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  • 2. The Internet
    A network of computer networks
    To view the internet or allow user to communicate through it, one must have the necessaryTCP/IPand a web browser.
  • 3. TCP
    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
    provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer.
  • 4. TCP/IP
    TCP is the protocol that major Internet applications rely on, applications such as the World Wide Web, e-mail, and file transfer. TCP provides a point-to-point channel for applications that require reliable communications. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Telnet are all examples of applications that require a reliable communication channel.
  • 5. TCP
    TCP is optimized for accurate delivery rather than timely delivery, and therefore, TCP sometimes incurs relatively long delays (in the order of seconds) while waiting for out-of-order messages or retransmissions of lost messages.
  • 6. TCP
    TCP is a reliable stream delivery service that guarantees delivery of a data stream sent from one host to another without duplication or losing data
  • 7. TCP
    Other applications, which do not require reliable data stream service, may use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) which provides a datagram service that emphasizes reduced latency over reliability.
    Example: Internet Radio Stream, Podcast, Youtube video streaming, CtC
  • 8. IP
    The Internet Protocol (IP) is Responsible for routing packets across network boundaries, it is the primary protocol that establishes the Internet.
    deliver datagrams from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses. For this purpose, IP defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation.
  • 9. TCP/IP (summary)
    TCP consists of a set of rules: for the protocol, that are used with the Internet Protocol, and for the IP, to send data "in a form of message units" between computers over the Internet. At the same time that IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, TCP takes care of keeping track of the individual units of data transmission, called segments, that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the network.
  • 10. TCP provides a communication service at an intermediate level between an application program and the Internet Protocol. That is, when an application program desires to send a large chunk of data across the Internet using IP, instead of breaking the data into IP-sized pieces and issuing a series of IP requests, the software can issue a single request to TCP and let TCP handle the IP details.
    IP works by exchanging pieces of information called packets. A packet is a sequence of octets and consists of a header followed by a body. The header describes the packet's destination and, optionally, the routers to use for forwarding until it arrives at its destination. The body contains the data IP is transmitting.
    Due to network congestion, traffic load balancing, or other unpredictable network behavior, IP packets can be lost, duplicated, or delivered out of order. TCP detects these problems, requests retransmission of lost data, rearranges out-of-order data, and even helps minimize network congestion to reduce the occurrence of the other problems. Once the TCP receiver has reassembled the sequence of octets originally transmitted, it passes them to the application program. Thus, TCP abstracts the application's communication from the underlying networking details.
  • 11. OSI (Open System Interconnection) Model
    The most popular packet-based structure of layers, or protocol stack
    It defines 7 layers.  The user interface (Application Layer) is the top layer, since users work directly with applications.  As you work your way down toward the lower layers, the protocols become more detailed toward the nuts and bolts of the operation.  They define the details of actually preparing and moving data.
  • 12. OSI (Open System Interconnection) Model
  • 13. OSI (Open System Interconnection) Model (Vertical/Horizontal Communication)
  • 14. (Encapsulation/Decapsulation)
    Moving from the top, down - messages get larger and larger ! !   A message is passed down, and the lower layer adds a header to it.  This is called encapsulation, because it is like placing an object into a capsule.  The header is sometimes called a wrapper.  Each successive lower layer encapsulates what it receives from the layer above it. 
    Moving from the bottom, up - messages get smaller and smaller ! !  A message is first stripped of it's header, and then the inner contents (the "data" portion) is passed up.  This is "decapsulation" but no one uses that term.  Each successive upper layer receives the data message from the layer below, and then strips off it's own header and passes the data up.
  • 17. The 7 layers
    Although there are seven layers in the OSI model, they can be grouped into three areas:
    High-level Protocols (layers 5, 6 and 7  -  Session, Presentation, and Application) - how the data is presented, displayed, and summarized for the user  -  and in the reverse direction, how the user prepared data is assembled into meaningful data structures (high-level protocols).  
