will address the need stressed by the MA to better understand
how multiple ecosystem services are co-produced by social and ecological factors,
how management and governance of ecosystem services can support sustainable development and the fostering of social-ecological resilience
“ Welcome to the Anthropocene Humans have changed the way the world works. Now they have to change the way they think about it, too Humans have become a force of nature reshaping the planet on a geological scale—but at a far-faster-than-geological speed.” May 28th, 2011 Reconnecting to the Biosphere
ecosystem services are not generated by ecosystems alone, but by social-ecological systems.
social-ecological systems are interdependent complex systems of people and nature that are nested across scales
an interconnected global society with new cross-scale interactions (land-, seascapes)
“ The challenge of the Anthropocene is to use human ingenuity to set things up so that the planet can accomplish its 21st-century task. Increasing the planet’s resilience will probably involve a few dramatic changes and a lot of fiddling,…. often through simple and piecemeal actions, if they are well thought through. And one of the messages of the Anthropocene is that piecemeal actions can quickly add up to planetary change.” The Economist May 28, 2011
Resilience thinking: Persistence, Adaptability and Transformability
Resilience as persistence - capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds.
Adaptability - part of SES resilience, the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain).
Transformability is the capacity to shift and cross thresholds into new development trajectories.
the existence of potential tipping points (thresholds) and regime shifts and the challenges that implies,
the adaptive (creative) capacity of social-ecological systems to deal with such changes, uncertainty and surprise,
the ability to steer away from undesired regimes, innovate and possibly even transform social-ecological systems into new improved trajectories that sustain and enhance ecosystem services and human wellbeing.