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Aids 2
 

Aids 2

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    Aids 2 Aids 2 Presentation Transcript

    • A2 Hazards Aids: A transmittable disease: global distribution; international and National effects. Where appropriate discuss the differences between LEDCs and MEDCs.
    •  
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Test Your AIDS I.Q.
      • HIV is a virus that attacks and weakens which system?
      • Digestive system Immune system Circulatory system
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • 1) Immune system. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, attacks and weakens the immune system by targeting certain cells that defend the body against illness. An AIDS diagnosis occurs when the body’s defense cells fall below a certain level and the person becomes vulnerable to life-threatening illnesses and infections.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Only drug users and gay men need to worry about becoming infected with HIV.
      • True False
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • 2) False. Anyone can become infected with HIV. All sexually active people, particularly those who have had multiple sex partners - gay or straight - should get tested for HIV. Most people get HIV through unprotected sex – including vaginal, anal, or oral sex – or through injection drug use. Infected mothers can pass the virus to their babies during pregnancy, childbirth, or while breast-feeding.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • It is easy to tell whether someone is infected with HIV.
      • True False
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • 3) False. You cannot tell by looking at someone whether he or she is infected with HIV. It can take as long as 10 years or more before someone starts showing any symptoms of the disease. But even when no symptoms are present, an HIV-positive person can infect other people. When a person’s condition has progressed to AIDS, you still cannot necessarily tell by looking at them whether they have the virus.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Which body fluid cannot transmit HIV?
      • Blood Semen Vaginal fluids Breast milk Saliva
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • 4) Saliva. HIV can be found in certain body fluids such as blood, semen, pre-ejaculation, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. HIV is NOT spread through casual contact such as hugging or shaking hands, and cannot be spread through contact with sweat, tears, or saliva.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • A vaccine is available to protect people from HIV infection.
      • True False
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • 5) False. There is no vaccine or cure for AIDS. Treatments are available that can help people live longer and delay the onset of AIDS. But side effects are serious and drug-resistant strains of the virus can make even the best medications ineffective. Prevention is the best defense against HIV/AIDS.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Globally, most women become infected with HIV through
      • Childbirth Blood transfusions Injecting drugs Unprotected heterosexual sex
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • 6) Unprotected heterosexual sex. Worldwide, half of all people living with HIV/AIDS are women and a majority of them were infected through unprotected heterosexual sex. The physiology of the female genital tract makes women inherently more susceptible to HIV and they are twice as likely to acquire HIV from men through unprotected sex than vice versa.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Young people under 25 now account for at least half of all new HIV infections in the United States.
      • True False
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • 7) True. Young adults and teens continue to be at risk for HIV infection. Most young people are infected through sex.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • There is no link between HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
      • True False
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • 8) False. People with STDs may be more likely to contract HIV. It is also easier for those with other STDs to transmit the virus.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • All people infected with HIV are aware of their status. True False
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • 9) False. Approximately 25% of Americans infected with HIV do not know their status and evidence suggests that most new infections stem from people who are unknowingly spreading the virus.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • You can find out your HIV status by asking for:
      • An HIV test A general physical examination A gynecological examination
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • 10) An HIV test. The only way to know for sure whether you are HIV-positive is to take an HIV test. The most common type of HIV test is an antibody test. When HIV enters the bloodstream, it begins to attack certain white blood cells known as CD4 cells. The immune system then produces antibodies to fight off infection. When you take an HIV test, doctors are actually looking for the presence of these antibodies, which confirm that HIV infection has occurred.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • When a person is infected with HIV, the virus enters the body and lives and multiplies primarily in the white blood cells. These are immune cells that normally protect us from disease. The hallmark of HIV infection is the progressive loss of a specific type of immune cell called T-helper, or CD4, cells.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • As the virus grows, it damages or kills these and other cells, weakening the immune system and leaving the person vulnerable to various opportunistic infections and other illnesses ranging from pneumonia to cancer.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • How many people are affected by HIV/AIDS?
