Contrasts between MEDCs and LEDCs in measures of population such as birth rate , death rate , natural increase ; health such as infant mortality , people per doctor and life expectancy ; housing , literacy and GNP . Economic and political conditions impact upon levels of development such as the industrial structure and the political policies of the Government.
'What is the North - South divide? (2 marks)'
Characteristics of a MEDC
A developed country is normally a wealthy one.
They normally are industrialised.
Incomes are normally high.
People usually have disposable income which can be spent on consumer goods, leisure and travel.
These countries predominantly have a large, productive tertiary industry sector.
Characteristics of a LEDC
A less devolped country is normally a poor country.
The country usually has a large dependance on their primary industry sector.
There is usually a lack of food, clean water, medical care and education .
Wealth is an economic factor which impacts most social factors which are measures of development.
This map shows a general trend of what is called the north - south divide with less developed countries mainly occupying the red area. This north - south divide runs along the USA - Mexico border. The North - South Divide map
Comparing the USA and Mexico
USA - More Developed Country
GNP per person - $24750
Infant Mortality Rate - 6 deaths per 1000
Literacy Rate - 99.0%
Persons per Doctor - 390
Mexico - Less Developed Country
GNP per person - $3750
Infant Mortality Rate - 18 deaths per 1000
Literacy Rate - 92.8%
Persons per Doctor - 500
Comparing the USA and Mexico
The wealth in the USA per head is six times more than in Mexico, leaving Americans more money to buy luxury goods such as televisions or cars
There are greater health provisions in the USA than Mexico as indicated by the infant mortality rates in the respective countries
In Mexico most jobs are in farming , while in the USA more jobs are in services and manufacture
Because of the development gap immigration from Mexico to the USA is a problem
Large, low income housing project in Mexico
An example of a luxurious household found in America
What is the North - South Divide? (2 marks)
The North - South divide is a divide between MEDCs and LEDCs which is generallised by a line on a world map. This line runs along the USA - Mexico border and continues just north of Africa and divides Asia but is then curves and is south of Australasia. Continents north of the line include Europe, North America, Australasia and a section of Asia. Continents south of the line include South America, Africa and a section of Asia which are generalised as being LEDCs.
Measures of Development pg 212-213
What does the specification say?
"Contrasts between MEDCs and LEDCs in measures of population such as birth rate, death rate, natural increase; health such as infant mortality, people per doctor and life expectancy; housing, literacy and GNP."
"World population growth. Birth rate and death rate. Countries pass through different phases of population growth as shown by the Demographic Transition Model."
GNP - Gross National Product
GNP is the total value of all the goods and services produced by people and companies from a country in one year, divided by the population to give the GNP per head
Measured in US Dollars $ $ $
Why is the GNP value is more reliable for MEDCs than LEDCs?
Statistics are readily available and accurate
Only the values of products sold are included in its calculation
Advantages and Disadvantages for GDP
- Can be calculated for all countries
- Good indicator for a country's wealth
- Easy to compare wealth of one country with that of another
- Sometimes reliable data is not available
- Output from subsistence farming is not included
- Countries with a lot of oil and small populations have a very high GNP, such as Kuwait.
- Other general problems are that not every single country collects data in the same way
A map to show the GNP per head in 1995
Social indicators of development
Unlike GDP which is an economic indicator, other social indicators are available. Natural increase is the (birth rate - death rate) / 10
Indicator MEDCs LEDCs Birth rate (per 1000 per year) 20-45 10-16 Natural Increase (% per year) <1 2.0-3.5 People below the age of 15 (%) <25 30-50 Stage in the Demographic Transition Model 4 2 or 3
Further Measures of Development. What the specification says:
Contrasts between MEDCs and LEDCs in measures of population such as birth rate, death rate, natural increase; health such as infant mortality, people per doctor and life expectancy; housing, literacy and GNP.
Further measures of development
Reliable statistics for comparing levels of development are not easy to obtain.
So several different measures of development are used.
Some prefer to use the "Physical Quality Of Life Index"
This is an overall value based upon combining the separate values of three measures:
These are just three of many social measures used in the study of development.
