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Report prepared for SFPUC

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    Puc land audit_designscenarios_report Puc land audit_designscenarios_report Document Transcript

    • Preliminary Report on Possible Design Scenarios for Urban Agriculture and Food System Related Elements on SanFrancisco Public Utilities Commission Land Within City Limits Prepared by: Kevin Bayuk and Fred Bove, Instructors UC Berkeley Extension and Class Participants for Summer 2011 “Designing Sustainable Urban Food Systems” at UC Berkeley ExtensionPrepared for: Francesca Vietor, President San Francisco Public Utilities Commission
    • SummaryIn early summer 2011 Kevin Bayuk attended two meetings with Francesca Vietor and staff at SF PublicUtilities Commission (PUC), along with other representatives from the San Francisco UrbanAgriculture Alliance (SFUAA), to solicit feedback from PUC on SFUAAs draft policy platform. Inthese meetings, SFUAA learned of SFPUCs intent to develop a Policy Framework for CommunityBenefits and Land Access regarding potential uses of PUC controlled public lands (what types ofaccess are possible? what uses are possible? who gets access? Etc.) and the intent to develop a “pilotproject” regarding urban agricultural use of PUC land. Kevin offered to support PUC in developmentof the Policy Framework by having his students at UC Berkeley Extension develop scenario planningfor PUC sites already identified on the land audit completed by PUC pursuant to former Mayor GavinNewsomes 2009 Executive Directive on Healthy and Sustainable Food. This report shares a summaryof the scenario planning developed by the students of the UC Berkeley Extension Summer 2011“Designing Sustainable Urban Food Systems” class in order to help assist PUC in developing aninformed Policy Framework by describing feasible urban agriculture and food system uses of thefollowing sites: 1. College Hill Reservoir 2. Sunset Reservoir 3. Sutro Reservoir 4. University Mound Reservoir 5. Central Pump Station/Merced Manor 6. Lake Merced Tract 7. Richmond Transport 8. Laguna Honda Reservoir 9. Stanford Heights Reservoir 10. Shafter and FitchThese scenarios are not meant to be recommendations for use, but rather to inspire and inform landaccess policies about the potential uses. Should public access be considered for these sites, thesescenarios could be used as starting points for collaborative design planning with local communitygroups, residents, SF PUC and other stakeholders. These site assessments and design scenarios arestudent work and are presented “as is”. Please forgive any formatting or grammar errors. Highresolution images are available for any embedded image.Contact for more information:Kevin Bayukkevin@uas.coop415-999-5354
    • Table of ContentsSummary....................................................................................................................................................2College Hill Reservoir...............................................................................................................................4 Assessment............................................................................................................................................4 Scenarios...............................................................................................................................................8Sunset Reservoir......................................................................................................................................12 Assessment..........................................................................................................................................12 Scenarios.............................................................................................................................................14Sutro Reservoir........................................................................................................................................18 Assessment..........................................................................................................................................18 Scenarios.............................................................................................................................................21University Mound Reservoir....................................................................................................................26 Assessment..........................................................................................................................................26 Scenarios.............................................................................................................................................27Central Pump Station / Merced Manor....................................................................................................29 Assessment..........................................................................................................................................29 Scenarios.............................................................................................................................................30Lake Merced Tract...................................................................................................................................34 Assessment..........................................................................................................................................34 Scenarios.............................................................................................................................................42Richmond Transport.................................................................................................................................60 Assessment .........................................................................................................................................60 Scenarios.............................................................................................................................................62Laguna Honda Reservoir.........................................................................................................................67 Assessment..........................................................................................................................................67 Scenarios.............................................................................................................................................68Stanford Heights Reservoir......................................................................................................................70 Assessment .........................................................................................................................................70 Scenarios.............................................................................................................................................72Shafter and Fitch......................................................................................................................................76 Assessment..........................................................................................................................................76 Scenarios.............................................................................................................................................77
