Convergent Art Forms: Examining the Relationship between Video Games and Film<br />“I remain convinced that in principle, ...
Graphic Novels<br />Comic Books<br />“Perhaps "game" is the wrong word for what videogames have become. I've always felt t...
History<br />
Cinema of Attractions<br />‘[The Cinema of Attractions is] cinema that bases itself on […] its ability to show something.’...
Narrative<br />
The Interactive Movie<br />For any film scholar who has begun to take an interest in video games, what is commonly referre...
‘The Cinematic Game’<br />
With other art forms, the artist directly creates the experience that the audience will encounter. Since this experience i...
Interactivity,  Moral Choice and Consequence<br />
Conclusion <br />
Webography:<br /><ul><li>CARLESS, S., 2005 Playing Catch-Up: Sierra Founder Ken Williams [online] Available: http://www.ga...
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Convergent Art Forms: Video Games and Film

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This is the talk I gave at the 1st British Conference of Undergraduate Research.

Video games as Art by comparing the development of Games to the development of Film

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  • Good AfternoonIn 2010 Roger Ebert summarised a lengthy post on his Blog with ““I remain convinced that in principle, video games cannot be art.” (Ebert, Video games can never be art, 2010)In this talk I am going to argue that contrary to Ebert’s statement video games are their own art form and that their development as an art form can be explored and explained by comparing the development and history of video games to the development and history of film. So… I’m going to start this talk about video games and film by making a reference to comic books…This is going to be the nerdiest Presentation at this conference.
  • With the publication of The Dark Knight Returns and Watchmen, the comics book industry was attempting to usher in a new era. In an attempt to acquire a new audience, one that would provide critical appreciation of the medium. Comic books changed their name, becoming ‘Graphic Novels’. No longer did these books contain comics, instead they were graphics, or sequential art, in fact, no longer were they books, they were novels. All ahis is significant as more than a few video game critics, note that: Critics, not ‘reviewers’, have suggested that in order to move into the next era, Video Games should look to find a new label. From Ben Crosshaw: “Perhaps &quot;game&quot; is the wrong word for what videogames have become. I&apos;ve always felt the same thing about the term &quot;moving picture;&quot; it seems rather quaint now that we&apos;re not all diving under our seats in fear because we think a train is about to bust through the wall.” (Croshaw, Videogames as Art, 2010)One can notice how he makes a connection to film. The connections between these are easy to make because they are actively sought after by the games industry, performing, I would argue, the same function that the term Graphic Novel performed for Comic Books. Indeed, Video Games rarely give a lingering credit to ‘Lead Programmer’, anymore. Instead they have ‘Directors’. Adverts for video games are not longer adverts, they are Trailers.Despite these more contemporary connections, I would argue that the connection with video games to film is so intertwined that it can be identified right at the creation of the medium.
  • Just as with film, the exact date to when video games began is confused and rather ambiguous. Was the medium of film born with the creation of the first camera? With the creation of the public exhibition device – exemplified here by the Kenetescope. Or can you trace the creation of film right back to the invention of the magic lantern, or zoetrope?Likewise, with games, was the medium created with the officially credited first video game Spacewar! in 1961, or was it with the first home-video game system the Magnavox Odyssey in 1972. Or was it was it invented in 1952 when bored physicist Willy Higinbotham hooked up a couple of Donner computers to an Oscilloscope to create a simplistic tennis game? Who knows? But what we do have is a rather nebulous feeling over the correct starting point of the medium that Film historians may be familiar with. In a talk earlier this year at the Video Game Developer’s Conference, Brian Moriarty gave a talk entitled “An apology for Roger Ebert.” An apology here, used in the academic sense, meaning a further angle supporting Ebert’s argument. Moriarty states: “In my Digital Game Design I class, I define &quot;play&quot; as superfluous activity.I define a &quot;toy&quot; as something that elicits play, and a &quot;game&quot; as a toy with rules and a goal. Games are purposeful. They are defined as the exercise of choice and will towards a self-maximizing goal. But sublime art is like a toy. It elicits play in the soul. The pleasure we get from it lies precisely in the fact that it has no rules, no goal, no purpose.”What Moriarty is describing is a Game for a Game’s sake, which accurately describes the early games on this slide, however, film for film’s sake is also the format for early film, and the medium developed beyond it.
