Rating scales performance appraisalAccording to Fowler (1990), performance management is very crucial and remarksaccountability of the organizations mission, aims, and values. Following this theorganizations objectives are identified and these need to be intrinsically linked to, andsupport the firms mission. These objectives should be cascaded down theorganization with strong links to the objectives of the various managers and individualemployee. In particular, the healthcare industry mission to provide quality care to allindividuals of different age, sex, caste, and demographic variation are deployed withobjectives of service quality and customer satisfaction. These values are potentiatedby healthcare providers (professional and other employees) managed well by theorganization, who satisfy employee personal needs and promote service orientedenvironment in the organization.The basic concern for promoting service oriented organization requires enhancingemployee performance. The employees competence, skills, and education contributehigh level of performance standards in a knowledge based organization. Thereforeperformance management has positioned the process of performance appraisal forindividual employee. There are two main perspectives of the performance appraisalprocess; one is evaluative, and the other is developmental (Anderson, 1992; Harris,1995). An evaluative appraisal process procure judgment of individual employeeperformance evolved after examining employees behavioral, social, and technicalaspects of the job, and compared with previously established objectives or forementioned operational items on the job description. This type of appraisal links to theallocation of extrinsic rewards, such as pay. A developmental appraisal emphasis needto identify potentials of an employee, develop his knowledge and skill, and initiatecareer uplifts, which together lead to management success.A number of different performance appraisal techniques or methods available, such aswritten report, critical incidents, graphic rating scales, forced choice appraisal, fieldreview techniques, 360 degree feedback, and others. These methods elaborate andlinked with the behavioral traits of the employees, and depend upon the subjectivejudging scales of human resource managers.1. Written report: - The appraiser writes a narrative about the strengths, weakness,previous performance and potential of the employee and remarks suggestion forimprovement.2. Critical incident: - Under this method, the appraiser highlights incidents or keyevents that occur during the performance of the job, and rates appraisers behavior asexceptionally good or bad relevant to the given situation. The characteristics ofemployees are grouped by categories, such as co-operation, timeliness, and attitude.3. Graphic rating scales:- The performance is evaluated based on job relatedcharacteristics ( such as skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, andfeedback) and knowledge of job ( quality of work,technical knowledge).The scores
are tabulated through the set of factors rating them, for example, on scale 1 to 5 wherethe highest number would denote the best rating.4. Forced choice appraisal: - This type of technique consists of a list of paired 9orlarger groups of) statements that may both be positive or negative, or one could bepositive and the other negative. An example of a pair of statements might be "alwayson time" and "never on time". By incorporating several question that test differentlevels or degrees of the same behaviors, evaluators are able to generate an accuraterepresentation of the individuals learning ability, interpersonal competence, etc.5. Field review techniques: - under this method, the managers ask question to thehuman resource specialist or the coworkers about an employees performance, hiswork progress, his strengths and weakness, promotion potentials, etc. He thenevaluates the report and approves for rating.6. 360 degree feedback: -Depending upon the employees job, feedback on theemployees performance may be solicited from patients, family, physicians, vendors,community organizations as well as co-workers. The disclosure /feedback model ofawareness known as the Johari window, named after Joseph Luft and Harry Inghamrepresents four panes: open, hidden, blind, and unknown.Know to self Unknown to selfOpen BlindHidden UnknownKnown to othersUnknown to othersTo access potential within us, the open pane could be expanded, hidden pane can bereduced by self-disclosure, and feedback received from others mitigate blind pane.Feedback provides an opportunity to disclose personal beliefs, values and attitudes,and to know about how others see us. 360 degree feedback perceives developmentalperspective to review progress towards goals, identify training need, and reach mutualagreement on job expectations.For healthcare professionals, General Medical Council (2003) regards appraisal as "aprocess to provide feedback on disease performance, chart their continuingprofessional development, and identify their developmental needs", and revalidationas a doctor retaining his/her license to practice.To improve practice, appraisal needs to be seen as part of the whole professionaldevelopment, and includes critical self-reflection, development and support for theindividual doctor. The CMO Sir Liam Donaldson (2006), recommend in his report,those relevant to NHS (National Health Service, UK) that Re-licensure (relates to therenewal of full registration and therefore a generic license to practice) and re-certification (relates to renewal of a doctors specialist certification) is required andremain the responsibility of the individual doctor. Effective revalidation needs to be
based on a valid and reliable assessment of a doctors everyday practice to judge thesafety of their practice and about the extent to which quality is embedded in theireveryday work. Indications for good medical practice (www.gmc-uk.org) envisageseven areas, such as good clinical care, maintaining good medical practice, workingwith colleagues, relations with patients, teaching and training, probity, and health. Thereport seems to hope that appraisal will be the main mechanism, but also proposes areview of many methods that are used in other countries, including credentialing; useof stimulators; regional, national, and international audits; and primary care detectionschemes.Healthcare organizations are knowledge-based and service oriented, that makenecessary to provide accurate and timely information for evaluating problems andachieve better performance. The process of performance management based on theevidence of performance and practice are functioned through clinical audit, clinicalassessment, and clinical surveillance formulated and governed by medical regulatorybodies.1. Clinical Audit: - Clinical audit is the process of setting explicit standards,measuring areas of medical practice against these standards and implementing anychange necessary to improve patient care. Recent development in clinical audit havebeen the encouragement of multidisciplinary project work and projects which followthe path of the patient across the primary and secondary care interface.2. Clinical Assessment: - A clinical assessment sometimes refers to as a healthassessment, is a documented process that is used to evaluate, diagnose, and treatindividuals. These assessments provide results that only take into account theindividual that is being evaluated, rather than evaluating individuals based on datathat is compiled from multiple sources. It helps to determine the nature, cause, andpotential effects of a patients injury, illness, or health. Some clinical assessments aremandated by federal agencies to ensure safe medical practices, or to disburse relatedhealth benefit payments.3. Clinical Surveillance: - A clinical surveillance (or syndrome survey)refers to thesurveillance (systematic collection, analysis, and Interpretation) of health data about aclinical syndrome that has a significant impact on public health which is then used todrive decisions about health policy and health education.http://performanceappraisalebooks.info/ : Over 200 ebooks, templates, forms forperformance appraisal.