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0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble
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0008 Talking Essay Kc Adjusted Nicola Gamble

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I've just nicked and adjusted the card-sort part of the 'talking essay' idea on the QCA innovating geography site - by Nicola Gamble from Comberton Village College - the idea is for the 6 big idea …

I've just nicked and adjusted the card-sort part of the 'talking essay' idea on the QCA innovating geography site - by Nicola Gamble from Comberton Village College - the idea is for the 6 big idea card to be placed on different tables, then students to be given 1 or 2 of the statements and they have to find the right 'big idea' card to place them... then they do some thinking skill / sorting exercise - 1 group per big idea (e.g. an order of importance etc)

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  • 1. Statements for ‘card sort’ • Over one million people live in over 600 favelas in Rio de Janeiro, for example Roçinha (with about 150 000 people). • The houses are constructed from any materials available, such as wood, corrugated iron and broken bricks. • The accommodation lacks basic services such as running water, sewerage and electricity. • The houses are often built on hillsides which means that, when it rains, flash floods can cause landslides. For example, in 1988 over 200 people died as a result of storms. • Inhabitants of favelas have no legal right to the land on which they live, which means that they can be evicted at any time. • Favelas are often associated with organised crime, violence and drug trafficking. • Despite the fact that the residents claim that crime has decreased, many richer residents are trying to move out of the city. • Because the city is surrounded by the coastline on one side and the mountains on the other, traffic is channelled along a limited number of routes within the city. • The high amount of traffic within Rio has caused severe congestion, pollution and noise.
  • 2. • Guanabara Bay is permanently covered in thick, industrial smog. • Huge amounts of waste and rubbish are produced by the large population of Rio. This has resulted in pollution of the coast, beaches and the sea. • Because of the polluted water supply and sewage in open drains, the local population is at risk from disease. For example, there was an outbreak of cholera in 1992. • A self-help scheme has been started by the local inhabitants of Rocinha. • Within Rocinha, local people have upgraded temporary wooden buildings to brick and tile. The local authorities have accepted these improvements and added electricity, paved and lit some of the steeper streets, and added more water pipes. • Local people have set up shops and small industries in Rocinha. This is known as the informal sector. • Improvements within Rocinha have been restricted by high-density housing and steepness of hillsides. • City local authorities have so far spent £500 million to improve the living conditions of around 300 favelas in the Favela-Bairro scheme. Favela-Bairro roughly translates as “shanty town to neighbourhood”. • The local authorities wish to transform the favelas by replacing buildings that are made of wood or built on dangerous slopes. Further, they wish to widen streets so that emergency services can
  • 3. gain access, and lay street pavements and concrete paths. • Within the selected favelas, pipes have been laid for water and cables for electricity. Further changes have been made through improving sanitation, adding health facilities and providing sports areas for local people. • During development of Favela-Bairro projects, local residents have been used for labour so that they can develop and use new skills. • However, favela residents that have benefited from Favela-Bairro are now required to pay tax to local authorities. • The more wealthy inhabitants of Rio have now begun to move out of the city to a new town, Barra da Tijuca; this is called counter- urbanisation. • Barra da Tijuca is located 20 km along the coast and can be reached via a new motorway which has been cut through tunnels under the mountains and on stilts built over the sea. • Inhabitants of Barra da Tijuca live either in modern, high-rise apartments or in detached housing with good facilities. • Shops, offices and places of entertainment have been built in Barra da Tijuca. These are easily accessible to local people as most families have their own car. • However, favelas have now developed in Barra da Tijuca. This is because poorer people are needed to clean, cook and do the less well-paid jobs within the new town.
