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Hardware Hardware Presentation Transcript

  • Hardware refers to the tangible parts of computer systems and typically includes support for processing, storage, input, and output.
    Hardware
    In this section:
    Processing
    Storage
    I/O
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware
  • Processing carries out the instructions provided by software using specially designed circuitry and a well-defined routine to transform data into useful outputs.
    Processing
    Transistor
    Integrated Circuit
    Central Processing Unit
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing
    Multicore Processor
    Moore’s Law
    Multiprocessing
    Motherboard
    Bus
    Machine Cycle
  • A transistor is an electronics component typically composed of silicon that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.
    Transistor
    When electricity is flowing through a transistor, it represents a 1; when it is not flowing, it represents a 0.
    Links:
    PBS: Transistorized!BBC News: Chips pass two billion milestoneIntel: How Transistors Work
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Transistor
  • Integrated Circuit
    An integrated circuit connects tiny transistors and other electronics components on a thin piece of semiconductive material such as silicon.
    Links:
    Intel: How Chips are Made
    Nobelprize.org: The History of the Integrated Circuit
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Integrated Circuit
  • Central Processing Unit
    The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a group of circuits that perform the processing in a computer, typically in one integrated circuit called a microprocessor.
    Most of today’s microprocessors contain multiple CPUs or cores. Multicore processors, such as dual core (two processors) and quad core (four processors), use an architecture that allows the cores to work together for faster processing.
    Links:
    Intel: Silicon Technology from Intel
    Intel: How Microprocessors Work
    Intel microprocessors
    AMD microprocessors
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Central Processing Unit
  • Multi-Core Processor
    Multicore processors such as dual core, triple core, and quad core combine multiple CPUs on one chip to share the workload and speed up processing.
    Multicore processors are used in computers other than PCs. Some of the fastest multicore processors are used in graphics processors (GPUs) powering game consoles. They are also used in servers, supercomputers, and embedded systems.
    Links:
    AMD Multi-Core Processors
    Intel Multi-Core Technology
    Intel News Release: Intel Research Advances ‘Era Of Tera’
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Multi-Core Processor
  • Moore’s Law
    Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors on a chip will double about every two years.
    Links:
    Intel: Moore’s Law
    Intel: No Exponential Is Forever
    Intel: World’s First 2-Billion Transistor Microprocessor
    Intel: Revolutionizing How We Use Technology—Today and Beyond
    Intel: Hafnium-based Intel 45nm Process Technology
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Moore’s Law
  • Multiprocessing
    Multiprocessing is processing that occurs using more than one processing unit, to increase productivity and performance.
    Links:
    Apple Mac Pro
    Silicon Graphics Octane2
    IBM: The Roadrunner Project
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Multiprocessing
  • Motherboard
    The motherboard is the primary circuit of a computer to which all core components are connected including the CPU.
    The motherboard connects all of a computer’s components together and enables them to communicate. Both general-purpose and special-purpose computers utilize motherboards.
    Links:
    MacBook Air motherboard
    iPhone motherboard
    YouTube video: Alienware Thermaltake Liquid Cooling
    Apple Mac Pro Processor
    My Super PC: How To Build A PC
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Motherboard
  • Bus
    The bus is a subsystem on the motherboard that transfers data among system components.
    Links:
    Intel Developer Network for PCI Express ArchitectureUnderstanding System Memory and CPU Speeds
    FSB speeds
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Bus
  • Machine Cycle
    The machine cycle is used as an orderly method of processing software instructions.
    Links:
    Being Fluent with Information Technology
    Information Literacy
    Computer literacy standards
    Internet and Computing Core Certification (IC³)
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Machine Cycle
  • In computing and digital technologies, storage refers to the ability to maintain data within the system temporarily or permanently.
