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Plato’s Chariot Plato describes a Charioteer driving a chariot pulled by two horses. One horse is white and long necked, well bred, well behaved, and runs without a whip. The other is black, short-necked, badly bred, and troublesome. (Phaedrus)
The Donkey Paradox According to this medieval paradox, the donkey is located exactly halfway between two equally attractive piles of hay. Unable to choose one over the other, he fails to make up his mind and starves to death.
The Marshmallow Test In the 1960s, a group of four-year olds were given a marshmallow and promised another, only if they could wait 20 minutes before eating the first one. Some children could wait and others could not. The researchers then followed the progress of each child into adolescence, and demonstrated that those with the ability to wait were better adjusted and more dependable (via parents and teacher surveys) They scored an average of 210 points higher on the US scholastic aptitude test.