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Civil Rights—Race
 

Civil Rights—Race

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    Civil Rights—Race Civil Rights—Race Presentation Transcript

    • Civil Rights & Race Barbour and Wright Chapter 5
    • Civil Rights & Equality
      • Protection of persons in historically disadvantaged groups from discrimination
      • Positive action by government to guarantee every person is treated as an equal member of society
        • Different from civil liberties which guarantee personal freedoms
      • In American political culture, equality is procedural, not substantive
        • Rely on government to guarantee fair treatment and equal opportunity, not manipulate equal outcomes
    • Civil Rights & Race
      • Supreme Court classifies race as “suspect”
        • Any laws treating people differently due to their race are under strict scrutiny
        • Must be compelling state interest (pg.134)
      • Generally associated with, but not limited to African Americans
        • Overcoming things like: slavery, segregation, discrimination in voting, housing and employment
    • Race at the Founding
      • By 1787, slavery had existed for 170 years in North America
      • Founders purposely avoided the issue of slavery in the Constitution
      • Each state was allowed to determine if slavery was allowed
    • Missouri Compromise
      • As population moved westward, political disagreements over slavery increased
        • 1820: Missouri wanted to join Union as a slave state
        • Northerners objected
        • Slave states would have had majority in Senate
        • Compromise: Maine would be free state, Missouri would be slave state
        • North/South slavery distinction
    • Dred Scott (1857)
      • Slave taken free territory; sued for freedom
      • Court: African Americans were inferior
        • Unfit to associate with whites
        • socially or politically
        • No rights to bring lawsuits
        • Congress could not ban slavery
        • in West—violation of rights to
        • own property
        • Invalidated Missouri Compromise
        • Set stage for Civil War
    • Civil War & Reconstruction
      • Emancipation Proclamation (1862)
        • Freed slaves living in states in rebellion
      • 13th Amendment
        • Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude
      • 14th Amendment
        • Equal protection; due process to protect life, liberty and property
      • 15th Amendment
        • Right to vote
      • Reconstruction ended when Republicans withdrew troops from Democratic South in return for Rutherford Hayes as President (1876)
    • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
      • Homer Plessy sat in white section of train
        • Black under law (1/8 black)
      • Arrested, convicted, appealed
      • Court: enforced separation not unconstitutional
      • Facilities must be equal, but states could require them to be separate
    • Segregation
      • Represented the legitimization of racism
      • Reinforced idea that whites were superior to blacks in all important ways, including intelligence, morality, and civilized behavior
    • Jim Crow Culture
      • Blacks and whites could not eat together
      • Blacks had to ride in the back seat/truck bed
      • Blacks could never accuse whites of lying
      • Separate hospitals, prisons, schools, cemeteries, hotels, restrooms, transportation
      • Violence against African Americans
    • Disenfranchisement
      • Jim Crow laws made it essentially impossible for blacks to vote, despite the 15th Amendment
        • Vote was not denied on the basis of race, but blacks were targeted in other ways
          • Poll taxes
          • Literacy tests
          • Grandfather clauses
    • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
      • Plaintiffs in several states challenged the local school districts’ separate but equal policies
        • Separation makes the schools inherently unequal
        • Keeping children separate makes them feel inferior
        • American education system is basic to opportunities and citizenship
      • Court agrees, overturns Plessy decision
      • Southern resistance leads to the need for federal troops to desegregate schools
    • Civil Rights Mobilization
      • Opponents to segregation used nonviolent protests to draw attention to their cause
      • Peaceful resistance to laws perceived to be unjust
        • Boycotts
        • Sit-ins at restaurants
        • Freedom rides
      • Brought about social and political change
    • Civil Rights Legislation
      • Kennedy initiated legislation; Johnson continued pursuing after assassination
      • 1964 Civil Rights Act
        • Prohibits racial discrimination at public accommodations, and places of employment
      • 1965 Voting Rights Act
        • Outlawed literacy tests
        • Allowed federal officials to go into states to register voters
    • Discrimination
      • Civil rights legislation helped to address
      • de jure discrimination
        • Discrimination written into law
        • Result was public integration
      • De facto discrimination is much more difficult to rectify
        • Discrimination in reality—part of society
        • Results from past discrimination, tradition, custom, economic status and residential patterns
    • Affirmative Action
      • Creates an obligation to integrate, not simply an absence of discrimination
        • Employment
        • College and university acceptance
        • Racial quotas vs. interest in diversity
      • Is it fair?
      • Is it equality?
      • Is it democratic in process? Substance?
    • Native Americans
      • Congress has veered between forcing assimilation and encouraging independence
        • “ The combination…stripping them of their native lands and cultural identity, and reducing their federal funding to encourage more independence has resulted in tremendous social and economic dislocation in the Indian communities.”
        • Poverty, alcoholism, abuse, lower levels of education
    • Hispanic Americans
      • U.S.’s largest minority group (13%)
      • Diverse countries of origin, custom and levels of political involvement
      • Backlash against illegal immigration has created barriers for
      • Hispanic American
      • citizens
      • Sought-after voter
      • group
    • Asian Americans
      • Highly diverse group in origin, language and culture
      • Faced discrimination as railroad and mine laborers
      • Height of discrimination was Supreme Court-endorsed internment of Japanese Americans during WWII.
      • Despite higher incomes and levels of education, Asian Americans tend to vote less than other minority groups