    • College Hill ReservoirBy: Josh PainterAssessmentCollege Hill Reservoir is located in the Bernal Heights neighborhood between Brook Street andAppleton Avenue, near Holly Park. Constructed before the Civil War, it is the oldest reservoir in SanFrancisco. The reservoir stores approximately 13 million gallons of water. Main water lines from thenorth side of the reservoir travel through the Mission district and supply an area including City Halland the Tenderloin. The reservoir area is fenced in and is bordered by homes on Gladys Street on thenorthwest and Brook Street on the northeast. Elsie Street to the southeast is adjacent to the fencesurrounding the reservoir. The dimensions of the reservoir area are approximately 500 by 600 feet. Themain entry point is at the south corner at the intersection of Appleton Ave and Elsie Street. There is agate that allows vehicle access and an internal roadway that circles the reservoir. An additionalpedestrian access point is halfway along Santa Marina Street between homes. View of reservoir from Holly park hillside across Elsie Street
    • The site has a downward slope towards Gladys street on the Northwest. The reservoir itself occupiesthe flat area of the site at the south corner. The highest point on the site is at the south corner, which isat 270 feet above sea level. The top of the covered reservoir surface is at at 260 feet above sea level,and the lowest point is at the northern corner at 200 feet above sea level.Elevation view showing slope to northwest towards Gladys St.Sun exposure in the Bernal Heights neighborhood is good due to the area being out of the fog belt. Thepredominant wind comes from the Northwest. The site, as a pronounced area on a hillside, is fairlyexposed to wind, but there is a good deal of wind protection afforded by the exiting trees on the site.These are mostly Acacia and Monterey Cypress. There is a landscaped area with additional trees andshrubs along the Elsie street border. Soil quality has been improved over much of the area with a woodchip mulch. A shrub and tree landscaped area has been created in the area along the fence between thereservoir and Elsie Street.Acacia trees on Appleton Ave. side slope Landscaping along Elsie street, perimeter fence and Monterey Cypress in background.The Bernal Heights neighborhood is community oriented and residents are known for cooperating withCity agencies well. There are several community gardens in the neighborhood including Bernal HeightsCommunity Garden, Ogden Terrace Community Garden, and Good Prospect Community Garden.Good Prospect Community Garden is located near the reservoir at Prospect Street and CortlandAvenue. In a small area, this garden has a large variety of plants including roses, sweet peas, thyme,lemon verbena, Russian sage, and fruit trees. On Appleton Avenue on the southwest side the reservoir
    • is partially bordered by a preschool, the Junipero Serra Child Development Center. This preschool hasa small vegetable garden.Good Prospects Community Garden Junipero Serra Child Development Center GardenIn the western corner of the site along Elsie Street there is an area of about one fifth acre that issurrounded by a secondary fence (Area 1 on map). Because this area is separated from the rest of thesite, has potentially good access to Elsie Street, is not being utilized currently, and has good sunexposure, it is a primary area to consider for sustainable food system element development. This areacould be given its own access by a gate entrance to Elsie Street. Entrance to Area 1 would not meanaccess to the primary reservoir area. This could potentially simplify any security issues. Area 1, showing internal fence and sun exposueAnother area to consider for food system development would be the flat open space to the west of thereservoir (Area 2 on map). This area currently has some sparse groundcover and some bare ground. Itis fairly barren and does not appear to have planned landscaping. It has good sun exposure and issituated next to the access road around the reservoir, which would be useful for the movement ofsupplies and produce. It is next to the Junipero Serra Child Development Center.
    • Area 2, showing proximity to Junipero Serra Child Development Center
    • ScenariosScenario 1: College Hill Reservoir Area 1: Community GardenThe internal fence that borders Area 1 would make it possible to give this area a separate gate and makeaccess less restricted for users than would be for the main College Hill Reservoir area. It may bepossible to have an unlocked gate. Because of its’ separation and its proximity to the Good ProspectsCommunity Garden, it’s most natural role might be as a part of the neighborhood’s community gardensystem. The food produced by this garden could be distributed to the neighborhood, sold at a farmer’smarket, or donated to a food bank.The featured plan for Area 1 contains permaculture style elements that are designed to produce adiversity of food items with the least amount of maintenance and inputs required in the long term.There is a focus on perennial species and the interrelation of plants to create self-sustaining ecosystems.The layout of elements is designed to provide the easiest access to elements that are used the mostoften.The proposed gate would be on Elsie Street, near the west corner of the site. Inside the gate would becompost bins, situated for the easiest access. Near the compost bins could be an “herb spiral” plantingfeature. This is an efficient way to grow many herbs together by creating different microclimates. Sinceherbs are something that needs to be picked often for cooking, this feature is placed near the gate aswell.The vegetable planting beds are designed to be no-till. This requires more materials at the beginning,but requires less energy in the long term and better preserves the health of the soil. Additionally, the useof mechanized equipment is not required. The beds would initially be created by the importation ofoutside materials. A “sheet mulch” using layers of used cardboard covered with organic material suchas horse manure and wood chips would cover the ground. This would eliminate weeds, build new soil,and create the mounded planting beds. This plan features “keyhole” style planting beds. This is amethod of providing good access to a dense planting area. Gardeners can situate themselves in thepathway connected “keyhole” area of each square shaped area of planting bed and have access to all ofthe plants in that area without having to continually move along the bed. The mounded beds wouldhave internal drip irrigation, and use nitrogen fixing plants such as clover in conjunction with thevegetables. The beds run perpendicularly to the slope of the area and would act as swales to slow andcapture water flow.The site features fruit tree “guilds”, which are combinations of trees and understory plants thatmutually benefit each other. For example, a plum tree provides shade. Clover and fava beans arenitrogen fixing. Yarrow attracts beneficial pollinating insects. Onions suppress pests. Borage acts as anaccumulator, mining minerals from the soil. The plant can then be used as fertilizer. The productionpurpose of the site’s fruit tree guilds is fruit and berry production: figs, plums, apples, lemons, pears,raspberries, blueberries, and mulberries.
