Production Concepts

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Production Concepts

  1. 1. Production Concepts Ideas for Today and Tomorrow Keynes Austin
  2. 2. OBJECTIVE…. <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Throughput </li></ul><ul><li>How to calculate throughput? </li></ul><ul><li>Resource planning </li></ul><ul><li>Line Balancing </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a process? INPUT OUTPUT ACTIVITY
  4. 4. Example
  5. 5. Different Manufacturing Processes <ul><li>Car Manufacturing Process </li></ul>Transaction Process ASSEMBLY PAINTING INSPECTION DOWNLOAD KEYING CONVERTER SHIPMENT
  6. 6. What is Production? <ul><li>Production is measured in numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>1000 pens are produced </li></ul><ul><li>100 cars are produced </li></ul><ul><li>300 books produced </li></ul><ul><li>200 forms produced </li></ul>Production is the number of products (output) delivered from a process.
  7. 7. Efficiency <ul><li>Efficiency is a performance measure of a production process. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be defined as the ratio of output and input. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1 </li></ul><ul><li>- Output: 10kms </li></ul><ul><li>- Input: 1 litre of diesel </li></ul><ul><li>- Efficiency = 10kms per litre (referred to as mileage) </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2 </li></ul><ul><li>- Output: 990grams of wheat flour </li></ul><ul><li>- Input: 1000 grams of wheat in the flour </li></ul><ul><li>- Efficiency = 99% </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is Productivity? <ul><li>The Efficiency measure, when expressed as a ratio of output and time is called productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Productivity is the output delivered within a specified time frame using specified resources.” </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>10 pens produced with 1 manpower </li></ul><ul><li>18 pens produced with 2 manpower </li></ul><ul><li>In the above example, clearly 1 is better. </li></ul><ul><li>33 pens produced with 3 manpower and 9 defects. </li></ul><ul><li>Now Which one is best among these three examples cited above? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Units of Productivity Measurement <ul><li>Pens per hour </li></ul><ul><li>Cars per day </li></ul><ul><li>Kilo characters per hour </li></ul><ul><li>Forms per hour </li></ul><ul><li>Books per man shift </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is Throughput? <ul><li>Throughput is the net output delivered after performing various (sub) process steps involved in the production process. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sample Throughput Computation
  12. 12. Deriving Formula for Throughput <ul><li>Throughput = {1/(1/x1+1/x2+1/x3)} </li></ul><ul><li>Where x1, x2, x3 </li></ul><ul><li>are the productivity at each process step. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Resource Planning <ul><li>Inputs for Resource Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Time (no: of working days) </li></ul><ul><li>Throughput </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>How many manpower is required to do 10,000 pens in 25 days, if throughput is 21pens/hour? </li></ul><ul><li>Output per day per person = 21*7 = 147 </li></ul><ul><li>Manpower required for 10,000 pens = 10,000/(147*25) = 2.72 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Factors Affecting Productivity <ul><li>Process Related Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction Interpretation effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>System & Software configuration (like application, hardware etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>People & Environment Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics like ambience, lighting, operator’s relative position to machine, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation level of the employee. </li></ul><ul><li>Other external factors having psychological impact on the operators. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Line Balancing <ul><li>Line Balancing is used to schedule and control upstream processing steps in a production system </li></ul><ul><li>- To clear any bottle neck </li></ul><ul><li>- To reduce any idle time in the system thereby increasing the overall efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>See Illustration below: </li></ul><ul><li>There are three process in the production system and the production required is 200 for the day. What would be the total manpower required and how many in each process? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Excercises <ul><li>1. Forms processing line produces 1000 forms in 8 hours. What is the production and Productivity? </li></ul><ul><li>2. The following are the productivity numbers of forms processing line </li></ul><ul><li>Downloading = 100 forms/hour </li></ul><ul><li>Keying = 20 forms/hour </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection = 25 forms/hour </li></ul><ul><li>a) Compute the throughput? </li></ul><ul><li>b) What is the manpower that is required if we need to deliver 14000 forms per month (20 working days)? </li></ul>
  17. 17. ?
  18. 18. Many Thanks

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