  • Tom Gunning identifies the ‘Cinema of Attractions’. As a descriptor for early film, describing it as a cinema that defines itself through it’s ability to ‘show’ something. The Cinema of Attractions was, literally, a circus act. A fairground novelty, a simplistic act of showing off a new technology. This aspect is also indicative of early video games. While early film, such as The Arrival of a Train…, is hard to label as a Film by contemporary standards, so are the games featured in the Magnavox Odyssey also several degrees removed from contemporary games. The Odyssey required two players minimum who were only able to manipulate one of two squares around the screen using those Etch-a-sketch-like controllers. The system was incapable of producing graphics, so to play the other games the system came with you would have to place semi-transparent plastic overlays on your television screen. As a typical example, one of these games was a ‘Simon Says’ game, that required the use of question cards that were provided with the system. As such, these games were not Video Games par-se, rather they were board games, or parlour games that used the television set as an accessory. This is a ‘Game’, as per Moriarty’s definition. However, games did not remain in this rather simplistic form. Just like film, Video Games needed to develop in order to continue being financially viable beyond the initial spectacle of their mere existence, their ‘showing off’ of their technology. Like Film, Video Games developed Narrative.
  • Even if it was as simple as “You are a chicken and you are trying to cross the road” as in Atari Activision’s Freeway here it was still narrative. Video Games had moved from mimicking already existing board games, parlour games and multiple alternate versions of Pong and had begun to develop out into it’s own. It is worth noting that the previous non-narrative games have not disappeared. Bejweled, Peggle, Tetris, for example, however, Gunning also identifies that the Cinema of Attractions still exists beyond the invention of narrative, terming it the “Spielberg-Lucas-Coppola Cinema of Effects”. Films whose purpose is to demonstrate new technology, to show off special effects. And despite the rather contemporary name, Gunning notes that early film, such as the oft-cited early narrative film ‘The Great Train Robbery’ up on the slide there, is also an example of this Cinema of Effects.From the integration of narrative, games continued to develop, leaning towards the closest medium available to them as a model of how to utilise this element: Film. Going so far as to mimic it almost in it’s entirety. However this path to mimic film lead not to success as a medium, but a failure: The so-called Interactive Movie.
  • As Perron observes: For any film scholar who has begun to take an interest in video games, what is commonly referred to as the interactive movie seems a natural place to start. No other multimedia product came closer to crossing the threshold that separates the worlds of film and video games. However, a film scholar who commences research on this premise will be both disconcerted and disappointed (Perron, 2003:237)These things were barely games, not at all movies and as interactive as your DVD menu.
  • Learning from it’s failures, however, games continued to develop, going form totally mimicking film, exemplified here by Johnny Mnemonic the film and Johnny Mnemonic the Interactive Movie, to a point where games have taken filmic language and made it their own, exemplified by Final Fantasy 7 here, whose integration of gameplay with exposition, cinematic cut-scenes all using filmic language, helped make it one of the most successful games of it’s time. Tomb Raider also modified filmic language and helped bring into existence an entirely new generation of Adventure game. So successful was it that a film was made of it. Not only that, but Tomb Raider, both the game and the film, can be cited as influences on other films, such as National Treasure. National Treasure can easily be cited as an influence on Naughty Dog’s recent Uncharted Games in a rather fascinating example of Games imitating Film imitating Games. And to further add to that loop, there are currently plans for an Uncharted Film. So. You may say: “Kev, all you’ve done is shown how Video Games have mimicked film on both their development and in their mode of display, how, then, are we to take them seriously as their own artistic medium?” Well, I’m glad you’ve asked me that. Interestingly this connects back to Ebert’s quote that we started with. Ebert made that quote after viewing footage of contemporary video games. He did not play the games. This is where traditional filmic modes of criticism break down. To view a video game as one would view a film will be a hollow experience as the vast majority of the game’s effect comes from its audience not being spectators, but players.
  • Chris Crawford, writing in his book “The Art of Computer Game Design” addresses this element: “With other art forms, the artist directly creates the experience that the audience will encounter. Since this experience is carefully planned and executed, the audience must somehow be prevented from disturbing it; hence, non participation. With a game, the artist creates not the experience itself but the conditions and rules under which the audience will create its own individualized experience.” (Crawford, The Art of Computer Game Design, 1984)To ignore gameplay, and the methods of gameplay, when critically appreciating a videogame is akin to listening to music without the instruments, or watching a film with your eyes closed. However the appreciation of these unique elements: Immersion and interactivity, are lost as Games attempt to qualify themselves by utilising those qualities that make successful film. Observing this point, Crawford states: “Real art through computer games is achievable, but it will never be achieved so long as we have no path to understanding. We need to establish our principles of aesthetics, a framework for criticism, and a model for development. New and better hardware will improve our games, but it will not guarantee our artistic success any more than the development of orchestras guaranteed the appearance of Beethoven. (Crawford, The Art of Computer Game Design, 1984) ““[P]laying a game is not about viewing a movie with a joystick in hand.”(Perron, 2003:239) states Perron, and I would say that appreciating a game is not about simply watching it. Doing that removes that element of interactivity, and it is that element that allows games to stand out amongst other art forms.This interactivity can not only allow the player to form their own stories, but confront and explore moral and ethical issues in a way that non-interactive mediums cannot.