Social measures of development
Enough to eat
Worldwide 800 million people are severely malnourished or starving
Number of people per room
Percentage of houses without access to electricity
Percentage of houses with running water
Over 1 million people have no clean water and no sanitation.
Every day, 25000 people die from water-borne diseases
Infant mortality rate
Under-five survival rates
Life expectancy at birth
Number of people per doctor
Number of people per hospital bed
Percentage of people without access to health services
Percentage of people without access to safe water
Average calorie intake per person per day
Nearly one third of adults in the Third world cannot read or write. Over 125 million children weren't going to school in 1991 and two thirds of these were girls.
Adult literacy rate
Average number of years at school per child
Proportion of people who carry on to secondary school
Clearly a lot of these social measures of development overlap:
Children become an infant mortality statistic by not reaching their first birthday because nearby hospitals are too expensive or there are no hospitals nearby.
Diseases, such as Typhoid, are spread by unsafe water supplies and poor sanitation and children have less immunity to these diseases.
Limited availability of food means that both mother and child are less able to fight off diseases.
With better parental education and with clean water running to houses, fewer children would die.
It is estimated that 35 000 children die each day in LEDCs due to preventable diseases and this is because of poverty
Many are in the poverty cycle trap
These measures of development are labelled as "social" measures because they are measuring either personal details or factors which directly affect people's lives.
It is difficult to differentiate between the social and economic measures which is why some of the measures described are called socio-economic measures.
Other measures that are more clearly economic have already been referred to such as the employment structure and the GNP but they have strong social effects.
Causes of the Lack of Development - Environmental Factors.
The syllabus says:
'The imbalance of trade, environmental hazards and development indicators provide the evidence for a world in which there are great gaps in development between the rich and the poor making aid between countries necessary.'
Why are LEDCs less economically developed?
Although measures of development allow LEDCs to be identified, they don't explain why they are less economically developed than other countries.
We are going to explain why these countries are generally concentrated around Asia, Africa and South America.
Location is very important considering that LEDCs generally lie further south than MEDCs, within the tropics. This implies that enivronmental factors contribute towards the lack of development in such countries.
Natural hazards are such things such as tropical storms, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes and droughts.
When they occur, they are generally referred to as natural disasters because of the impact they have on people's lives and property.
Some have immediate impacts, and some have impacts that take a lot longer to reach their maximum potential which is often more than that of the immediate disasters. An example of this is the current existence of drought in Africa.
Tropical Storms The aftermath of hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, USA.
Tropical storms themeselves are responsible for about one fifth of the total deaths of this disaster.
Whole settlements and crop fields can be destroyed.
LEDCs are most affected. The south-east corner of the USA is the only area of the developed world that is regularly at risk from tropical storms.
There are usually around 6 hurricanes per year in the southern hemisphere.
Floods Example of the level of flooding that can happen, in this case in India where the river that has flooded is the Ganges.
Occur when rivers break their banks.
Coastal flooding due to tropical storms or high tidal surges, which happen after earthquakes.
An example of an LEDC prone to major flooding is Bangladesh. This is because it is situated in a low lying coastal position on the Ganges delta. The whole country is effectively the Ganges' flood plain.
The rise in the levels of the Ganges are due to the monsoon season, which lasts for four months per year, and from tropical cyclones, which gather momentum when crossing the Bay of Bengal.
Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Limited to certain ares, outside the tropics.
Areas most affected are California, and Japan, however, the worst hit places are usually the LEDC's.
Main damage is not done by the earthquake itself, but the structuring of the houses within the country.
Example of this are 2 earthquakes, Kobe in 1995, and Maharashtra in 1993.
Buildings in Kobe withstood the earthquake, as they had been designed according to Japanese laws.
Buildings in Maharashtra were destroyed, as it was unexpected, and majority couldn't afford stronger buildings.
Recent Example - Haiti
Occurs when Rainfall in area is significantly lower than expected.
Doesn't mean that there is not rainfall.
Occasionally, there is no rain for months, or years.
Causes a reduction in crop yields, and grass growth.
Triggers famine, which affects rural areas the most.