  • 4. Problems in Rio de Janeiro: Housing
  • 5. Problems in Rio de Janeiro: Crime
  • 6. Problems in Rio de Janeiro: Traffic
  • 7. Problems in Rio de Janeiro: Pollution
  • 8. Potential Solutions: Self-help scheme in Rocinha
  • 9. Potential Solutions: The local authority Favela-Bairro project
  • 10. Potential Solutions: The new town of Barra da Tijuca
  • 11. Background (for staff) SE Brazil (Guanabara Bay) Largest city in Brazil – centre of industry and commerce – 6 million in conurbation Rapid urban growth including favelas, traffic and crime Problems within Rio de Janeiro • Housing Half-million homeless street dwellers Over 1 million people live in over 600 favelas, e.g. Rocinha Accommodation lacks basic services (running water, sewerage, electricity) Inhabitants have no legal right to the land on which they live Houses constructed from any materials available – wood, corrugated iron, broken bricks Live on hillsides – when it rains, flash floods cause landslides, e.g. in 1988 over 200 died as a result of storms • Crime Favelas associated with organised crime, violence and drug trafficking Residents claim crime has decreased High drugs use, especially cocaine Many well-off residents are trying to move out of city • Traffic Mountains hem in city – channels traffic along limited number of routes Severe congestion, pollution and noise • Pollution Industrial smog over Guanabara Bay Coast, beaches and sea are polluted Huge amounts of waste and rubbish produced Polluted water supply Sewage in open drains Health hazards, e.g. cholera in 1992 Attempts to solve some of Rio’s problems Self-help scheme in Rocinha • Upgrade temporary wooden buildings to brick and tile Set up shops and small industries – informal sector Authorities have accepted this and added electricity / paved and lit some of the steep streets / added more water pipes Improvements restricted by high-density housing and steepness of hillsides The local authority Favela-Bairro project • City authorities set aside £500 million to improve living conditions of Adapted from original by Nicola Gamble, Comberton Village College, Cambridgeshire
  • 12. some favelas Want to transform favelas socially and culturally including: - replacing buildings either made of wood or built on dangerous slopes - widened streets so emergency services can gain access - laying street pavements and concrete paths - laying pipes for water and cables for electricity - improving sanitation, adding health facilities and providing sports areas - using labour from within the favela so that residents can develop and use new skills BUT residents have to pay tax to local authorities The new town of Barra da Tijuca • More wealthy inhabitants have begun to move out of city to new town: counter-urbanisation New town 20 km along coast Four-lane motorway cut through tunnels under the mountains and on stilts built over the sea Shops, offices and places of entertainment Built along coast – sea and surf Accommodation in high-rise apartments – protected by security guards and containing modern amenities Detached housing Good bus service and many families have their own car BUT favelas have developed there – rich people need poor people to clean, cook, garden etc Nicola Gamble, Comberton Village College, Cambridgeshire Talking essay – issues in shanty towns This is an easy way into essay writing – it supports pupils in developing their ideas in depth without requiring large amounts of independent writing. Although this example explores issues and planning solutions within informal housing, the technique could easily be adapted for other topics. In previous lessons, pupils considered the variety of housing in Brazil and differences in quality of life between those living in different areas. They then explored the different ways of increasing quality of life in areas of informal settlement, with a particular case study in Rio de Janeiro. The essay title is introduced at the end of the previous lesson, and for their homework pupils considered the types of information which they might include when responding to the title.
