Research problem for the 6th grade Reading classes
Talk about information and the different aspects of information
Criteria Checklist Activity page 90-91 blue book. Table groups. Give groups 5 min. to brainstorm possible types of sources (at least 5) that could be used for the assignment. Group picks 2 that would best fulfill assignment. Students write name of each source on a card and write “why” that source is the best. Make list as groups report back.
Are the criteria relevant for every assignment and every student?
Sources we will be using
Indexes used every day
Graphic organizer - circle with web lines on notebook paper. Have students brainstorm keywords for our information problem.
In Media, can be demonstrated on G-4.
Internet slide show
Web Page Validity. Web Page Homework worksheet
Use trash n treasure note-taking technique paper to go step by step through article.
Synthesis activity - groups of five - give each group manila envelope with 15 pix each. Have to organize in some way so that it makes sense to them, give them a title, and explain to rest of class how they organized the pictures.
Word processing, desktop publishing, graphic programs, audio/video editing, PowerPoint and presentation software, spreadsheets, and databases SYNTHESIS ACTIVITY?
Assessment summary: one page; what worked and what didn’t, what would you do differently, If you could change one thing, what would it be? END PRODUCT? SELF-EVALUATION PROFILES?
The Big6 Process: The “Key” to Information and Technology Skills
<ul><li>Task Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Information Seeking Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Location and Access </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
There are two parts to each Big6 Skill. These parts help you to understand the meaning of each skill.
• This process does not require all students to do things in exactly the same way. • Everyone has differences in personal style. • There are many paths to the same end.
#1 Task Definition • Define the problem What is the problem to be solved? Determine what is required for the assignment. Select and broaden or narrow the topic. Form questions based on topics and subtopics.
Information Problem: What were the following events: •Montgomery Bus Boycott •Plessy vs Ferguson •Brown vs Board of Education •March on Washington •Arkansas Nine Why were they important to the Civil Rights Movement? Big6 # 1 Task Definition Determine a purpose and need for information
Big 6 #1 Task Definition What am I supposed to find out? I am supposed to find out the WHO? WHAT? WHERE? WHEN? and HOW? of the events and discover why they were important to the Civil Rights Movement. I also need to know what the Civil Rights Movement is.
#1 Task Definition • Identify the information requirements of problem What information is needed in order to solve the problem or make the decision? Pick out keywords in the question or assignment . Recognize information is needed from at least three sources.
What information do I need in order to do this? (Consider listing in question form the information you feel you need to know at this time) EXAMPLE:
#1 Task Definition Determine statements or keywords that require evidence for support. Recognize need to gather information from people through interviews, surveys or questionnaires.
<ul><li>IDENTIFY INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>Types of information - facts, opinions, primary,secondary </li></ul><ul><li>• Amount of information - single source, a few, comprehensive </li></ul><ul><li>• Format of information - text, graphics, audio, video </li></ul>
#2 Information Seeking Strategies • Determine the range of possible sources What are all possible sources of information? Brainstorm what sources can and should be used to find out the correct information. Think “far out!”
#2 Information Seeking Strategies • Select the best sources What are the criteria for determining a relevant source? ?????????
• Accuracy • Completeness • Reliability (authoritative) • Preciseness • Validity (on target) • Availability • Currency • Ease of use • Cost • Entertainment (is fun)
Which criteria is most important? It depends on the assignment and the student.
<ul><li>PRINT : </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia •Almanac </li></ul><ul><li>Reference books </li></ul>NON-PRINT: • Student Resource Center • SIRS Knowledge Source • World Book Online Encyclopedia • web sites
#3 Location & Access • Locate sources * To save time and effort, find the Index, the file that organizes the content of a source alphabetically for easy searching and location. Everyday indexes: (examples) • telephone/phone book • stores in mall/mall directory • television shows/TV guide or newspaper • food in store/overhead aisle index
#3 Location & Access • Locate sources • Find information within sources *Keywords/synonyms Consider alternative descriptive words that represent the topic Use graphic organizers (charts and mind maps) to help brainstorm keywords
#3 Location & Access *Boolean searching in Electronic databases In electronic indexes, search results can be expanded or narrowed by linking terms with a Boolean term such as “or,” “but not,” or “and.”
Internet Search Tips “ Keys” to Effective Internet Searching
Internet Search Tips: Task Definition * Clearly define your information need * What do you need/want to know? * How much information do you need/want? Hint: Use general library resources, such as encyclopedias, other reference and non-fiction books, before you begin using the Internet.
Internet Search Tips Information Seeking Strategies *Does your topic…Have distinctive words or phrases? *If your topic does have distinctive words or phrases, then enclose the word(s) or phrase(s) in “quotes”. *Example: “coronary heart disease”
Internet Search Tips Location & Access *Carefully select your search terms. *Use synonyms, alternates, broader and/or narrower search terms to expand or narrow your search if necessary.