The longer the areas receives less rainfall than usual, the higher risk of famine.
In parts of The Sahel, the drought has been unbroken for 25 years.
Examples of Drought
Majority of Deaths from Famine have come from Sahel region.
Famous example is drought in Ethiopia in 1980's
Live aid raised £50 million to provide food.
Less publicised case was seasonal drought which affected Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa in 1992.
Rural food supplies reduced, causing famine in areas.
Exports reduced, affecting incomes of farmers and national economies.
Example of how Droughts cause Famines This image shows how Drought reduces the amount of water that crops receive, making them die. This means less crops can be used to eat or sell, meaning Famine becomes a possibility.
Droughts in LEDC's affect millions of people.
High temperatures cause the rain, if it falls late, to evaporate quicker than temperate lands.
Therefore, droughts affect the tropics more.
Tropics mainly consist of LEDC's.
Some Hazards occur more in tropical countries, and is a factor in the lack of development in LEDC's.
However, it isn't the defining factor in the development gap.
Are Environmental Hazards to blame for the development gap between MEDC's and LEDC's? Use examples of natural hazards to explain your answer. (4)
The AQA specification for health hazards
"Environmental conditions and hazards contribute to differences in levels of development and differences in availability and cleanliness of water supply between MEDCs and LEDCs. The quality and quantity of water supply in LEDCs."
Health Hazards Affecting Development in Tropical Countries
In tropical countries, the climate is great for insects and bacteria to thrive in.
A large proportion of the diseases that cause many problems in Tropical Countries are water related which can have severe effects on your life.
May result in someone being sick and too weak to work
and death, which is bad for your health.
Problems with too little water
Where water is scarce, it is often taken out of streams without treating it for impurities.
Some poor areas with limited access to water, people from a village may have to walk a kilometre or two to collect water, and is still may be dirty.
As a result, illnesses can also occur as a result of
the absence of clean, drinking water,
absence of proper santiation facilities
failure to treat human excrement and keep it separate from the water
Problem with too much water
Guinea worms are a type of worm that get inside the body via unclean water and thrive inside your body.
The chance of one of these entering into someones body increases dramtaically in the wet season of tropical countries.
Ideal breeding ground for insects such as mosquitos.
As the wet season is the busiest time for farmers, it does not help that the pests thrive as well,
An Introduction to World Trade
Trade - The exchange of goods and services between countries
Visible Trade is when goods, such as raw materials, foodstuffs and manufactured goods, are exchanged.
These goods can be counted, weighed and given a value
Invisible Trade is the exchange of services, Tourism is an example of invisible trade.
Types of products
Primary Products - Raw Materials such as crude oil, iron ore, cotton and natural rubber which are used for the manufacture of other products.
- Foodstuffs may also be a primary product. A country may not be able to grow all the food needed to feed thier population.
- Other countries import food that they cannot grow.
The UK for example imports oranges, bananas, tea, coffee and chocolate.
Secondary Products - Manufactured Goods, that need to be imported into that country as they are not made there
Volume of World Trade
- More than 50% of the worlds' trade takes place between the G7 countries, the top trading nations in the world.
- They require large quantities of raw materials in order to manufacture goods.
- On the other hand, relatively little trade takes place between LEDC's.
- LEDC's compete with each other for the overseas market as they usually produce similar products.
- This in turn means that these countries cannot trade with each other as they have similar commodities.
- For LEDC's; lack of money, poor land communications and customs red tape limits the exchange of goods.
- These are groups of countries that aim to encourage trade which leads to increased wealth for member countries. Tariffs and quotas for trading with countries within the group are lightened creating a common market.
- This does however disadvantage countries outside of the group wanting to trade and does not help worldwide trade.
Trade and Economic Groupings
The European Union
The EU began as a small, common market of six countries in 1957 and developed into the EU with fifteen member countries.
There is virtually no customs control between member countries making free trading a lot easier.
- The EU encourages cross-border trade . Cross-border transport links have been set up, allowing free movement of goods.
- 97% of international trade for EU countries, is with other EU countries!
- Limited access has caused LEDC's to complain about the difficulty to trade with EU countries.
