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Mosley7e ch06

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    • 1. Part 3 Leading Chapter 6 Communication Mosley • Pietri PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2008 Thomson/South-Western All rights reserved.
    • 2. Learning Objectives Learning Objectives After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the five components of the communication process model. 2. Explain the forms of electronic communication technology. 3. Explain the different ways in which nonverbal communications influence supervisory communication. 4. Identify the three basic flows of formal communication in an organization. 5. Explain the managerial communication style matrix. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–2
    • 3. Learning Objectives (cont’d) Learning Objectives (cont’d) After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: 6. Identify and explain how organizational, interpersonal, and language barriers affect supervisory communication. 7. Identify five specific actions supervisors can take to improve their communications. 8. Show how a supervisor can use feedback to improve communication. 9. Define and illustrate active listening skills. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–3
    • 4. What Is Communication? • Elements of the Communication Process Model 1. Message encoding 2. The channel 3. Message decoding 4. Feedback 5. Noise © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–4
    • 5. EXHIBIT 6.1 Communication Process Model © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–5
    • 6. The Communication Process Model • The Sender Encodes the Message  Encoding—the process by which a sender converts ideas into symbols, such as words or gestures that are capable of communicating.  Sender—originates and sends a message.  Message—words and/or nonverbal expressions that transmit meaning.  Channel—the means used to pass a message. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–6
    • 7. The Communication Process Model (cont’d) • The Receiver Decodes the Message  Decoding—the process by which the receiver converts into an idea(s) the communication symbols encoded by the sender.  Receivers give meaning to a message based on such factors as:  Their interpretation of words  Their familiarity with the subject matter  Their perception of the sender’s intent  Their ability to listen  The meaning they attribute to the sender’s nonverbals. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–7
    • 8. The Communication Process Model (cont’d) • Feedback  Is the message sent in response to someone else’s communication.  Requires the use of an appropriate communication channel to achieve the communication goal of the sender. • Noise  Consists of the potential barriers to effective communication in each phase of the communication process model.  Example: poor choice of words © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–8
    • 9. EXHIBIT 6.2 Communication Feedback © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–9
    • 10. Electronic Communication Technology • E-mail • Cellular Telephones • Digital Pagers • Voice mail • Teleconferences • Videoconferences • Instant Messaging • Text Messaging © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–10
    • 11. Types of Nonverbal Signals • Voice Signals  Signals sent by placing emphasis on certain words, pauses, or the tone of voice used. • Body Signals  Nonverbal signals communicated by body action. • Facial Signals  Nonverbal messages sent by facial expression. • Touching Signals  Shaking hands, sympathetic pat on the back, or touching someone to gain attention. 2008 Thomson/South- © Western. All rights reserved. 6–11
    • 12. EXHIBIT 6.3 Nonverbal Communication © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–12
    • 13. Types of Nonverbal Signals • Object Signals  Nonverbal messages sent by physical objects. • Space Signals  Nonverbal messages sent based on physical distance from one another. • Time Signals  Nonverbal messages sent by time actions. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–13
    • 14. EXHIBIT 6.4 Flow of Formal Communication in an Organization © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–14
    • 15. Flows of Communication • The Vertical Flows  Downward communication  Flows that originate with supervisors and are passed down to employees.  Upward communication  Flows that come from lower to upper organizational levels. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–15
    • 16. EXHIBIT 6.6 Upward Communication from Employees to Management © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–16
    • 17. EXHIBIT 6.5 Communications You Like to Receive from Your Supervisor Role clarifications. What’s expected of you, how much authority and responsibility you have, and your job assignments. Praise and recognition. A supervisor’s commendations on a job well done, compliments about you in the presence of third parties, and expressions of appreciation. Constructive criticism and feedback. Tactful criticism that demonstrates interest and implies a personal and professional concern on the part of the supervisor. Demonstration of interest. Communications reflecting interest in your professional growth and development, efforts to work with you to do a better job, and giving you undivided attention during conversation (as opposed to lack of eye contact or partial attention). Requests for information or assistance. Asking your opinion and advice, and consulting with you about relevant matters on the job. Information that a. Makes you feel important because you’re “in the know” b. Pertains to your department’s progress, to other work team members, to plans for the department, and to contemplated changes c. Pertains to aspects of the overall organization, such as sales, forecasts, objectives, outlook for the future, and general internal changes of which the supervisor is aware d. Pertains to promotions, merit increases, desirable job assignments, and favors that can be granted by the supervisor © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–17
    • 18. EXHIBIT 6.7 The Managerial Communication Matrix © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–18
    • 19. Flows of Communication (cont’d) • Lateral–Diagonal Flows  Are flows between individuals in the same department or different departments.  Have grown more important as organizations have become specialized and due to the increased use of teams. • Informal Communication  Is interpersonal communication separate from the formal, established communication system.  The Grapevine—also called the rumor mill, is a major source of information about their company for employees. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–19
    • 20. Purposes Served by Informal Communication 1. Providing a source of information not ordinarily available. 2. Reducing the effects of monotony. 3. Satisfying personal needs for relationships and status. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–20
    • 21. Organizational Barriers to Effective Supervisory Communication Layers of Hierarchy Layers of Hierarchy Authority and Status Authority and Status Supervisory Supervisory Communication Communication Specialization and Its Specialization and Its Related Jargon Related Jargon © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–21