Internet Search Tips Location & Access *If your topic has no distinctive words or phrases, then your search requires more than one term with AND or +. *Example: health and wellness
Internet Search Tips Location & Access *Use advanced search techniques such as truncation & Boolean logic *Truncation is used to expand results *A common truncation symbol is “*” (asterisk)
Internet Search Tips Location & Access *Use the truncation search technique. Truncation: * (asterisk) *For example, a search on the word: child* would also search for: childish, children, children’s
Internet Search Tips Location & Access * Use the Boolean logic search technique. Boolean logic enables a searcher to define sets and search on sets using Boolean operators. *The principal Boolean operators are: AND (intersection) OR (union) NOT (difference)
Internet Search Tips: Location & Access Information Use *When searching the Internet you may need to vary your approach. *Carefully and accurately record your findings. *Carefully organize your bookmarks within meaningful headings.
Internet Search Tips: Information Seeking Strategy *Don’t bog down in any search strategy that doesn’t work. *Get help whenever you need it.
Determining Web Page Validity Internet searches might yield hundreds of relevant Web pages, but not all of them will be valid or useful. Understanding the URL (uniform locator or Web address) is an important first step. • Look at the domain to the right of the dot or period.
The last 3 letters indicate the general purpose of the host group. Here are the most common domains and their meanings: edu = schools, colleges, universities; gov = Government agencies; org = Organizations (non-profit); mil = Military; com = commercial business; net = Network organizations
EXAMPLE: News about NASA on a site with a domain name ending in “com” - question validity. WHY? What if the address is www.nasa.gov ? - means Web site is hosted by NASA - info should be reliable. Because a Web site has the .edu doesn’t guarantee validity either. A long URL could be a student’s page.
Internet Search Tools • Evaluate your search tools. • Evaluate your result lists. • Evaluate the author’s credentials. • Evaluate the sites you plan to use. (http:// mciu .org/~ spjvweb / evalwebstu .html
#4 Use of Information • Engage (read, hear, view) the information in a source Look for “relevant” information, or information that is “on the topic,” based on your task definition. Relevance can be based on recency, depth/scope, accuracy, clarity and novelty.
#4 Use of Information • Extract relevant information This is where the “rubber meets the road!” Information that you consider to be relevant should be highlighted or marked in some way.
<ul><li>Highlighting </li></ul><ul><li>1. Highlight or underline the main-idea sentences or phrases, thesis statement, supporting evidence and key words. Skim and scan for only relevant information. </li></ul><ul><li>Circle large portions of important text, diagrams or charts that contain main concepts explanations, or examples. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Design a coding system of stars, Xs, exclamation points that can be written in the margins to label main ideas or important vocabulary words. </li></ul>
Notetaking <ul><li>Three steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify keywords and related words in the question. </li></ul><ul><li>Skim and scan for relevant information. Read the first and last paragraph of sections for summaries of the content and the first and last sentences of paragraphs to get an impression of the topic. Move your eyes quickly over the reading material looking for one specific point. </li></ul><ul><li>Extract or pull out needed information. Toss aside trash words, unnecessary sentences and phrases. </li></ul>
#5 Synthesis Synthesis is the result, the output part of the information process. It can be writing a research paper, but it can also be: • answering multiple choice questions on a test • writing a poem or short story • making a decision on where to go for dinner •
• Organize information from multiple sources - By category - As a continuum (small/large) - Alphabetically - By time - As a story (beginning to end) - Or any combination of the above #5 Synthesis
#5 Synthesis • Present the result “ What the result should look like” should be part of Task Definition and “What the original purpose” was should be part of Synthesis. How does technology play a role in synthesis?
#6 Evaluation • Judge the result (effectiveness) • Judge the process (efficiency) -Determine strengths and weaknesses of your solutions -Justify your decisions -Become self-directed and self- motivated to produce quality work -Boost confidence and pride
• Effectiveness - judging how well one did in meeting the goals of the information problem-solving process -Compare requirements to results -Check appropriateness and accuracy of information -Judge how well solution is organized -Rate quality of final product compared to potential -Judge quality of product to predefined standard
• Efficiency - saving time and effort in the process, doing as well as possible with as little time and effort as possible -Recognize how you learn, process information and solve problems -Keep log of problem-solving activities -Reflect on sequence of events and judge effort and time involved -Review frustrations and barriers encountered -Rate abilities to perform activities
Evaluation and Task Definition How well did you: Understand the assignment? Focus your assignment topic?
Evaluation and Information Seeking Strategies How well did you choose the best resources to help you with your assignment?
Evaluation and Location and Access How well did you find the resources you were looking for? On the Internet, which search engines and search terms worked best? How well did you find the information you were looking for within the sources?
Evaluation and Use of Information Which strategies worked best for using the information found on the Web- downloading, printing, note taking, etc? Did you cite sources accurately?
Evaluation and Synthesis Did your final project meet the requirements of the assignment? Did it come out the way you wanted it to?
General: Did you encounter any problems during this activity? Explain. How would you improve next time?