    Storage
    In this section:
    Random Access Memory (RAM)
    Video Memory
    Read Only Memory (ROM)
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage
    • Magnetic Storage
    • Optical Storage
    • Solid-State Storage
  • Random Access Memory (RAM)
    Random access memory (RAM) is temporary, or volatile, memory that stores bytes of data and program instructions for the processor to access.
    Links:
    Crucial, the Memory ExpertsHardware Secrets: How to Upgrade your Notebook Memory
    eHow: How to Install RAM
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage > Random Access Memory (RAM)
  • Video memory, sometimes called video RAM, VRAM, or graphics memory, is used to store image data for a computer display in order to speed the processing and display of video and graphics images.
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage > Video Memory
    Links:
    Karbo’s Guide: The video card
    Most of today’s PCs come equipped with at least 256 MB of video memory and may include a graphics processing unit (GPU) to process the graphics and take the load off the CPU.
    Video Memory
  • Read-only memory (ROM) provides permanent storage for data and instructions that do not change, such as firmware—programs and data from the computer manufacturer, including the boot process used to start the computer.
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage > Read Only Memory (ROM)
    Read Only Memory (ROM)
    The software stored in ROM in many different types of digital devices is sometimes called firmware. Firmware may be updated over time to correct bugs or provide additional functionality.
  • Magnetic storage is a storage technology that uses the magnetic properties of iron oxide particles to store bits and bytes more permanently than RAM using magnetic properties rather than electric charges.
    Links:
    StorageReview
    PC Magazine
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage > Magnetic Storage
    Magnetic Storage
  • Optical Storage
    Optical storage media, such as CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs, store bits by using an optical laser to burn pits into the surface of a highly reflective disc. A pit in a specified location represents a 0 and the lack of a pit represents a 1.
    Optical storage represents bits using microscopic pits burned into the disc surface with a laser.
    Links:
    CNET optical drive reviews
    PC Magazine hard drive reviews
    InPhase Technologies holographic storage
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage > Optical Storage
  • Solid-State Storage
    A solid-state storage devicestores data using solid-state electronics such as transistors, rather than the magnetic technology of disks or tape, and does not require any moving mechanical parts.
    Solid state drive.
    8 GB comes in a tiny package for your cell phone.
    Flash drives attach to a USB port and come in a variety of shapes and styles
    A USB thumb drive
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage > Solid-State Storage
  • I/O refers to input and output—the manner in which data is received into a computer system, and the manner in which information and the results of processing are provided to the user from a computer system.
    I/O
    In this section:
    Input Device
    Output Device
    • Video Card
    • Expansion
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > I/O
  • Input Device
    An input device assists in capturing and entering data into a computer system.
    Links:
    CNET input device reviews
    Kombo.com: Evolution of Game Controllers
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > I/O > Input Device
  • Output Device
    An output device allows a user to observe the results of computer processing with one or more senses.
    Links:
    Myvu head-mounted display for iPod
    The Scent Dome from TriSenx
    CNET monitor buying guide
    CNET television buying guide
    CNET printer reviews
    CNET: Best Computer Speakers
    Z Corporation
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > I/O > Output Device
  • Video Card
    A video card combines video processing and storage onto an expansion card, or integrated onto the motherboard to manage video images for display.
    Video cards combine powerful graphics processing and memory for realistic 3D real-time image rendering..
    Links:
    CNET graphics card reviews
    NVIDIA (graphics card manufacturer)
    AMD (ATI) (graphics card manufacturer)
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > I/O > Video Card
  • Expansion Card
    Expansion refers to a computer’s capacity to interface with a variety of external devices such as I/O devices, network devices, and storage devices by connecting through ports, slots, and wireless technologies.
    The universal serial bus, or USB, standardizes expansion around one type of interface and connector.
    A Wireless Connect Card utilizes a notebook computer’s PCMCIA port or USB port to connect to the Internet over a cell phone network.
    Links:
    Smart Computing: How To Install Ports & Expansion Cards
    USB devices at USB Geek
    Top 10 weirdest USB devices ever
    CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > I/O > Expansion Card