  • James Portnow focuses on the recent game Mass Effect 2 as an example of this. At one point in the game, you, as Commander Shepard, are asked to decide the fate of a rogue sect of sentient machines: Destroy them, or reprogram them so that they will re-join the rest of their race, their memories erased. Portnow, and myself in fact, paused to contemplate this for quite some time. It asks a significant question of the player: It asks you contemplate the very nature of free will, it asks you to make a choice and continue having accepted the consequence of this choice.Mass Effect 2 is a beautifully constructed game, however, I would argue that this choice branch is in fact a rather simplistic one. Especially when compared to the intricacy and non-linear world-exploration of some other games. Take, for example, Acornsoft’s 1984 game: Elite. Featuring an open world Elite allows the player to engage in legal and illegal trading. Both choices have consequences: Legal trades are readily available, easy to transport but making low profit. Illegal trades are harder to find, potentially call attention to you by law enforcement, but have large profits. In Elite there is no overarching story, the player creates their own narrative. Film cannot do this. Literature cannot do this. This ability to challenge a player through moral and ethical dilemmas adds to video games an element unavailable to other media. An element that can be used to explore events, settings and scenarios in a new, unique &amp; personally effecting way
  • To explore this I shall briefly share the story of a game called “Six Days in Fallujah.” Atomic Games were given some members of Third Battalion First Marines to act as play testers and advisors on the game, which originally was going to be very reminiscent of the Call of Duty games. However, during the game’s production, these marines were called away to partake in the Second Battle of Fallujah, which remains one of the more bloody and violent conflicts in the Iraqi war. Upon returning, the marines requested the game truly reflect their experiences in Fallujah, that it act as a tribute to those who died there, and serve as not just as a war simulation, but as a true representation of the horrors of war. The Game immediately drummed up controversy. Speaking to Captain Reed Omohundro, advisor on the game who lost 13 men in the battle, A Fox news host asks: “Are you actually going to say that this is a way to honour the men who died that day?”Folding under the controversy, the game was never completed, and Atomic Games was later dissolved. I ask you. Were these questions asked of Oscar-Winning Film: The Hurt Locker? Six Days in Fallujah was pre-judged as inferior and incapable of carrying the gravitas required simply because it is merely a “Video Game”. To quote Portnow: “Games makers are not weighed on the merits of their work, they are judged by the name of their medium.” Video Games are an art form, they can address relevant and complex themes and they can do so in a way that no other medium can. It took film almost 100 years before it could approach these topics, games can do it now, having developed to their current form in half the time, all that is missing is cultural appreciation. Thankyou.
