UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL DEL ECUADORFACULTAD DE FILOSOFIA. LETRAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACION ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS LINGUISTICS STUDENT : Kevin Fernando Yépez Huertas CLASS:5th French
the word linguistics was used in the midle of the 19th century BranchesSociolinguistics.It studies how dialects differ between groups separated by certainsocial variables such, religion, status, gender, level pf education, etcPsycholinguisticsCorcerned with relations between messajes and the characteristics ofindividual who select and interpret them.Computational linguistics.To interface with computers in both written and spoken contexts usingnatural human language instead of computer language.
Anthropological linguistics.It deals with the relationship between language and culture.Socio- ethnic linguistics.It focuses on the functions of language in our societies like differencesof class, ethnicity, gender and generation.Applied linguistics.It provides the theoretical and descriptive foundations for theinvestigacion and solution of language
CONTRASTIVE OR COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS? One the concepts have beeb discussed, it is refer to the study, contrast or comparison of two or more language. As a matter of fact, Comparative or Contrastive L. appear Comparative linguistics Contrastive linguistics C.L. aims to construct It compares languageIs concerned with language families, to usually with tha aim ofcomparing language reconstruct proto- assisting language learningin order to establish language and specify by identifying differencestheir historical the changes that have between the learner’s nativerelatedness. Also is resulted in the and target language.know as diahronic documentedLinguistics. languages.
FUNDAM NT S F E AL OR T ACH E ING CL Carl James states that CL is a relevant and rewarding study area contrastive linguistics Contrastive Methology of syllabus pragmatics contrastive linguisticslexis-(language,terminology, Study the ability ofterms, expressions) natural language The C. method inSound- utterance speakers to comunicate principle, every differnceSyntax- more than what is or silmilarity between(grammar, sentence structure, explicitly stated. two or more relatedlanguage rules) language should be explicable in terms of context analysis. New trends Macrolinguistic and microlinguistic
There are factors may beIs an arbitrary structured system of utterance- considered to distributesound, gestures, signs and movements, written language in the worldsymbols, morphemes, words and sentences usedfor human communications 1. Population 2. Summer Institute Linguisticsetnology lists about 6.012 living language in the world up 3. Number ofto 2005 countries.Mandarin Most 5 important language in the worldHindiEnglishArabespanish
Brief Classification of Language Non verbalVerbal language language Language family.- it is agroup of language related by descent from a Idiographic written.- use common ancestor called the proto- idograms symbols language of that family Eg. Chinese Individual language.- it is a Syllabic written.- use symbols alanguage as a whole from the but syllabus by syllabus. same family. One symbol each syllable Dialect.- particular way of using a language as a whole from the same Alphabetic written. – one family. symbol – one sound Idiolect.- this is individual. Eg. Voice, quality, speech,tone
Articulated sound.- haveColloquialism.- is tis informal produced the soundexpressions. Writing systemsSlang.- it is informal use of the Based on alphabetlanguage is rude, is non standard. Eg.Teen’s language Phonetic alphabets English language.-Jargon.- used by people who work considered third- fourth-largestin a particular area or who have a , native language in the worldparticular interest eg. Lawyer,criminals. Spanish language.- spoken as a first language by about 352 millionaerliest people
Language Inconsistencies It is the incompatibility. It is the quality or state of being inconsistenly, lack of concordance with a structural pattern. These inconsistencies happen due to: The same sound The same letter can have with Different dialect or combination different letters or pronounce the can refer to letter combination same word different sound differently. cifra[ˈsifra] waiting[ˈweɪtɪŋ] (American) waiting[ˈweirin] (British)charter [ˈtʃɑːrtər ]
FINAL Only englishITERSYLLABIC MIDIAL ConsonantINTRASYLLABIC Is a group two (vccv) or more (vcccccv) adjacent INITIAL (ccv)
PHONOLOGY PHONEMICS PHONETICS DIACRITIC• Is the smallest basic and • Show that it has theorical unit of • Study a description sound value language that of the speech sund. different from cignal creates that of the same entirely letter. differences in meaning
ALPHABET ALPHABET It is a system of characters arranged in a fixed conventional order to symbolized sounds or letters used in a writing system to represent speech Latin alphabetAlso called the roman By the ISO have continued to Celtic, Germanic, Baltic. alphabet, is the most define the 26 letters of English Some Slavic Language, widely used alphabet as the basic alphabet most of the languages of alphabeticwriting with extensions to handle Europa are descendants system in the world other letters in other of Latin today. languages.
TRANSCRIPTION BROAD NARROW STRESS TRANSCRIPTION TRANSCRIPTION•Ignores details •Captures every •Recognize the detail stress syllable•Captures and genral •Use diacritics unstressed elements syllables
SYMBOLS USED FORSYMBOLS USED FOR TRANSCRIPTION TRANSCRIPTION
VOWELS DIPHTHONGS Is a speech soundproduced by human,not formed by blocking airflow Is a speech sound is usually considered VOWEL onedisctintive vowel PRODUCTION sound of a particular language. The aspects considered to determine the vowel features