      • The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimates that there are now 40 million people living with HIV or AIDS worldwide. Most of them do not know they carry HIV and may be spreading the virus to others. In the U.S., approximately one million people have HIV or AIDS, and 40,000 Americans become newly infected with HIV each year. According to the CDC, it is estimated that a quarter of all people with HIV in the U.S. do not know they are carrying the virus.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Since the beginning of the epidemic, AIDS has killed more than 25 million people worldwide, including more than 500,000 Americans. AIDS has replaced malaria and tuberculosis as the world's deadliest infectious disease among adults and is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Fifteen million children have been orphaned by the epidemic.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • A person who has HIV carries the virus in certain body fluids, including blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. The virus can be transmitted only if such HIV-infected fluids enter the bloodstream of another person. This kind of direct entry can occur (1) through the linings of the vagina, rectum, mouth, and the opening at the tip of the penis; (2) through intravenous injection with a syringe; or (3) through a break in the skin, such as a cut or sore.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Usually, HIV is transmitted through:
      • Unprotected sexual intercourse (either vaginal or anal) with someone who has HIV. Women are at greater risk of HIV infection through vaginal sex than men, although the virus can also be transmitted from women to men. Anal sex (whether male-male or male-female) poses a high risk mainly to the receptive partner, because the lining of the anus and rectum is extremely thin and is filled with small blood vessels that can be easily injured during intercourse.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Unprotected oral sex with someone who has HIV . There are far fewer cases of HIV transmission attributed to oral sex than to either vaginal or anal intercourse, but oral-genital contact poses a clear risk of HIV infection, particularly when ejaculation occurs in the mouth. This risk goes up when either partner has cuts or sores, such as those caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), recent tooth-brushing, or canker sores, which can allow the virus to enter the bloodstream.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Sharing needles or syringes with someone who is HIV infected. Laboratory studies show that infectious HIV can survive in used syringes for a month or more. That's why people who inject drugs should never reuse or share syringes, water, or drug preparation equipment. This includes needles or syringes used to inject illegal drugs such as heroin, as well as steroids. Other types of needles, such as those used for body piercing and tattoos, can also carry HIV.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Infection during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast-feeding (mother-to-infant transmission). Any woman who is pregnant or considering becoming pregnant and thinks she may have been exposed to HIV-even if the exposure occurred years ago-should seek testing and counseling. In the U.S., mother-to-infant transmission has dropped to just a few cases each year because pregnant women are routinely tested for HIV. Those who test positive can get drugs to prevent HIV from being passed on to a fetus or infant, and they are counselled not to breast-feed
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • If you are sexually active, protect yourself against HIV by practicing safer sex. Whenever you have sex, use a condom or "dental dam" (a square of latex recommended for use during oral-genital and oral-anal sex). When used properly and consistently, condoms are extremely effective. But remember:
      • Use only latex condoms (or dental dams). Lambskin products provide little protection against HIV.
      • Use only water-based lubricants. Latex condoms are virtually useless when combined with oil- or petroleum-based lubricants such as Vaseline® or hand lotion. (People with latex allergies can use polyethylene condoms with oil-based lubricants).
      • Use protection each and every time you have sex.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Are women especially vulnerable to HIV?
      • Women are at least twice as likely to contract HIV through vaginal sex with infected males than vice versa. This biological vulnerability is worsened by social and cultural factors that often undermine women's ability to avoid sex with partners who are HIV-infected or to insist on condom use.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Are young people at significant risk of HIV infection?
      • At least half of the 40,000 Americans newly infected with HIV each year are under the age of 25. Roughly two young Americans become infected with HIV every hour of every day, and many of the people now living with HIV in the U.S. became infected when they were teenagers.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Are there treatments for HIV/AIDS?