  • Bibliography &amp; Refrences:ADAMS, E., 2006. Introduction. In: BAETEMAN, B &amp; BOON, R., 2006. 21st Century Game Design; Massachusetts: Charles River Media, xiii-xviALLEN, R., 2008. Penguin Pocket English Dictionary. London: Penguin. BAETEMAN, B &amp; BOON, R., 2006. 21st Century Game Design; Massachusetts: Charles River MediaBORDWELL, D. &amp; THOMPSON, K., 2004. Film Art. New York: McGraw-Hill.COGBURN. J &amp; SILCOX. M., 2009. Philosophy Through Video Games. New York &amp; London: RoutledgeCOOK, P., 2007. The Cinema Book. 3rd Edition. London: BFI.COUSINS, M., 2004. The Story of Film. London: PavillionCRAWFORD, C., 1984. The Art of Computer Game Design. New York: McGraw-Hill/Osborne MediaCRAWFORD, C., 2003. Interactive Storytelling. In: WOLF, M.J.P &amp; PERRON, B., (Ed) 2003. The Video Game Theory Reader. New York &amp; London: Routledge, 259-273DURING. S., (Ed) 1993. The Cultural Studies Reader 2nd edition. London &amp; New York: RoutledgeGUNNING, T., 1986. The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, its Spectator and the Avant-Garde. In: ELSAESSER, T., (Ed) 1990. Early Cinema: Space – Frame – Narrative. London: BFI 56-62JOHNSON, C., 2002. Exploiting the intimate screen: The Quatermass Experiment, fantasy and the aesthetic potential of early television drama. In: THUMIN, J., (Ed) 2002. Small screens, big ideas: television inthe 1950s; London: I.B. Tauris, 181-194JUUL, J., 2005. Half-real. Massachusetts &amp; London: The MIT Press KINDER. M., 1991. Playing with Power. Berkeley, Los Angeles &amp; Oxford: University of California PressKING, G &amp; KRZYWINSKA, T., 2006. Tomb Raiders &amp; Space Invaders London &amp; New York: I.B.TaurisKENT, S., 2001. The Ultimate History of Video Games. California: Prima PublishingMILLER, F., 1986. Batman: Dark Knight Returns. New York: DC ComicsMOORE, A., 1986 Watchmen. New York: DC ComicsPERRON, B., 2003. From Gamers to Players and Gameplayers: The Example of Interactive Movies. In: WOLF, M.J.P &amp; PERRON, B., (Ed) 2003. The Video Game Theory Reader. New York &amp; London: Routledge, 237-258REHAK, B., 2003. Playing at Being: Psychoanalysis and the Avatar. In: Wolf, M.J.P &amp; PERRON, B., (Ed) 2003. The Video Game Theory Reader. New York &amp; London: Routledge, 103-128SYDNOR, S., 2005. ‘Man, Play and Games - A Review Essay&apos;, Sport in History, 25(3), 536-544WOLF, M.J.P &amp; PERRON, B., (Ed) 2003. The Video Game Theory Reader. New York &amp; London: RoutledgeWebography:CARLESS, S., 2005 Playing Catch-Up: Sierra Founder Ken Williams [online] Available: http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=6864%20/%20http://www.thedoteaters.com/p4_stage2.php [accessed 12th May 2010]CROSHAW, B., 2010 Videogames as Art [online] Available:http://www.escapistmagazine.com/articles/view/columns/extra-punctuation/7473-Extra-Punctuation-Videogames-as-Art[accessed 24th November 2010].DAILY MAIL REPORTER., 2009 Iraq War video game branded &apos;crass and insensitive&apos; by father of Red Cap killed in action [online] Available: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1168235/Iraq-War-video-game-branded-crass-insensitive-father-Red-Cap-killed-action.html#ixzz1JUvmoIRw [accessed 14th April 2011]EBERT, R., 2010 Video games can never be art 2010 [online] Available:http://blogs.suntimes.com/ebert/2010/04/video_games_can_never_be_art.html[accessed 24th November 2010]Fox News., 2009 &apos;Six Days in Fallujah&apos; [online] Available: http://video.foxnews.com/v/3932989/six-days-in-fallujah?r_src=ramp [accessed 14th April 2011]IGN., Six Days in Fallujah[online] Available: http://xbox360.ign.com/objects/143/14336300.html [accessed 14th April 2011]IMDB., 2011 Uncharted: Drake’s Fortune [online] available: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1464335/ [accessed 14th April 2011]MORIARTY, B., 2011 An Apology for Roger Ebert [online] available: http://www.ludix.com/moriarty/apology.html [accessed 14th April 2011]NATIONAL VIDEOGAME ARCHIVE, 2009 F.A.Q. [online] Available: http://www.nationalvideogamearchive.org/index.php/faq/ [accessed 12th May 2010]NXT GAMER, 2010 Bejeweled – Most Popular Game of the Century. [online] Available: http://www.nxtgamer.com/xbox360/bejeweled-most-popular-puzzle-game-of-the-century/ [accessed 12th May 2010]PORTNOW, J., 2010-2011 Extra Creditz [online] Avaliable: http://www.escapistmagazine.com/videos/view/extra-credits [accessed 14th April 2011] ROLFE, J., MATEI. M., 2007 Nintendo Power [online] available: http://cinemassacre.com/2007/09/04/avgn-nintendo-power/ [accessed 14th April 