher level of motivation is self actualizationE. Given most jobs are specialized, what needs are typically frustrated for most employees? a. Esteem & self-actualizationF. In Alderfer’s ERG theory, relatedness needs are equivalent to what needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? a. Social & esteem i. Growth = self-actualizationG. In Hertzberg’s 2-factor theory, what motivates behavior? a. Job enrichment i. Does everybody have an expressive motivation? NO!H. If a person held an enriched job, paid poorly, had low benefits, a person would feel which two states of the 2-factor theory? a. JS + JD i. Specialized job w/ excellent pay & benefits = NJS + NJD ii. Good pay & good hygienes – NJDI. Which isn’t a criticism of the 2-factor theory? a. It assumes that everyone has an instrumental motivation rewards workJ. In the jellybean motivation trap, high performers receive ___ inequity & low performers receive ___ inequity? a. Unfavorable (under-rewarded); favorable (over-rewarded) i. The over-rewarded change their mind so not good way to motivate people, only gives people “big heads” ii. Jellybean motivators focus on equality, but create inequity!K. Which of the following is not an aspect of an effective goal-setting program in all situations? a. Goals that are specific b. Goals there are challenging yet achievable c. Subordinate participation in goal-setting d. Rewards for goal attainment e. Periodic feedback about goal-related performanceL. The Autocratic tell & sell method works to improve employee performance by increasing… a. The specificity of goals b. The difficult or challenging of the goals c. The amount of feedback about goal-related performance d. The acceptance of goalsM. Which of the following is true concerning increasing acceptance of goals a. Participation in goal-setting is more effective than the autocratic tell and sell method b. The autocratic tell and sell method is more effective than participation in goal-setting c. Neither is more effective. The technique that’s most effective for increasing acceptance depends on the situationN. Which of the following conditions is appropriate for the use of participation in goal setting? a. The manager’s style is autocratic b. There is low trust between management and labor c. The employee doesn’t desire added responsibility d. None of the above 15
  • 16. O. When a workers starts performing well to avoid being fired, this is known as… a. Negative reinforcement = avoidance learning i. You do to avoid performanceP. A slacker realizes poorer he performs, less work his managers asks him to do. Example of… a. Positive reinforcement i. Behavior occurs given (+) consequences that increases F ii. Punishment = given (-) consequences when occursQ. Which is not true concerning punishment? Only tells you what you’ve done wrong = PROBLEM a. It replaces the bad behavior with good behaviorR. Which of the following is true concerning reinforcement theory? a. The consequence for the behavior determines its frequency b. The person receiving the consequence determines whether its positive or negative c. When using extinction, the behaviors many actually increase before it decreases d. All of the above e. Only 1 and 2S. When a manger rewards on assumed needs, the employee could perceive the reward as ___= a. Positive reinforcement b. Extinction c. Punishment d. All of the aboveT. When a manager falls victim to the leave-alone zap trap, he fails to use which consequence for managing behavior? a. Positive consequencesU. In leave-alone zap trap, good performance receives __ whereas poor performance receives ___ a. Extinction; punishmentV. Under a leave-alone zap manager, high performance ___. a. Increases then decreases i. Extinction spike—initially looking for recognition, but when it doesn’t get it, it drops downW. Which of the following is true concerning jelly been motivation trap? a. Jelly-bean motivators have a high need to be liked b. Rewards lose their motivational value c. Performance decreases significantly d. The jelly-bean manager loses credibility e. All of the aboveX. When a manager rewards on assumed needs and the manager and the employee have different value systems, the employee could perceive the reward as ___. a. Extinction and punishment i. If they had the same value systems, it is positive reinforcementY. Initially, leave-alone zap managers use what consequence most frequently for managing performance? a. No consequenceZ. The frequency of high performance over time under the leave-alone zap manager ___. a. Increases then decreases 16
  • 17. AA.How many (+) consequences to every (-) consequences must be administered for the manager not to be perceived as a “punitive?” a. 4:1 more or lessBB.** In the Jellybean motivation trap, high performers receive __ inequity and low performers receive __ inequity. a. Unfavorable; favorableCC.What are some of the different reactions employees may have to unfavorable inequity? a. Reduce the quantity/quality of work b. Greater absenteeism and turnover c. Ask the boss for a raise d. Increased theft e. Change their thinking about the situationDD.Jellybean motivation encourages what type of individual? a. Entitled - get same as everyone & doing lessEE. A works 20 hours/wk paid $200 & B works 40 hours/wk paid $200. Situation creates… a. Inequity, but equalityFF. According to equity theory [fairness @ work]… a. When people perceive inequity it creates tension that they’re motivated to reduce or eliminate i. Perception is important!GG.When employees faced w/ unfavorable inequity, which may occur? [People change perception/their minds] a. ALL ABOVE = reduced quantity/quality performance, extended