      • For many years, there were no effective treatments for AIDS. Today, a number of drugs are available to treat HIV infection and AIDS. Some of these are designed to treat the opportunistic infections and illnesses that affect people with HIV/AIDS.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Many HIV patients take these drugs in combination-a regimen known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). When taken as directed, anti-HIV treatment can reduce the amount of HIV in the bloodstream to very low levels and sometimes enables the body's immune cells to rebound to normal levels.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Even when patients respond well to treatment, HAART does not eradicate HIV. The virus continues to replicate at low levels and often remains hidden in "reservoirs" in the body, such as in the lymph nodes and brain
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Can you tell whether someone has HIV or AIDS?
      • You cannot tell by looking at someone whether he or she is infected with HIV or has AIDS. An infected person can appear completely healthy. But anyone infected with HIV can infect other people, even if they have no symptoms.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Statistics: Worldwide
      • Last updated November 2006
      • A total of 39.5 million people now live with HIV/AIDS
      • 2.2 million of them are under the age of 15
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • In 2006, an estimated 4.3 million people were infected with HIV
      • 530,000 were under the age of 15
      • Every day 12,000 people contract HIV – 500 every hour.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • In 2006, 2.9 million people died from AIDS 380,000 of them were under the age of 15. That's one child dying per minute.
      • 15 million children around the world have been orphaned by AIDS, losing one or both parents to the disease.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • The Regional Picture
      • Africa More than 60% of all people living with HIV, 24.7 million, live in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2006, an estimated 2.8 million people in the region became newly infected. An estimated 2.1 million adults and children died of AIDS.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Eastern Europe and Central Asia The steepest increases in HIV are occurring in this region, where 1.7 million people were living with HIV in 2006. This figure represents a twentyfold increase in HIV infection in less than ten years. AIDS claimed 84,000 lives in Eastern Europe and Central Asia in 2006. Some 270,000 people were newly infected with HIV in the past year, and almost one third of them were people aged 15-24.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Now watch Stephen Fry video for the latest details of AIDS in an MEDC (UK)
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Aids in LEDCs (answer these on paper)
      • 1 – Describe the distribution of AIDS in the image on the next slide.
      • 2 – Now attempt to explain the distribution
      • 3 – What is the distribution between MEDCs and LEDCs
      • 4 - What are the special problems experienced in LEDCs
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • HIV and AIDS retard economic growth by destroying human capital. UNAIDS has predicted outcomes for sub-Saharan Africa to the year 2025. These range from a plateau and eventual decline in deaths beginning around 2012 to a catastrophic continual growth in the death rate with potentially 90 million cases of infection.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • Without proper nutrition, health care and medicine that is available in developed countries, large numbers of people in these countries are falling victim to AIDS. They will not only be unable to work, but will also require significant medical care. The forecast is that this will likely cause a collapse of economies and societies in the region. In some heavily infected areas, the epidemic has left behind many orphans cared for by elderly grandparents.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • The increased mortality in this region will result in a smaller skilled population and labor force.[112] This smaller labor force will be predominantly young people, with reduced knowledge and work experience leading to reduced productivity. An increase in workers’ time off to look after sick family members or for sick leave will also lower productivity. Increased mortality will also weaken the mechanisms that generate human capital and investment in people, through loss of income and the death of parents.
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • By killing off mainly young adults, AIDS seriously weakens the taxable population, reducing the resources available for public expenditures such as education and health services not related to AIDS resulting in increasing pressure for the state's finances and slower growth of the economy. This results in a slower growth of the tax base, an effect that will be reinforced if there are growing expenditures on treating the sick, training (to replace sick workers), sick pay and caring for AIDS orphans. This is especially true if the sharp increase in adult mortality shifts the responsibility and blame from the family to the government in caring for these orphans
    • Aids: A transmittable disease
      • UNAIDS, WHO and the United Nations Development Programme have documented a correlation between the decreasing life expectancies and the lowering of gross national product in many African countries with prevalence rates of 10% or more. Indeed, since 1992 predictions that AIDS would slow economic growth in these countries have been published.