A2 Hazards Volcanoes and earthquakes : global distribution; global and regional effects.
Earthquakes <ul><li>The origin, geographical distribution, frequency of occurrence and scale of the hazard. </li></ul><ul><li>An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes are accordingly measured with a seismometer, commonly known as a seismograph. The magnitude of an earthquake is conventionally reported using the Richter scale or a related Moment scale (with magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes being hard to notice and magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas). </li></ul>
<ul><li>The majority of tectonic earthquakes originate at depths not exceeding tens of kilometers. In subduction zones, where older and colder oceanic crust descends beneath another tectonic plate, Deep focus earthquakes may occur at much greater depths (up to seven hundred kilometers). </li></ul>
Earthquakes Describe and explain the distribution of earthquakes
Earthquakes <ul><li>scale of the hazard. </li></ul><ul><li>Small earthquakes occur nearly constantly around the world in places like California and Alaska in the U.S., as well as in Chile, Peru, Indonesia, Iran, the Azores in Portugal, New Zealand, Greece and Japan. Large earthquakes occur less frequently, the relationship being exponential; for example, roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than magnitude 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. In the (low seismicity) United Kingdom, for example, it has been calculated that the average recurrences are: </li></ul><ul><li>an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every year </li></ul><ul><li>an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. </li></ul>
Earthquakes <ul><li>Most of the world's earthquakes (90%, and 81% of the largest) take place in the 40,000-km-long, horseshoe-shaped zone called the circum-Pacific seismic belt, also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, which for the most part bounds the Pacific Plate. Massive earthquakes tend to occur along other plate boundaries, too, such as along the Himalayan Mountains. </li></ul>
Earthquakes <ul><li>The Richter magnitude scale , or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. It is a base-10 logarithmic scale obtained by calculating the logarithm of the combined horizontal amplitude of the largest displacement from zero on a seismometer output. Measurements have no limits and can be either positive or negative. The energy released is also logarithmic, but the base is approximately 32. Thus a two unit increase on the Richter scale corresponds to over 900 times an increase in released energy. </li></ul>