Teachers become familiar with the tasks of teaching during their apprenticeship of observation.
Teachers begin their identification as teachers during their apprenticeship.
Assessments of teaching technique are similar both prior to and after entry into the role of a teacher.
A teacher’s orientation towards the work of teaching is individualistic in nature.
When they were a student
When they were student teaching
Learned during apprenticeship and student teaching.
Observed more during teaching and is more technical than previously thought.
Exhibition of a Teacher’s Personal Qualities
Are individualistic in nature.
Change from empathetic characteristics to more technical characteristics as they begin teaching.
“ The apprenticeship of observation is an ally of continuity rather than of change.”
Discuss things that stood out to you when you were a student in your subject area.
Has this affected your current beliefs, values, practices? If so, how?
The factors that influence ones desire to enter the teaching field as well as influence their values, beliefs, and philosophies once they begin teaching.
The induction phase is the most important.
Custodial: perpetuates existing culture and maintains the status quo.
Content Innovation: promotes change in how teachers implement the teaching of their own content.
Role Innovation: redefines the teacher’s role in the school and community.
Respect from relevant adults
Participation in decision making
Frequent and stimulating professional interaction
A high sense of efficacy
Use of skills and knowledge
Resources to carry out the job
Marginalization of Physical Education
Workload and Role Conflict
The realities of the profession are not always addressed in teacher preparation programs.
Programs that offer multiple teaching experiences help reduce reality shock.
What have you encountered that you didn’t expect?
The period when the effect of the teacher preparation program diminishes. Sometimes the reality of the school does not match the goals and philosophies taught in the teacher preparation programs.
Physical location is often separate from the rest of the school.
Grades are not counted in GPA
Taking away facilities and time for other school events
Number of classes and students
No prep time
Teachers struggle with discipline, student’s lack of respect, the challenging of teacher expectations, and find it difficult to introduce new methods for grading.
Collegial interaction has a strong influence on beginning teachers success, yet is absent in physical education.
Little support given.
Supervision limited to a few superficial visits per year.
Limited mentoring available.
Seek out mentors
Take advantage of published resources and state/national organizations
Successful initiates adopt behaviors and attitudes similar to existing occupational culture.
Novice teachers find their beliefs challenged as they attempt to meet demands and expectations of school.
The threat of job loss was the most important factor influencing their conformation.
Cultural codes that inform members to what is appropriate.
Teachers began identifying, selecting, and evaluating pedagogical practices while they were students.
Collegiate background had the largest impact on subject matter content.
The low status of university preparation leads new teachers to devalue their education.
“ A lot of teachers who have taught for a long time think they have learned it all from experience and not from going to school. So if you are somebody new coming in, they think they need to train you to the ways of the real world.”
New teachers face multiple roles that are either explicit or implicit.
Explicit: Classroom management, grading, role call, etc.
Implicit: Committee assignments, instructional style, miscellaneous duties, etc.
Primary job was to classroom management, learning second.
Establishing authority over students was essential for new teachers to be accepted by the school community. This conflicted with their desire to establish meaningful relationships with students.
Began by observation of teachers applying for a faculty position. Those who were viewed favorably were questioned less and given the benefit of the doubt compared to those viewed as less favorably.
This led to the favorable candidates being more relaxed, interactive, comfortable, and less defensive, reinforcing their perceptions by the faculty.
Teachers form perceptions of students based on their characteristics.
Teachers form expectations of their students from these perceptions.
Expectations affect the quantity and quality of teacher-student interaction.
Students perceive and interpret these interactions.
Teachers with a high bias are generally more autocratic, rigid, distant, impulsive, and preferential in their teaching behavior.
They are more prone to produce self fulfilling prophecies, generally with more positive rather than negative effects.
Make a list of characteristics for male students versus female students in terms of:
Teacher biases become a part of the apprenticeship of observation, continuing the cycle.
Higher expectations for higher skilled students.
Higher expectations for higher skilled students.
Higher expectations for lower skilled students.
Coaches give more information to individuals perceived as lower skilled.
Teachers give more feedback and help to individuals perceived as lower skilled.
Create a warm socio-emotional climate.
Give congruent feedback.
Teach more material as well as more difficult material (intra-task variations).
Give a greater number of response opportunities.
Easier questions and less response opportunities
Less evaluative comments to their responses
Unanswered questions were rephrased/repeated less
Less information given on content-related behaviors
Less acceptance and use of student ideas
More directions given
More technical feedback given
Fewer interactions initiated by students
Combination of the three
How have you been socialized into a culture?
Schempp, P., Sparkes, A., & Templin, T. (1993, September 1). The Micropolitics of Teacher Induction. American Educational Research Journal , 30 (3), 447-72.
Schempp, P., & Templin, T. (1989). Socialization into Physical Education Learning to Teach. Benchmark: IN.
Silverman, S., & Ennis, C. (2003). Student Learning in Physical Education: Applying Research to Enhance Instruction . Second Edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Hutchinson, Gayle E., and Craig A. Buschner. 1996. "Delayed-Entry Undergraduates in Physical Education Teacher Education: Examining Life Experiences and Career Choice." Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 15, no. 2: 205-23.
Lawson, H. (1988, July 1). Occupational Socialization, Cultural Studies, and the Physical Education Curriculum. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education , 7 (4), 265-88.
Neikirk, M., Education Development Center, I., & Eastern Kentucky Univ., R. (1981, January 1). Introduction to Stereotyping and Discrimination. Physical Educators for Equity. Module 1 .
Schempp, P. (1987, April 1). A Study of Lortie's Apprenticeship-of-Observation Theory in Physical Education.
Schempp, P., & Graber, K. (1992, July 1). Teacher Socialization from a Dialectical Perspective: Pretraining through Induction. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education , 11 (4), 329-48.
Templin, T., & Others, A. (1982, January 1). On Becoming a Physical Educator: Occupational Choice and the Anticipatory Socialization Process. Quest , 34 (2), 119-33.