5 Refugees

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5 Refugees

  1. 1. RefugeesRefugees
  2. 2. Specification ContentSpecification Content  Major forms of international migration.Major forms of international migration.  The changing forms of internationalThe changing forms of international migration.migration.  Multi-cultural societies and issues relatedMulti-cultural societies and issues related to them in MEDCs and LEDCs.to them in MEDCs and LEDCs.  Different attitudes to internationalDifferent attitudes to international migration and multi-cultural societies.migration and multi-cultural societies. The relationship between international migration and multi-cultural societies.
  3. 3. What is a Refugee?What is a Refugee? Someone who:Someone who:  Is outside the country theyIs outside the country they usually reside inusually reside in  Cannot return home forCannot return home for fear of persecutionfear of persecution  Has a fear of persecutionHas a fear of persecution for varied social or politicalfor varied social or political reasonsreasons
  4. 4. Refugee StatisticsRefugee Statistics  39 million people39 million people worldwide live asworldwide live as refugees or internallyrefugees or internally displaced peopledisplaced people  50% of refugees are50% of refugees are female, 40% underfemale, 40% under 18, and 6% over 60.18, and 6% over 60. Main Refugee Origin 2004 Origin Begin 2004 End 2004 Annual Change Afghanistan 2,136,000 2,084,900 -2.40% Sudan 606,200 730,600 20.50% Burundi 531,700 485,800 -8.60% Main Refugee Origin 2004 Origin Begin 2004 End 2004 Annual Change Afghanistan 2,136,000 2,084,900 -2.40% Sudan 606,200 730,600 20.50% Burundi 531,700 485,800 -8.60%
  5. 5. Case Study: Afghani RefugeesCase Study: Afghani Refugees Afghanistan is by far the largest country of origin for refugees under UNHCR care, by the end of 2003, 2.1 million refugees were reported by 74 countries constituting 22% of the refugee population. Afghan Refugees To Pakistan – 1 million To Europe between 1989 and 1998 – 99, 350 To Iran – 1.75 million Between 1979 and 1992, over 6 million people were driven from Afghanistan in search of safety. People have been arbitrarily arrested, tortured and raped, have ‘disappeared’ or been murdered for their political affiliation, ethnic identity, gender, or in reprisal attacks by various armed groups fighting for control of terroritory.
  6. 6. Destinations of Afghan RefugeesDestinations of Afghan Refugees Country Life Expectancy at Birth GDP per Capita Infant Mortality Rate Literacy rate Afghanistan 42.27 years $700 165.96/1000 live births 36% Iran 68.31 years $7000 42.86/1000 live births 79% Pakistan 61.39 years $2100 74.43/1000 live births 46% UK 75.84 years $27700 5.22/1000 live births 99% World 62.48 years $8200 50.31/1000 live births 77%
  7. 7. Reasons for LeavingReasons for Leaving AfghanistanAfghanistan  40% of the population live40% of the population live below the UN poverty linebelow the UN poverty line  Political and economicPolitical and economic hardship & repeatedhardship & repeated faminesfamines  High infant mortality rates,High infant mortality rates, poor health care, andpoor health care, and poor nutrition levels.poor nutrition levels.  Employment &Employment & educationeducation opportunitiesopportunities  Food and shelterFood and shelter  Lower crime ratesLower crime rates  Health care and basicHealth care and basic safety can be foundsafety can be found Reasons for Migration
  8. 8. Government AttitudesGovernment Attitudes Afghan Government:Afghan Government:  Labour force neededLabour force needed for reconstructionfor reconstruction  Consumers needed toConsumers needed to recover economyrecover economy Pakistani Government:Pakistani Government:  Refugees increaseRefugees increase the strain on thethe strain on the country’s financescountry’s finances  Many PakistaniMany Pakistani citizens live below thecitizens live below the poverty linepoverty line

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