2011]WINTER, D., 1996-2010 Pong-Story: Magnavox Odyssey [online] Available: http://www.pong-story.com/odyssey.htm [accessed 12th May 2010]Filmography:Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat, 1896. Directed by LUMIÉRE, A &amp; LUMIÉRE, L. France: Lumiére Films. Great Train Robbery, The, 1903. Directed by PORTER, E. S. USA: Edison Manufacturing Company. Hurt Locker, The, 2008. Directed by BIGELOW. K. USA: Voltage PicturesJohnny Mnemonic, 1995. Directed by LONGO, R. USA: Tristar Pictures. National Treasure, 2003. Directed by TURTELTAUB. J. USA: Disney PicturesTomb Raider, 2001. Directed by WEST. S. USA, UK, Japan, Germany: Paramount PicturesGameography:7th Guest 1993, LANDEROS. R &amp; DEVINE. G; TrilobyteBejeweled 2000, KAPALKA.J; PopCapElite 1984, FirebirdFinal Fantasy VII 1998, KITASE. Y; SquareFreeway 1981, Atari ActivisionIco2001, UEDA. F.; SCEEJohnny Mnemonic: The Interactive Action Movie 1995, GAYETON. D; CineACTIVELast Guardian, The (Unreleased), UEDA. F.; SCEEMass Effect 2, HUDSON. C., Bioware. Night Trap 1992, RILEY. J.W; SEGA EntertainmentPhantasmagoria 2: a Puzzle of Flesh 1996, HOYOS. A; Sierra On-Line Pong 1972, ALCORN.A; AtarI, Privateer 1993, ROBERTS. C; Origin SystemsRipper 1996, PARMET. P; Take 2 InteractiveShadow of the Colossus 2005,UEDA. F.; SCEESpacewar! 1961, RUSSELL.S.Tetris 1985, PAZHITNOV. A.Tomb Raider 1996, SCHMITT. M; EidosUncharted: Drake’s Fortune 2007, HUMMEL. E &amp; KYUNG. Y; Naughty Dog
  • Convergent Art Forms: Video Games and Film

    1. 1. Convergent Art Forms: Examining the Relationship between Video Games and Film<br />“I remain convinced that in principle, video games cannot be art.” (Ebert, Video games can never be art, 2010)<br />Contrary to Roger Ebert’s statement, I shall argue that video games are their own art form and that their development as an art form can be explored and explained by comparing the development and history of video games to the development and history of film, highlighting the similarities between the two.<br />Kev Tomes<br />
    2. 2. Graphic Novels<br />Comic Books<br />“Perhaps "game" is the wrong word for what videogames have become. I've always felt the same thing about the term "moving picture;" it seems rather quaint now that we're not all diving under our seats in fear because we think a train is about to bust through the wall.” (Croshaw, Videogames as Art, 2010)<br />
    3. 3. History<br />
    4. 4. Cinema of Attractions<br />‘[The Cinema of Attractions is] cinema that bases itself on […] its ability to show something.’ (Gunning, 1986:56-57)<br />
    5. 5. Narrative<br />
    6. 6. The Interactive Movie<br />For any film scholar who has begun to take an interest in video games, what is commonly referred to as the interactive movie seems a natural place to start. No other multimedia product came closer to crossing the threshold that separates the worlds of film and video games. However, a film scholar who commences research on this premise will be both disconcerted and disappointed (Perron, 2003:237)<br />
    7. 7. ‘The Cinematic Game’<br />
    8. 8. With other art forms, the artist directly creates the experience that the audience will encounter. Since this experience is carefully planned and executed, the audience must somehow be prevented from disturbing it; hence, non participation. With a game, the artist creates not the experience itself but the conditions and rules under which the audience will create its own individualized experience. (Crawford, The Art of Computer Game Design, 1984)<br />Real art through computer games is achievable, but it will never be achieved so long as we have no path to understanding. We need to establish our principles of aesthetics, a framework for criticism, and a model for development. New and better hardware will improve our games, but it will not guarantee our artistic success any more than the development of orchestras guaranteed the appearance of Beethoven. (Crawford, The Art of Computer Game Design, 1984) <br />
    9. 9. Interactivity, Moral Choice and Consequence<br />
    10. 10. Conclusion <br />
    11. 11. Webography:<br /><ul><li>CARLESS, S., 2005 Playing Catch-Up: Sierra Founder Ken Williams [online] Available: http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=6864%20/%20http://www.thedoteaters.com/p4_stage2.php [accessed 12th May 2010]
    12. 12. CROSHAW, B., 2010 Videogames as Art [online] Available:http://www.escapistmagazine.com/articles/view/columns/extra-punctuation/7473-Extra-Punctuation-Videogames-as-Art[accessed 24th November 2010].