    • 22. EXHIBIT 6.8 Interpersonal Barriers to Effective Supervisory Communication © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–22 Source: Business Communication Today, 4/e by Bovee/Thill, (c) 1998. Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
    • 23. EXHIBIT 6.9 Multiple Interpretations of Words FIX the machine to its foundation. (anchor) FIX that nitpicking cost accountant. (give just due) FIX the cash register. (repair) FIXING to go to the storeroom. (getting ready to) FIX our position regarding overtime policy. (establish) FIX you up with that young engineer. (arrange a date) A banquet with all the FIXIN’S. (special effects, side dishes) FIX things up with the salespeople. (make amends, patch up a quarrel) If we don’t make quota, we’re in a FIX. (a pickle, a bad position) FIX the date outcome. (so that it’s favorable, rig it) FIX your hair before seeing the boss. (arrange, make orderly) FIX the department meal on Friday. (cook, prepare) FIX the Thomson/South© 2008 company’s mascot dog. (neuter) Western. All rights reserved. 6–23
    • 24. Linguistic Style Differences • Differences in linguistic styles exist among different cultures involving:  Degree of formality  Number and length of pauses  Physical distance  Eye contact © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–24
    • 25. EXHIBIT 6.10 Linguistic Styles of Men and Women A number of popular books about the different linguistic styles of men and women have been written in recent years. Among them are Deborah Tannen’s You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation and John Grey’s Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus. Some of their ideas, greatly simplified, are shown here. Women Men Object of talk Establish rapport, make connections, negotiate inclusive relationships Preserve independence, maintain status, exhibit skill and knowledge Listening behavior Attentive, steady eye contact; remain stationary; nod head Less attentive, sporadic eye contact; move around Pauses Frequent pauses, giving chance for others to take turns Infrequent pauses; interrupt each other to take turns Small talk Personal disclosure Impersonal topics Focus Details first, pulled together at end Big picture Gestures Small, confined Expansive Method Questions; apologies; “we” statements; hesitant, indirect, soft speech Assertions; “I” statements; clear, loud, take-charge speech © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. Source: Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication, 4th ed. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com. 6–25
    • 26. Improving Supervisory Communications • Set the Proper Communication Climate  Establish mutual trust between the supervisor and employees  Minimize status barriers • Plan for Effective Communication  Anticipate situations  Select the proper channel  Consider the receiver’s frame of reference  Reinforce key ideas through repetition  Encourage the use of feedback © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–26
    • 27. EXHIBIT 6.11 Desk–Chair Arrangements That Affect Formality © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–27
    • 28. Selecting the Proper Channel • Information Richness  Is the sheer amount of information that a communication channel carries.  Face-to-face communication is high in information richness and enables non-verbal messages and offers spontaneous feedback.  Small-group meetings and telephone messages are less rich in information.  A voice-mail message has low information richness because it lacks opportunity for immediate feedback.  Other low information richness channels include e-mails, memos, and letters. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–28
    • 29. Considering the Receiver’s Frame of Reference • How is this person like me? • How is this person different from me? • How is this person similar to other employees? • How is this person different from other employees? • How will this person react if I say such and such? © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–29
    • 30. EXHIBIT 6.12 Tips about Feedback • Generally, feedback is better where there is a trusting relationship between people. • Some people give feedback readily, but others need some encouragement. • Complimenting people for providing feedback reinforces their willingness to continue providing feedback. • When you are giving instructions, it is a good habit to ask the listener if he or she has any questions. • When you have potentially negative feedback to give, it is helpful to be tactful so that the message will be received with less defensiveness than if you bluntly blurt out the negative information. • Nonverbal signals and body language offer a wide variety of feedback. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–30
    • 31. Active Listening Techniques • Active Listening  Places the supervisor in a receiver’s role and encourages feedback from others. • Reflective Statement  A form of active listening in which you repeat what you think the speaker has just told you. • Probe  A specific question that directs attention to a particular aspect of the speaker’s message. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–31
    • 32. EXHIBIT 6.14 Tips for Better Listening • Try to avoid doing most of the talking yourself. Give the other person an opportunity to speak. • Avoid distractions. Close your office door or move to a quieter area. • Act interested in what the other person says. Don’t doodle, write, or work on something else. Give the employee your full attention. • Ask questions. As long as the questions aren’t considered nosy or brash, this will help keep you interested and encourage the employee to give more details. • Summarize what you think someone has said. “What you’re saying is. . . . ” This will reinforce what you have heard and enable the other person to correct any misunderstanding on your part. • Be empathetic. Try to put yourself in the speaker’s shoes. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–32
    • 33. EXHIBIT 6.14 Tips for Better Listening (cont’d) • Don’t lose your temper or show signs of being upset by what the speaker is saying. Listen with an open mind. • Don’t interrupt. Let the person finish speaking before you respond. • Use active listening techniques—reflective statements and probes —to ensure your understanding of key points, to help the speaker talk, or to steer the conversation in certain directions. • After an important conversation or meeting, jot down notes to yourself about the main points discussed. © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. 6–33
    • 34. Important Terms Important Terms • • • • • • • • • • • • active listening body signals channel communication process model downward communication e-mail facial signals feedback grapevine informal communication information richness lateral–diagonal communication © 2008 Thomson/SouthWestern. All rights reserved. • • • • • • • • • • • • • message object signals perception probe receiver reflective statement sender space signals stereotyping time signals touching signals upward communication voice signals 6–34

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