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    Design history kew Design history kew Presentation Transcript

    • Managing Design: Materials, Structure Karen E. Wieckert 1
    • Outline •  History, background •  Expert systems •  Design –  Innovation in design –  Context of design, •  Medical decision implementation, use… support •  Methods –  Elaboration of solution –  Qualitative, case-based •  Web site design field studies –  Usability and materials •  Retrospective •  Ethnographic •  Case-based research •  Participant observation and teaching 2
    • History •  Research and teaching •  IT industry and –  AI: Knowledge consulting representation, natural –  Design language processing –  Project management –  Social analysis of –  Training design •  Web design –  Human computer –  Information interaction, usability architecture –  Sociology of science –  Usability and technology –  Ecommerce coordination 3
    • Design •  Design happens in present within design context. •  Artifact(s) of design implemented and used by others within uncertain contexts in future. –  Bridge present and future through management of design. –  Engagement of materials - physical and representational - to project artifact into future contexts (implementation, use, …) –  Articulate and project views of multiple stakeholders into future contexts 4
    • Traditional Design… Design Use “artifact toss” 5
    • Software engineering… Context of design Use “artifact toss” • Life-cycle models • Design teams • Project management 6
    • User-centered design… Context of design Context of use (1) (2) “artifact toss” 7
    • Participatory design… Context of use Context of design user/designer team “artifact evolves” 8
    • Design in situ… Context of implementation, use… Model of market Context of design Work process Information needs Sales/Marketing Design team Model of users Management Users Infrastructure “artifact evolves” 9
    • Research methods •  Small “N” Field studies •  What is a case? –  Case-based –  Comparative sampling –  Stakeholder interviews, •  Large vs. small e.g., •  Short vs. long term •  Designers –  Conceptual •  Decision makers development, e.g., •  Users •  Quality of user –  Observations, e.g., modeling •  Meetings •  Elements of context of •  Work activity use •  Offices, desks, shelves! •  Effectiveness of design –  Participation materials –  Ease of access (!) 10
    • InstrumentMaker: Scientific Instruments •  Designers (CS, •  Marketing required DSS biochemistry) building lab- to support use of line of based DSS for planning rotors for ultracentrifuge. centrifuge runs. •  Specialist viewed those –  Ultracentrifuge mature, rotors as inappropriate for successful product. “scientific” practice. –  Specialist retiring. •  Within context of use,•  Public and explicit provided two plans: representation of specialist’s optimal and lab plan. practice conflicted with –  After specialist retired, marketing and sales policy single plan provided. for ultracentrifuges. 11
    • AeroSystems: Aerospace firm •  Designer (third grade •  Managers of assembly line school teacher turned forbid workers to consult developer) building directly with informational informational tools for system assembly line workers –  Authority over schedule, –  Translation of technical information, job information into user descriptions, etc. vocabulary. •  Designer intervened to•  Specifications from allow direct access. engineers AND shop floor –  Change of work process in workers (users). context of use provided –  “How do you describe the more productive use of time sound?” as well as educational material. 12
    • !AcmeAir:! Aerospace Firm!•  Designers creating expert •  Final artifact became system to ``replace decision support system retiring craftsman expert and DB of physical plant. in power engineering. •  Within context of use directly connects to: •  Numerous cycles through –  Users (craftsman), design problems and –  supportable infrastructure articulated solutions. (existing DB and its•  Trouble constructing administrator), –  robust work process (work artifact supportable on ticket logging), and infrastructure for users in –  model of information their work. (blueprints and construction documents). 13
    • Medical Decision Support •  T-Helper: Decision •  Design needs (Phase I) support system to aid –  Representation of in recommendations of protocols patients with HIV –  Logic matching patient disease to clinical characteristics to protocol criteria research protocols. –  DB of patient –  Support non-research information, including medical personnel lab data within county health clinics. 14
    • T-Helper •  Representation of •  Logic matching patients to protocols Protocols –  Science versus practice –  Translation of text into (placing pts. on protocols) rules (imperfect) •  Lab data (information) –  Proprietary interests on –  Institutional responsibility and authority trials (who has –  Computer vs. paper authority). –  Std’ized formats –  Tracking availability of •  DB of patient information patients and protocols –  Nurses input: NOT! (scooping the “good” –  Work process redesign for patients). medical personnel 15
    • DB of Patient Information •  Connection to existing •  Infrastructure systems –  Computers, ethernet, space –  Patient registration, ... in exam rooms •  Connection to clinician –  Technical support reporting methods •  Electronic patient record –  Progress notes –  Computer use by physicians •  Integration of reporting –  Vocabulary development –  Intervention into work from multiple health process professionals –  Physicians, social workers, … 16
    • T-Helper: “Surgery was a success, but…” •  Ultimately, some computerized systems are far ahead of their time •  Immaturity of material elements in context of use : –  Out patient clinics in county hospitals lack computing infrastructure. –  Computer use by medical personnel growing, but low. –  EPR systems slowly gaining ground. –  Standardized medical vocabulary required. –  Systems to support the collaborative nature of health work required. –  Agreed upon treatment for people with HIV disease. –  … 17
    • Web Site Development •  Voluntary use of web sites by customers –  Control over context of use minimal, but material maturity high •  PCs and Apple (sort of) •  HTML, JS, Java, ASP, IE, NSCP, Logo/home, “Amazon-like” navigation/search/check-out/registration, etc. •  Usability as important as technical and visual design: –  If user cannot find information, use an application, or (!) complete the check out process, loss of revenue. –  Collaboration between technical, visual, and UI design (if it exists), and marketing. 18
    • Material Support for Collaboration •  Making context of implementation and use visible within the context of design: –  User modeling, stakeholder interviews, competitive landscape, usability tests –  Business objectives –  Page and site information architecture, navigational support –  Vocabulary development –  Style development: colors, fonts, page comps, templates for DB driven data –  Design/UI/Technology Guidelines 19
    • Williams Sonoma Web Site 20
    • Williams Sonoma Sign In 21
    • User Flow: User Sign In 22
    • Account Wireframe 23
    • Specification: Design/UI/Technical 24
    • Specification: Design/UI/Technical 25
    • Specification: Design/UI/Technical 26
    • Specification: Design/UI/Technical 27
    • Specification: Design/UI/Technical 28
    • Common Findings Across Cases •  Material maturity critical (design must anticipate and rely upon resources in contexts of implementation, adoption, use) •  Single stakeholders cannot dominate (for artifact to successfully travel) •  Success/failure too blunt a metric (partial, mundane use as effective) •  Ruts good (exploit existing organizational structure) –  But, finding “good” ruts hard… 29
    • Material Support for Collaboration •  Materials create boundary objects between differing interests of organizational groups •  Work of articulating trajectories of each group’s interests happens over and around these materials •  Research focus on the existence, quality, flexibility, authority, mobility of these materials 30