    13. 13. DAILY MAIL REPORTER., 2009 Iraq War video game branded 'crass and insensitive' by father of Red Cap killed in action [online] Available: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1168235/Iraq-War-video-game-branded-crass-insensitive-father-Red-Cap-killed-action.html#ixzz1JUvmoIRw [accessed 14th April 2011]
    14. 14. EBERT, R., 2010 Video games can never be art 2010 [online] Available:http://blogs.suntimes.com/ebert/2010/04/video_games_can_never_be_art.html[accessed 24th November 2010]
    15. 15. Fox News., 2009 'Six Days in Fallujah' [online] Available: http://video.foxnews.com/v/3932989/six-days-in-fallujah?r_src=ramp [accessed 14th April 2011]
    16. 16. IGN., Six Days in Fallujah[online] Available: http://xbox360.ign.com/objects/143/14336300.html [accessed 14th April 2011]
    17. 17. IMDB., 2011 Uncharted: Drake’s Fortune [online] available: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1464335/ [accessed 14th April 2011]
    18. 18. MORIARTY, B., 2011 An Apology for Roger Ebert [online] available: http://www.ludix.com/moriarty/apology.html [accessed 14th April 2011]
    19. 19. NATIONAL VIDEOGAME ARCHIVE, 2009 F.A.Q. [online] Available: http://www.nationalvideogamearchive.org/index.php/faq/ [accessed 12th May 2010]
    20. 20. NXT GAMER, 2010 Bejeweled – Most Popular Game of the Century. [online] Available: http://www.nxtgamer.com/xbox360/bejeweled-most-popular-puzzle-game-of-the-century/ [accessed 12th May 2010]
    21. 21. PORTNOW, J., 2010-2011 Extra Creditz [online] Avaliable: http://www.escapistmagazine.com/videos/view/extra-credits [accessed 14th April 2011]
    22. 22. ROLFE, J., MATEI. M., 2007 Nintendo Power [online] available: http://cinemassacre.com/2007/09/04/avgn-nintendo-power/ [accessed 14th April 2011]
    23. 23. WINTER, D., 1996-2010 Pong-Story: Magnavox Odyssey [online] Available: http://www.pong-story.com/odyssey.htm [accessed 12th May 2010]</li></ul>Filmography:<br /><ul><li>Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat, 1896. Directed by LUMIÉRE, A & LUMIÉRE, L. France: Lumiére Films.
    24. 24. Great Train Robbery, The, 1903. Directed by PORTER, E. S. USA: Edison Manufacturing Company.
    25. 25. Hurt Locker, The, 2008. Directed by BIGELOW. K. USA: Voltage Pictures
    26. 26. Johnny Mnemonic, 1995. Directed by LONGO, R. USA: Tristar Pictures.
    27. 27. National Treasure, 2003. Directed by TURTELTAUB. J. USA: Disney Pictures
    28. 28. Tomb Raider, 2001. Directed by WEST. S. USA, UK, Japan, Germany: Paramount Pictures</li></ul>Gameography:<br /><ul><li>7th Guest 1993, LANDEROS. R & DEVINE. G; Trilobyte
    29. 29. Bejeweled 2000, KAPALKA.J; PopCap
    30. 30. Elite 1984, Firebird
    31. 31. Final Fantasy VII 1998, KITASE. Y; Square
    32. 32. Freeway 1981, Atari Activision
    33. 33. Ico2001, UEDA. F.; SCEE
    34. 34. Johnny Mnemonic: The Interactive Action Movie 1995, GAYETON. D; CineACTIVE
    35. 35. Last Guardian, The (Unreleased), UEDA. F.; SCEE
    36. 36. Mass Effect 2, HUDSON. C., Bioware.
    37. 37. Night Trap 1992, RILEY. J.W; SEGA Entertainment
    38. 38. Phantasmagoria 2: a Puzzle of Flesh 1996, HOYOS. A; Sierra On-Line
    39. 39. Pong 1972, ALCORN.A; AtarI,
    40. 40. Privateer 1993, ROBERTS. C; Origin Systems
    41. 41. Ripper 1996, PARMET. P; Take 2 Interactive
    42. 42. Shadow of the Colossus 2005,UEDA. F.; SCEE
    43. 43. Spacewar! 1961, RUSSELL.S.
    44. 44. Tetris 1985, PAZHITNOV. A.
    45. 45. Tomb Raider 1996, SCHMITT. M; Eidos
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