  • 18. The 7 layers
    Medium-level Protocols (Layers 3 and 4 - Network and Transport) - how the data is assembled into packets and frames and how error checking and flow control is implemented - and in the reverse direction, how the received packets and frames are assembled into structures such as files and databases (medium-level protocols)
  • 19. The 7 layers
    Low-level Protocols (Layers 1 and 2 - Physical and DataLink) - how the data is converted into electrical pulses of one's and zero's (bits) and sent across cables or the physical medium, and in the reverse direction, how the electrical pulses are taken off the cable and converted to ones and zero's.  
    Messages and Packets - catch-all terms used to describe any unit of data being passed between layers
    Data - Layer 5, 6, and 7 - not sure why they did not differentiate between these type of data units and call them each by a different name  .  .  .  but a good guess is that since data units at these layers are rarely discussed, apparently it was OK to called them all by the same name - simply "Data"
    Segment - Layer 4: data units at layer 4 of the OSI model - TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
    Packet - Layer 3: This term is considered by many to most correctly refer to a message sent by protocols operating at the network layer of the OSI Reference Model. So, you will commonly see people refer to “IP packets”.
    Datagram - Layer 3: This term is basically synonymous with “packet” and is also used to refer to network layer technologies. It is also often used to refer to a message that is sent at a higher level of the OSI Reference Model (more often than “packet” is).
    Frame - Layer 2: most commonly used to refer to Ethernet, Token Ring, or Frame Relay units of data.  A frame gets its name from the fact that it is created by taking higher-level packets or datagrams and “framing” them with additional header information needed at the lower level.
    Cell - Layer 2: most commonly used to refer to 53-byte units of data.  A cell is a unit of data that is fixed in size.
    Frame - Layer 1: refers to T-Carrier Layer 1 units of data (193-bit frames)
    BITS – Layer 1; AKA “one’s and zero’s”
  • 27. TCP/IP MODEL
  • 28. Data Encapsulation in TCP/IP
  • 29. Data Encapsulation in TCP/IP
  • 30. Data Encapsulation in TCP/IP
  • 31. Data Change Names?
  • 32. Data Change Names?
  • 33. BITS and BYTES
    A byte is composed of combinations of 8 bits.
    00000001 = 1
    00000011= 2
    ………… = 256 (maximum) bits combination
    Note: 255 is just 1 byte.
  • 34. BITS and BYTES
    The recent IP address version 4 or IPv4 is using 32 bits addressing like this: (maximum)
  • 35. Domain Name Server
    An open source software that converts IP address in number form into labels (letters).
    Example :
    your IP address is is equivalent to www.
  • 36. Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
    Identifies the web address of a document in the internet.
    An example is
  • 37. TCP/IP Model
  • 38. TCP/IP
  • 39. DAWN of the NET
    CLIP 1
    CLIP 2
    CLIP 3
    Wireless network refer to any type of computer network that is not connected by cables of any kind.
    Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented and administered using a transmission system called radio waves.
    This implementation takes place at the physical level, (layer), of the network structure.
  • 42. TYPES
    Wireless WAN
    Wireless PAN
    Wireless LAN
    Wireless MAN
  • 43. WI-FI is 802.11
    Wi-Fi: "Wi-Fi" is a term used to describe 802.11 WLANs, although it is technically a declared standard of interoperability between 802.11 devices.
  • 44. WiMax is 802.16
    is a series of Wireless Broadband standards authored by the IEEE.
    “WiMax” - Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
    IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
  • 45. Wireless Broadband (802.16)
    broadband means "having instantaneous bandwidths greater than 1 MHz and supporting data rates greater than about 1.5 Mbit/s.“
    Wireless Broadband networks feature speeds roughly equivalent to wired broadband networks, such as that of DSL or a cable modem.
  • 46. Wireless Broadband
    Wireless Broadband networks can also be Symmetrical, meaning bandwidth traveling in both directions (download/upload), which is most commonly associated with 'Fixed Wireless' networks.
  • 47. House with a wireless broadband
  • 48. Mobile wireless broadband
    allow a more mobile version of this broadband access. Consumers can purchase a PC card, laptop card, or USB equipment to connect their PC or laptop to the Internet via cell phone towers.
    stable in almost any area that could also receive a strong cell phone connection. These connections can cost more for portable convenience as well as having speed limitations in all but urban environments.
  • 49. Other forms of Internet Services
    Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communications standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network.