Mercosur (South America)
- "The Common Market of the South", was proposed in 1986. Tariffs began to fall from 1991 and by 2000, trade was tariff free.
- Trade has increased in all of these areas with increased exports of industrial goods from Brazil to Argentina and of raw materials from Argentina to Brazil.
- Increased traffic highlighted movement restrictions such as a lack of good roads and poorly trained customs officials.
What does the Specification say?
"Students should appreciate the global imbalance
in trade and the problems of countries, mostly
LEDCs that rely on a limited range of primary
produces susceptible to world markets and the
buying power of the MEDCs . Advantages and
disadvantages should be considered from the
economic, social political and environmental
viewpoints and the attitudes of different interest
groups should be considered."
Question: What are the main causes in the imbalance of trade between MEDC's and LEDC's?
Causes of the Lack of Development
Causes of Lack of Development - The Pattern of World Trade
Pattern of Trade
Syllabus & Question
Pattern of Trade
Syllabus & Question
Pg. 222 Bowen and Pallister,
Pg. 160 D. Waugh
This is a case of dependency in which one country depends on another through trade.
Here, we're specifically examining the interdependence of LEDCs and MEDCs.
LEDCs often have a large primary industry sector, a cheap source of labour and natural resources. This means that they can export raw materials to MEDCs.
This earns money, in the form of foreign currency .
With this foreign money, they can buy goods from MEDCs in order to modernise- e.g:
A Short Video to Illustrate Interdependence...
Pattern of Trade... and why Interdependency favours the MEDCs...
Unfortunately, the problems we have are:
MEDCs have a trade surplus.
LEDCs are in debt, as they are lent money by the MEDCs to pay for goods made in the MEDCs.
Profit made from exported goods does not always reach the producing country/workforce.
Sometimes, in order to maintain an economy, a country will rely on a single export.
This is especially true of LEDCs, whose industries are often built around primary sector work, which deal with raw materials.
Mali is 50% dependent upon cotton exports.
Somalia is 70% dependent on the export of live animals.
Nigeria is 90% dependent on Oil and Gas.
This makes their economy unstable, as it will follow market trends for a specific product.
Oil Price Since 2006
Other ways this can change...
Demand for a product can fall-
E.g. Increased recycling
Natural Disasters can destroy resources, because as primary industries they are very susceptible. Sorry, whoever is doing that topic.
Sudden boycotts of products.
Then, even if these countries want to expand, they then have to compete with MEDCs!
According to AQA...
" Students should appreciate the global imbalance in trade and the problems of countries, mostly LEDCs that rely on a limited range of primary produces susceptible to world markets and the buying power of the MEDCs. Advantages and disadvantages should be considered from the economic, social political and environmental viewpoints and the attitudes of different interest groups should be considered. "
UQU: Unoriginal Questions Unlimited
From the 2010 Generally Soul Crushing Examination Paper:
1) By what amount have diamond exports fallen as a percentage of total exports between 1980 and 2005?  2) Analyse the effect of a decrease in the price of diamond on South Africa's Economy of the 1980's 
3) How has South Africa's economy changed in the years 1980-2005 which reduces this risk? 
South Africa's Top Five Exports by Percentage of Total Exports 1980 2005 Diamonds 6.7% Coal, Lignite and Peat 5.1% Pig Iron 5.0% Iron and Steel (Raw Forms) 2.5% Inorganic Chemicals 2.5% Diamonds 51.4% Coal 2.5% - - - - - -
1) 44.7% 
2) Marks: 2:
1) S.A. is heavily dependent on exports of diamond owtte (or words to that effect) 
2) As it is one of few exports, a change is likely to have a large effect upon the overall economy 
3) Marks: 3:
1) Exports were diversified owtte , diamond less crucial to main economy, therefore less impact 
2) Need to move away from primary industries 
a. Will require investment/foreign currency provided by gold 
3) Economic growth in other areas may keep strong exports of gold. 
Can Poor Countries Develop Economically?
What does the Specification say?
North v South – the main pattern of trade
and the balance of trade between the north
and the south. The types of products
produced. The socio-economic,
environmental and political advantages and
disadvantages of this pattern of trade to
MEDCs and LEDCs. Small scale studies to
show how trade is interdependent.