work breaks, stealing from employeeHH.When employees faced w/ favorable inequity, which may occur? [People change behavior] a. Increased confidence in the worker that they deserved the rewards givenII. If treat entitled fairly in reality & given them rewards they deserve based on their performance, entitled will perceive? a. Unfavorable inequity i. Benevolent = favorable inequityJJ. Which appropriate leadership style when employee is unable & unwilling to do the task? a. Hi IS & Lo ConsiderationKK.Which “” “” “” able & willing to do the task? a. Lo IS & Lo ConsiderationLL. Which trait reliably separates leaders from followers according to trait theory? a. HeightMM.Which of the following leadership styles is the best according to the behavioral theory of leadership? a. NONE…in the beginning = Hi IS & Hi ConsiderationNN.Jellybean motivators rely heavily on which of the following power bases? a. Reward powerOO.When managers use coercive power, they are using ___ to gain compliance. a. Punishment & negative reinforcementPP. Which power base best exemplifies leadership? a. Referent power 17
  • 18. QQ.Which of the following power bases is not significantly related to productivity? a. Legitimate power i. (-) Related = coercive power ii. (+) Related = referent/expert powerRR.Which of the following power bases best represents supervision? a. Legitimate powerSS. Which of the following beliefs is inconsistent w/ a theory Y viewpoint? a. Employees will avoid responsibilityTT. A manager who has a Theory X attitude towards people would exhibit which of the following leadership styles? a. Hi IS & Lo Consideration i. Y = Lo IS & Hi ConsiderationUU.According to Fiedler, leadership training ___. a. Should focus on training leaders to be flexible b. Is for the most part a waste of time c. Should train leaders to be more democratic in their leadership style d. Should teach leaders how to build trust in their relationshipsVV.Using LPC, if describe your LPC in very negative terms, you have a ___ LPC score & are a ___ leader. a. Low; task-oriented i. Positive terms = high; relationship-orientedWW.Which is true concerning Fiedler’s contingency theory? a. Anyone can be a leader if they find the right situation b. There are no effective and ineffective leaders just effective and ineffective situations c. High LPC leaders perform best in moderately favorable conditions d. Low LPC leaders perform best in very favorable or very unfavorable conditions e. All of the above are trueXX.A middle LPC leader when she encounters a moderately favorable situation will exhibit? a. Task-oriented leadership b. Relationship-oriented leadership c. Both task and relationship leadership d. None of the aboveYY.A leader shares a problem with individual subordinates one at a time, gets their suggestions about how best to solve it, and then makes the decision alone. This leader is using which of the following decision-making methods? a. AI b. AII c. CI d. CII e. GZZ. In Vroom and Yetton’s normative theory of leadership (the decision tree), which of the following factors determines the feasible set? a. Time b. Decision quality c. Subordinate acceptance d. All of the above e. Only 2 and 3 18
  • 19. AAA.Given the feasible set of (AI, AII, CI, CII, and G) which of the following would you pick if you were using the minimum-man hours rule? a. AI b. AII c. CI d. CII e. G EXTRA CREDIT• Self-Serving Bias - we take credit for our success & blame others for our failure• Avoidance Learning - you learn how to do the behavior, so that you can do it again• “Exculpatory Behavior” -- culpa is blame, ex is external; you externalize the blame• CYA - Cover Your Ass• Defiant Obedience - When you use legitimate power & tell them to do something even though you’re obeying the boss & still do really well; they stick it to you; engage in under legitimate power; when the manager tells you to do something & you know• It’s wrong but they don’t & you do it really well…stick it to them!• The best way to lead depends on the situation. [a chameleon]• 1/3 of job satisfaction is genetically determined!• Vick Vroom & Yetton’s Normative Theory• Hertzberg assumes everyone has expressive motivation & ignores instrumental.• Job enrichment = JS• Specialized = NO JS• Leadership is in trouble in our country…we’re under led & over managed!• LPC doesnt measures style, but value system!• 1st born son Sauley wants to name  Seven Steel Sauley a.k.a S cubed & call him Lucky or Boomer as a nickname• Sauley’s dad calls him Moose• What was Broom’s fist name? Richard or Dick• In goal acceptance, participation in goal setting and the autocratic method are both equally effective.• Defiant Obedience is when the manager tells you to do something and you know it’s a mistake, but you do a great job at the wrong thing just to spite them• Avoidance Learning- you learn to do a particular behavior in order to avoid a negative consequence• Self Fulfilling Prophecies- Kind of like Pygmalion effect, what a manager thinks about employees comes into being because they employees react to your expectations of them.• Least Preferred Co-worker does not measure managerial style but you values or how you feel about other people• Cover Your Ass (CYA) is also known as exculpatory behavior• $100/ 10 units (you) & $50/5 units (other) o Price determines equality  inequality o Ratios determines equity  equity• $100/ 10 units & $100/ 10 units o Equality & equity• $100/ 10 units & $200/ 5 units o Inequality & inequity• Too little = unfavorable inequity• To much = favorable inequity• Just right = equity• If you’re my department chair you engage in Lo IS & Lo C 19

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