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# Bitsbytes

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• ### Bitsbytes

1. 1. Binary…Bits and Bytes <ul><li>What is Binary? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A base 2 numeric system that is representative by using only two digits: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 and 0. </li></ul></ul>
2. 2. Binary… <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the decimal system (base 10) this is how we represent ‘twenty-two’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0 0 2 2 = 22 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the binary system, we represent ‘twenty-two’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>00010110 = 22 </li></ul></ul></ul>
3. 3. Bits…. <ul><li>A Bit is the smallest unit of data </li></ul><ul><li>A Bit is a binary digit, a 0 or a 1 </li></ul><ul><li>From our Binary representation of ’22’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>00010110 (here we have 8 separate bits) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually represented by lowercase ‘b’ </li></ul><ul><li> (54Mbps= Wireless ‘G’) </li></ul>
4. 4. Bytes <ul><li>A byte is a collection of 8 bits </li></ul><ul><li>a byte holds the equivalent of a single character, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the letter F  01000110** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a question mark  00111111** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22  00010110 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually identified by uppercase ‘B’ (50GB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100GB Hard Drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2GB of Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>**Using ASCII Encoding </li></ul>
5. 5. More Bits,Bytes and Binary <ul><li>Why 8 bits in a byte? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“The term was originally coined to mean the smallest addressable group of bits in a computer, which has not always been eight” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why are there 12 in a dozen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It really only matters that you know the difference. </li></ul></ul>
6. 6. Bits + Bytes Measurements <ul><ul><li>1 bit = a 1 or 0 (b) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 bits = 1 byte (B) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1024 bytes = 1 Kilobyte (KB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte (MB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte (GB) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> 1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte (TB) </li></ul><ul><li>Common prefixes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>kilo, meaning 1,000. (one thousand) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mega, meaning 1,000,000. (one million) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>giga, meaning 1,000,000,000 (one billion) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tera, meaning 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) </li></ul></ul></ul>
7. 7. 1000 <> 1024 <ul><li>Yes, it’s true. 1000KB is really 1024 bytes, not 1000. </li></ul><ul><li>At some point, computer engineers thought that 2^10 (1024) was very close to 10^3 (1000); so based on the prefix kilo, for 1000, they created the KB. </li></ul>
8. 8. Why are bits and bytes important? <ul><li>Consider this scenario: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of your students has captured a 20 min video on his laptop. He needs to get the raw video onto your lab computer to use the editing software you can either: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begin to transfer it over the wireless network immediately </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Go find a network cable and transfer it over the cabled school network (10 min) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walk down to the graphics lab to pick up your portable USB hard drive. (15 min roundtrip) </li></ul></ul></ul>
9. 9. One step further <ul><li>Click on the 2 nd link on the outline and follow the Mac OR PC specific instructions </li></ul><ul><li>What might explain this behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this make things more complex for us? </li></ul>
10. 10. Why is Encoding Important?
11. 11. Encoding… <ul><li>Encoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding is the process of transforming information from one format into another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MP3’s (mp3, mp4, .flac, .shn) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video’s (.flv, .swf, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Files (Word, Word Perfect, Works) </li></ul></ul></ul>
12. 12. Binary Review <ul><li>All Computer data is stored as Binary Data </li></ul><ul><li>A bit is a 1 or 0. period, typically represented by lowercase ‘b’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Commonly seen in transfer rate descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A byte is a collection of 8 bits typically represented by capital B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly seen in Hard drive and storage capacity descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How the representative binary data is stored is dependent on encoding. </li></ul>