  • 13. TALKING ESSAY: WHAT IS BEING DONE TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS OF SHANTY TOWNS IN RIO DE JANEIRO? • Write title on the board and explain the task – we will be examining the things that are being done to solve the problems in favelas in Rio. • Discuss as a class what the potential structure of this essay could be – what are the important BIG POINTS? (See ideas below.) • Give out a set of cards with problems & potential solutions of favelas in Rio (one slip per pupil) (see below for slips). • Have a set of BIG POINTS on larger cards (should match up with those decided in class – see examples below). • Pupils move around the classroom and fit their facts into one of the ‘big point’ categories. • Each group of pupils now adopts a ‘big point’ and its associated cards. Each group decides what the most important point on their cards is and WHY (pushes them into a discussion of the relative significance of one fact vis-à-vis another). Extra information can also be added in from their notes. Some groups have more information to deal with than others, so allocate pupils appropriately. • INTRODUCTION – pick someone who will make the introduction – discuss what should go in an introduction – need to give audience SIGNPOSTS – get a person from each group to say why their ‘big point’ is important and record this. • CONCLUSION – pick some representatives to go to form a ‘conclusion group’. • Each group given a period of time to ‘write’ their paragraph – each person should write a couple of sentences which they will then read out. • PERFORM THE ESSAY as a class. • Class discussion – any key points arising from the activity. Adapted from original by Nicola Gamble, Comberton Village College, Cambridgeshire
  • 14. What is being done to solve the problem of shanty towns in Rio? BIG POINTS Introduction Problems in Rio de Janeiro Housing Crime Traffic Pollution Potential Solutions Self-help scheme in Rocinha The local authority Favela-Bairro project The new town of Barra da Tijuca Conclusion
  • 15. Problems in Rio de Janeiro (reference sheet for teacher showing groupings) Housing • Over one million people live in over 600 favelas in Rio de Janeiro, for example Rocinha. • The houses are constructed from any materials available, such as wood, corrugated iron and broken bricks. • The accommodation lacks basic services such as running water, sewerage and electricity. • The houses are often built on hillsides which means that, when it rains, flash floods can cause landslides. For example, in 1988 over 200 people died as a result of storms. • Inhabitants of favelas have no legal right to the land on which they live, which means that they can be evicted at any time. Crime • Favelas are often associated with organised crime, violence and drug trafficking. • Despite the fact that the residents claim that crime has decreased, many richer residents are trying to move out of the city. Traffic • Because the city is surrounded by the coastline on one side and the mountains on the other, traffic is channelled along a limited number of routes within the city. • The high amount of traffic within Rio has caused severe congestion, pollution and noise. Pollution • Guanabara Bay is permanently covered in thick, industrial smog. • Huge amounts of waste and rubbish are produced by the large population of Rio. This has resulted in pollution of the coast, beaches and the sea. • Because of the polluted water supply and sewage in open drains, the local population is at risk from disease. For example, there was an outbreak of cholera in 1992. Adapted from original by Nicola Gamble, Comberton Village College, Cambridgeshire
  • 16. Attempts to solve some of Rio’s problems 1. Self-help scheme in Rocinha • A self-help scheme has been started by the local inhabitants of Rocinha. • Within Rocinha, local people have upgraded temporary wooden buildings to brick and tile. The local authorities have accepted these improvements and added electricity, paved and lit some of the steeper streets, and added more water pipes. • Local people have set up shops and small industries in Rocinha. This is known as the informal sector. • Improvements within Rocinha have been restricted by high-density housing and steepness of hillsides. 2. The local authority Favela-Bairro project • City local authorities have so far spent £500 million to improve the living conditions of around 300 favelas in the Favela-Bairro scheme. Favela- Bairro roughly translates as “shanty town to neighbourhood”. • The local authorities wish to transform the favelas by replacing buildings that are made of wood or built on dangerous slopes. Further, they wish to widen streets so that emergency services can gain access, and lay street pavements and concrete paths. • Within the selected favelas, pipes have been laid for water and cables for electricity. Further changes have been made through improving sanitation, adding health facilities and providing sports areas for local people. • During development of Favela-Bairro projects, local residents have been used for labour so that they can develop and use new skills. • However, residents in favelas that have benefited from Favela-Bairro are now required to pay tax to local authorities. 3. The new town of Barra da Tijuca • The more wealthy inhabitants of Rio have now begun to move out of the city to a new town, Barra da Tijuca; this is called counter-urbanisation. • Barra da Tijuca is located 20 km along the coast and can be reached via a new motorway which has been cut through tunnels under the mountains and on stilts built over the sea. • Inhabitants of Barra da Tijuca live either in modern, high-rise apartments or in detached housing with good facilities. • Shops, offices and places of entertainment have been built in Barra da Tijuca. These are easily accessible to local people as most families have their own car. • However, favelas have now developed in Barra da Tijuca. This is because poorer people are needed to clean, cook and do less well-paid jobs within the new town.

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