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  1. 1. Coasts Presentation By Jaypal Gahir, Navdeep Bhamra, Hasaam Uldin, and Aman Sahota
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Within this presentation we we concentrate upon the key aspects of coasts that may appear in the exam.  Therefore, this presentation will cover and include: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Syllabus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And Exam Technique </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Syllabus
  4. 4. Syllabus
  5. 5. Case Studies
  6. 6. The Holderness Coast. <ul><li>Shows examples of coastal erosion and deposition as well as coastal features. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flamborough head - an eight mile long headland. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spurn Point - a spit along the Holderness coast. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal defences at Mappleton. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Flamborough Head <ul><ul><li>A thick band of chalk (a resistant rock) outcrops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boulder clay at Filey is much less resistant.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced a number of high cliffs that are 200m+ high. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caves have formed at the faults and points of weakness at the bottom of the headland.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of these caves have formed arches and stacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlements have been made on Flamborough head. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Spurn Point <ul><ul><li>A spit on the coastline. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by longshore drift of material from north to south.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of erosion of the coast, there is a lot of sediment that can be collected by the waves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the coastline bends, deposition occurs.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the last 150 years, a ridge of sand 8km long has been built up. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Coastal defences at Mappleton. <ul><ul><li>A small village on the Holderness coast. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1990, it was under threat of becoming the 30th lost village along the holderness coast.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Holderness coast is eroded very fast, 5 feet of coastline is lost per year. This is the highest rate of coastal erosion in Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>£2,000,000 have been spent on a coastal protection scheme for a village of 100 people. this has been done in order to preserve the B1242 - a vital road link. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granite was imported from Norway and sea walls and groynes have been installed. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Coastal resorts - Blackpool <ul><ul><li>Grew from a village in 1850 to a city and one of the most important seaside resorts in Britain. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth  was due to accessibility during the Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family destination. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railway line opened in 1846 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Problems in Blackpool Resort. <ul><ul><li>Overcrowding at weekends and holidays. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment in winter due to the resort being closed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Litter on the beach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land, air and water pollution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition from other resorts in Britain and abroad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unreliablity of weather. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Solving Blackpool's problems. <ul><ul><li>The local council invested in beach and street cleaning equipment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of new facilities to attract visitors - some are indoor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blackpool illuminations in autumn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of new parking facilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gained the EU Blue Flag award for having good bathing water quality and facilities for visitors (e.g. toilets, safety belts, lifeguards). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building and maintaining sea walls and groynes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of sand extraction along the coast. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Coastal Processes <ul><li>The sea shapes the coastal landscape. Coastal erosion is the wearing away and breaking up of rock along the coast. Destructive waves erode the coastline in a number of ways: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic action .  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrasion .  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attrition .  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution .  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>These are the processes that one should know for the exam. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Waves <ul><ul><li>destructive waves are created in stormy conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they are created via big, strong waves when the wind is powerful and has been blowing for a long period of time.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they occur when wave energy is high and the wave has travelled over a long fetch. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they have a stronger backwash than swash.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they have a short wave length and are high and steep. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Hydraulic Action <ul><li>' Hydraulic action is a form of erosion caused by the force of moving water currents rushing into a crack in the rockface.' </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  The sheer weight of the water, under great wind currents, causes a great impact upon the rock face. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Air within the rockfaces cracks and caves, become compressed, and therefore the pressure on the rock increases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  The pressure upon the rock is at its greatest, during stormy weather conditions, whereby hundreds of tonnes of water may destroy the natural coastline. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Exam Technique <ul><li>In this next section I will focus on exam technique, specifically the &quot;6 Marker&quot; questions. </li></ul><ul><li>I will use examples from previous years to illustrate how these types of questions should be answered. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Coasts &quot;6 marker&quot; - June 2006
  18. 18. The formation of wave-cut platforms <ul><li>A - Destructive waves hit the rock face between the high and low water marks. </li></ul><ul><li>B - Waves undercut the rock face forming a wave-cut notch. Rock overhangs the notch. </li></ul><ul><li>C - After constant attack by destructive waves, the overhanging rock collapses forming a wave-cut platform.   </li></ul>
  19. 19. Coasts &quot;6 marker&quot; - June 2007 <ul><li>  </li></ul>
  20. 20. Long shore Drift - Diagram
  21. 21. Long shore drift - answer <ul><li>Waves (swash) approach land at an angle. Waves (backwash) leave land at right angles. The prevailing wind determines the movement of the material in the sea and hence the direction of the long shore drift. </li></ul><ul><li>If this is explained correctly along with the usage of a diagram, 6 marks will surely be awarded. </li></ul><ul><li>REMEMBER - Only explain the concept of long shore drift, not  how groynes slow down the movement of sand along the beach. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Coasts &quot;6 marker&quot; - June 2008
  23. 23. Formation of Caves, Arches and Stacks A - Waves erode weaknesses in the rock and erode a cave along the greatest line of weakness.   B - Cave size increased by further erosion and opens headland at both sides. Other caves increase in size.   C - A stack is separated from rest of land and continued erosion of the headland results in an enlarged cave and leads to the collapse of the overhanging rock 'roof'. The next cave is eroded and becomes an arch
  24. 24. Final advice for the exam... <ul><li>Remember to read the question all the way through before doing the first question as this answer may overlap with the next question. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the question itself carefully and finalise in your head what exactly you have to write about. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to plan out the answer in your head before writing the answer, especially answers with a certain sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to use correct terminology - i.e. &quot; 'hydraulic action' instead of just 'erosion' &quot; </li></ul>
  25. 25. End Of Presentation