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  • 1. Hipersensitif tipe I
  • 2. POLLEN
  • 3. NORMAL
  • 4.  
  • 5. HIPERSENSITIF TIPE II
  • 6.  
  • 7. HIPERSENSITIFITAS TIPE IV
  • 8. Immune deficiency state
    • Infection : CD4> 500 x 10 6
    • Latent period : CD4  200 - 500 x 10 6
    • AIDS : CD4 < 200 x 10 6
    • Common AIDS-associated disease and site
    • *Brain: tumours (limphomas), inflammation (encephalitis), dimentia
    • *Mouth: trachea,oesophagus (candidiasis)
    • *Lung:pneumocytis carinii infection, fungal infection, TBC
    • *Intestine: protozoal, salmonella infection
    • *Skin: Kaposi’s sarcoma, fungal infection,herpes zoster
  • 9. AIDS MECHANISM
  • 10.  
  • 11. AUTOIMMUNE
    • Autoimmune diseases result from, or are associated with an immune response againts the individual’s own cell, or in some cases cell product. Although both humoral dan cell mediated immunity are involved, it is thought that change in the latter of primary importantce
    • Etiology:
    • The etiology of autoimmune diseases is not established, but clues to their genesis are available
  • 12.  
  • 13.
    • Figure 1.   Requirements for the development of an autoimmune disease. The immune response of a genetically predisposed individual to an environmental pathogen, in association with defects in immunoregulatory mechanisms, can lead to the development of an autoimmune disease. The importance of the single components represented in this Venn diagram may vary between individuals and diseases. However, the appearance of an autoimmune disease requires the convergence of all three components. T, T cell; B, B cell; DC, dendritic cell. Bob Crimi
  • 14. The reason for the breakdown of tolerance involve
    • Antigenic abnormality
    • Cell surface antigen modified by drug
    • or chemicals
    • Cell antigen modified by proteolysis associated with disease processes, particularly inflammation, when “new”antigen are formed
    • Microbial cross-reacting antigen
    • 2. Immune dysregulation
    • Abnormal pesence/
    • activity of auto-reaktive T cells
    • +/- failure of regulatory cells
  • 15. CD4 cell activity increase Cytotoxic T Cells promed B cell activity Auto-antibodies Cytokines (delayed hyper- sensitivity re- action) Ag/Ab+complement CELL DESTRUCTION
  • 16. ORGAN SPESIFIK Antibody or cell mediated reaction to Target organ Associated disease Thyroid cells and hormone or TSH receptor Thytroid Primary myxoedema,Hashimoto’s disease (autoimmune thyroiditis), Thyrotoxikosis (Graves’ disease) Parietal cells intrinsic factor/intrinsic factor B12 complex Stomach Pernicious anemia
  • 17. SAMBUNGAN Red blood cells Red blood cells Haemolytic anemia Pancreatic islet beta cells Pancreas Type I diabetes Adrenal cortical cell, ACTH receptor Adrenal Addison’s disease Parathyroid cells Parathyroid Prymary hypoparathyroidism Acetylcholline receptor Voluntary muscle Myasthemia gravis
  • 18. NON-ORGAN SPECIFIC Antibody to Target organ Associated Disease Mitochondria Liver Primary biliary cirrosis Smooth muscle Nuclear constituents IgG Many other body protein Liver Autoimmune chronic hepatis Skin and muscle The connective tissue disease, Dermatomyositis, Rhematoid arthritis, Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Progressive systemic sclerosis Skin, kidney,endocardium, blood vessels, joints
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22. HASHIMOTO DISEASE
  • 23. APPLIED IMMUNOLOGY I .Immunohistochemical Identification
  • 24.  
  • 25. Immunohistochemical
  • 26. Immunohistochemical
  • 27. Immunoflorescent
  • 28. TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION Antigen presenting Cell in graft Present “foreign” HLA antigen Cell mediated immunity Cytokines Rejevtion Host T cell Spesific T cell immune Respons to HLA antigen Cytotoxic T cells Attack graff cell (particularly vascular endothelium