The possible solutions to the imbalance of
trade such as fair trade and its importance
for global citizenship .
World Trade Organisation and The EU
The World Trade Organisation is continuing towards free trade.
The EU has declared that the preferential trade in bananas between Caribbean states and Europe is illegal
Small farmers in the EU know they cannot compete with farmers and plantations in South and Central America called Dollar Bananas.
With the EU favoured treatment the Caribbean producers would go out of business.
Pattern of World Trade
The pattern of world trade where LEDC`s in some continents export raw materials to be used in industries in some countries is well established.
Markets for Britain`s manufactured goods were opened up overseas, these were colonies which were intended to be an economic asset to Britain itself.
It is difficult to break a pattern of trade once it`s established, especially in Africa where they have only had 50 years of interdependence.
Countries that were Colonised by Britain
Old colonies such as Austrailia and Canada are MEDC`s because of their great resources.
Countries that are progressing with economic development include countries such as Brazil and smaller countries such as Singapore and Malaysia.
Another feature of developing countries is that many of them are increasing the number exports of manufactured goods rather than natural resources
Problems for developing countries
The trade gap between LEDC`s and MEDC`s has led to loads of debt.
Interest rates have risen for those LEDC`s that have borrowed money due to economic conditions in the industrialised world.
Raw material prices have fallen therefore LEDC`s will find that trade for them will have a minimal impact for developing countries.
Only option available to these countries is to accept AID.
"Use of aid appropriately - impact of short term/ long term aid, Fair Trade, inequalitiy" Aid on the Syllabus
Aid - the transfer of money, goods and expertise from one country ( donor ) to another ( recipient ). May be given freely, but sometimes (low rates of) interest are set on loans and conditions are set on goods supplied. Three types of aid are shown by how and who fund it:
TYPES OF AID
Literally Means: 'Two-Sided'. Aid between two governments, often tied aid , as the aid has to be used to buy goods from the donor country. Sometimes is no more than trade promotion (finding a market for the donor country's goods).
Aid not always for the best for recieving company - the goods the aid is used to purchase is often not needed for development. Often focuses on large-scale projects (e.g. dams or power stations). Choice of country is also often chosen only for political reasons (such as former colonies).
TYPES OF AID
Literally Means: 'Many-Sided'. Aid given to international agencies who choose how to spread aid. Agencies often operate under the UN. Focus on different areas of aid.
WHO - World health
UNESCO - Education
World Bank - Development projects.
Pay more attention to development, but often slow, and don't always target countries true needs.
As you can see, UK is far from the UN's target, as are most countries!
Relief aid in Haiti
TYPES OF AID
Long-term (development) aid
This aid is given over a long period of time (hence "long-time"), and is used to help the development of a country. Aid agencies prefer to spend their funds on. Examples of improved health care through development aid are:
immunisation programmes against TB, polio, measels and diphtheria
health education in rural areas
family planning clinics
clean water and cleaning facilities
research in MEDCs to form new vaccines against tropical diseases
TYPES OF AID
Practical improvements are often funded and organised by NGOs. They try and identify the needs off the people, and make practical changes, which are sustainable by the local community, therefore making it self-sustainable and removing the need for aid. Examples of help given to farmers are:
agricultural support, and technical training
good-quality seeds for local conditions supplied
ponds and irrigation systems dug with low-spec technology
projects for providing loans for tools and business credit
setting up organisations for marketing surpluses.
Question Time !!! Do YOU know the answer?
i) Describe the differences between bi-lateral aid, multi-lateral aid and NGOs. (4 marks)
The Ethiopian famine situation began in 1984, where the harvest could no longer sustain the population. This was due to drought mostly and years of lower than average rainfall.
To worsen the situation a civil war was raging and a third of the budget was tied up in the armed forces. This all led to one of the most well known and severe famines of all time.
Images like this had never really been seen before by the general public. The impact of these horrific statistics rallied the people of Great Britain to raise over £14 million.
