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3   Economic Migration

3 Economic Migration






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    3   Economic Migration 3 Economic Migration Presentation Transcript

    • Economic Migration
    • Specification
      • The relationship between international migration and multi-cultural societies.
      • Major forms of international migration.
      • Using case studies look at examples of economic, social, refugee and illegal movements.
    • What is economic migration?
      • Economic migration is where people move to other countries to benefit from their greater economic opportunities.
      • Traditionally this is from LEDCs in the developing south to MEDCs in the affluent north.
      • The main areas for economic migration are: Mexico to the USA, north Africa to Europe, and from territories to their former mother country.
    • International Migration
      • This chart shows the number of migrants entering and leaving the 6 continents.
      • Above the line indicates migrants are entering the country which suggests they are moving here for employment, and wealth.
      • Below the line indicates people are moving out of these areas for economic and health reasons.
    • Case Study : Mexico  USA
    • Mexico  USA
      • In 1980’s 3.5 million migrants entered the USA from Mexico of which 700,000 are legal, 2.3 million were legalised and 500,000 were illegal.
      • The huge wealth gap between Mexico and the neighbouring USA promotes this movement.
      • People move to look for casual employment in farming in the southwest.
    • Hopes and Fears
      • Many economic migrants find the reality is very different from their dreams.
      • Some people experience hostility from their new countrymen and feel that they are treated as second class citizens.
      • Many immigrants work in low paid jobs that no one else want to do.
      • Also there is little protection from unscrupulous employers who take advantage of these illegal workers, in the terms and conditions they offer.
      • As a result, many economic immigrants live in appalling conditions and again find themselves in the poverty trap they sought to leave behind.
    • Push Factors
      • The problems of an area that encourage people to leave are known as push factors. Examples include:
      • Natural disasters
      • Lack of employment
      • Low pay, and poor standard of living
      • Poor housing
      • Lack of educational opportunities
      • Shortage of medical facilities and services
      • War and/or persecution
    • Pull Factors
      • The attractions of a area that migrants move to are called pull factors. They include
      • Better employment opportunities
      • Better education chances, including higher education
      • Better medical care
      • Higher wages, and improved standard of living
      • The bright lights, that is entertainments like pubs and clubs
    • Case Study : North Africa  Europe
    • North Africa  Europe
      • Migration has changed in Africa over the last 100 years.
      • Migration has changed from a mainly male based population to a more balanced gender percentage.
      • Migration has become more commercial with less labour seeking migrants and more entrepreneurs.
    • Problems with Migration
      • AIDS pandemic in Africa creates a problem in Europe with migrants passing on the disease.
      • African migrants are adopting more sophisticated, daring, and evasive methods to elude increasingly tight border controls and enter countries in the developed North.
      • Brain drain in Africa as the educated elite are migrating into Europe leaving Africa with fewer professionals.
    • Resolutions in Africa
      • African countries are encouraging regional migration so that certain professionals can be distributed evenly across the countries.
      • The free movement of people in Africa has been introduced to help promote this theory.
      • Providing more jobs to reduce the levels of unemployed persons in Africa and more incentive to stay in their mother country.
      • Confronting leaders to provide economic, social, and political stability within their country.
    • Attitudes to Migration
      • Migrants may not have equal opportunities in obtaining employment, and may be subject to discrimination.
      • The cost for housing, educating, and unemployment causes resentment within tax paying residents.
      • The government policy of constructing ‘safe centres’ causes racial unrest.
      • Attitude to migration depends on economic stability of host country.
      • If in period of recession, migrants are accused of taking jobs.
      • However when in period of economic growth migrants residents do not worry about migrants.
    • Multicultural Societies
      • This is a result of migration of various ethnic groups.
      • In most countries there is at least one minority group which results in prejudice and discrimination towards this group.
      • Skin colour is a visible distinction between people, but they vary in terms of language, religion and culture.
      • Multicultural societies may be a result of an oppression in the migrant’s mother country causing migration to another country.
    • Multicultural Society in South Africa
      • For a long time the white minority in South Africa was in political and economic control.
      • The black population making up 75% had virtually no say in the running of the country.
      • In 1946 the policy of apartheid was introduced.
      • This meant that mixed race were now considered “coloureds”.
      • Indians were second class and blacks had no rights outside their homeland.
      • Nelson Mandela was released from prison in 1994 and more ethnic stability followed.
      • However there are still many black people living in poverty and high unemployment.