The charity response The effort by the public and NGO's was incredible, raising over £110 million over 8 years all to help the starving Ethiopian people. The most famous example being Band Aid although other organizations such as Oxfam and Christian Aid also contributed to the effort. Mostly short term food aid was sent although some of the aid was taken by the military government for the troops. Even with this effort approximately half a million people died. These were just the first.
Ethiopian Aid - the 1990s
the military government was overthrown in 1991, however, there was still the problem of the drought
Birth rates were high and there were two million more mouths to feed in 1994 than in 1984
Half of the population live in poverty and there are sever food shortages in some areas
Many people are vulnerable if the rains fail or arrive late
However, due to a bumper harvest in 1992, aid agencies scaled back levels of food aid
This caused major problems in 1994 when rains arrived late and people's own food stores were used up
Due to poor road links, the speed at which aid agencies could react was limited
In the first half of 1994, it was estimated that 5000 people died in Wolayta, southern Ethipia
The Response After the Crisis
Attempts are being made to develop an early warning system for famines
Save The Children Fund and The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) are building up a database of information about local human and physical conditions
They will use this to draw up maps and charts of likely hunger levels in different regions of the country
Where's the Specification in all of this?
According to the AQA 2010 Specification:
"Why is aid needed? Different types of aid: emergency (short term), political, charitable, conditional (tied) aid, long term aid. Sample studies to illustrate the different types of aid and the advantages and disadvantages of these types of aid."
For these factors we need to know how aid helps and the different ways. Ethiopia also acts as a global (rest of the world) case study which might get you those extra marks on the dreaded 6 mark questions.
Switching from short term aid to development aid
A key feature of helping Ethiopia was development aid and helping to produce food sustainably.
NGO's like Cafod help to promote intergrated farming with the local villages and population.
Most of the land in Ethiopia is desert or mountainous and cannot be farmed. The rest receives very little water and farming becomes incredibly difficult.
Examples of innovative solutions to these problems are:
planting drought-resistant trees
providing loans for tools and helping businesses
planting high quality seeds which grow in all conditions
selling the surplus grain
finding new supplies of water
The effect of water is shown on the next slide. It shows how much water can be valued.
More aid organisations wish to concentrate on long-term aid with emphasis on sustainable development for the local community
People become dependent on food aid and may lose the will to produce their own food
NGOs feel that limited funds can be used more effectively in trying to prevent the problem for recurring
In a typical drought year in Ethiopia, one million tonnes of food aid are given out.
It is estimated that this could pay for the labour for:
167 000km of access road, or
2700 earth dams, or
over 400 000km or irrigation channels
Each of these would bring long-term benefits and make local communities less vulnerable in future emergencies
Aid in Bangladesh
What does it say in the specification?
Why is aid needed? Different types of aid –
emergency (short term), political, charitable,
conditional (tied) aid, long term aid. Sample
studies to illustrate the different types of aid
and the advantages and disadvantages of
these types of aid.
Using a variety of different indicators of development, Bangladesh is one of the lowest developed countries in South-east Asia.
One of worlds poorest countries.
One of worlds most densely populated countries.
Frequent natural disasters.
Overseas aid is vital source of income.
More aid given to actual communities of people to improve quality of life.
Bangladesh Development Indicators and Trade Figures
Advantages and Disadvantages of Bangladesh
High water supply.
Rivers flood one third of cropland.
Fisheries along rivers.
LOW INCLINE land and low-lying land means there is a high flood risk.
Contaminated drinking water.
Aid from overseas
What does it provide?
Funding for projects like power stations, bridges and roads.
What are its disadvantages?
Majority of people feel little benefit.
They're only loans - must be paid back.
Community based NGO with Oxfam support at Manab Mukti.
Community of Manab Mukti
On char in Brahmaputra river
They were helped to:
raise their homes above regular flood levels
make platforms on which to keep their livestock
ensure clean water availability during flooding
Two community shelters
Agricultural training given
The people remain poor, but have a healthier, happier and more prosperous community.
Small investment in the right way at the right time can have a great effect.
Give 2 examples to show how aid from overseas can help
local communities of people and 2 different examples to show how aid from overseas can help the governments in those countries. (4 marks)