    • Scenario 2: College Hill Reservoir Area 2: School GardenAcacia and Monterey Cypress trees cover much of the Santa Marina Street, Appleton Avenue, andGladys St perimeter areas around the reservoir, making these areas less suitable for sites. The ElsieStreet side has it’s own landscaping scheme which makes it unusable. The most promising area insidethe reservoir fence is the open flat undeveloped area to the west of the reservoir, adjacent to theJunipero Serra Child Development Center, a preschool. It is possible that this school, which already hasa small garden in front, would be interested in having a school lunch garden program.The Edible Schoolyard is a one acre garden at Martin Luther King Jr. Middle School in Berkeleystarted by Alice Waters of the Chez Panisse Foundation. This program involves students in theeducational aspects of real farming and gardening as well as food preparation while providing food forhealthy lunches. The preschool students of the Junipero Serra Child Development Center may be tooyoung to participate in every area of a program like this, but there is a nearby elementary school atHighland Avenue and Holly Park Circle, the Junipero Serra Elementary School. This school is only oneblock away from the entrance of the reservoir at Elsie Street and Appleton Avenue. It would be possiblethat students could be led in a group over to the College Hill Reservoir garden to participate. Any
    • potential security issues around the use of a garden area inside the reservoir perimeter fence could bemade easier by the use of official school groups. Additionally, a secondary inside fence could becreated to prevent users of the garden from entering the main reservoir area.The plan proposes the development of the garden at the southern end of Area 2 (marked ‘A’ on the firstmap), due to its proximity to the school. Possibly a gate could be created for special school group useonly. The flat area labeled ‘B’ is also promising as a potential extension to the initial area. The arealabeled ‘C’ sloping and contains some trees, but may be suitable for a terraced orchard development.The plan for Area 2 features most of the same elements as Area 1, but adds the element of a windbreaking tree guild, or hedgerow. The flat topography and top of the hill location indicate that this areawould sustain a lot of wind. The hedgerow would protect the intensive annual beds from wind comingfrom the northwest. The space-efficient “keyhole” planting bed style is shown in the plan, but may notbe needed due to the amount of space that is available in the northern direction of the site.Aside from the use by the neighborhood school, other possible uses of this area as a sustainable foodproduction site may include small scale local “market garden” commercial farming use communityfood center use.ConclusionLocated in the center of a residential area that shows interest in community gardening, College HillReservoir has strong potential to become part of the production side of a local sustainable food system.Community connections can be made in this area to make the use of this site as a sustainable foodproduction area a practical reality today.
    • Sunset ReservoirBy: Luke SuchyAssessmentThe reservoir contains a large amount of grassy lawn areas on the North and North West edges of theproperty. It contains a large amount of slope (up to 15% in some areas) along the edges with fairlysandy soils. There are no known toxins in the soil, but it is likely most of fill may have come from onsite excavation of reservoir. Due to its elevation and relationship to the coast, moderate to heavy windsand frequent episodes of moderate to dense fog are common. Most of the arable land is on the North-facing and North West facing slopes, which I will be focusing on. There are other opportunities alongthe other edges with more gradual slope as well. The 25,000 solar panels lie on the roof of the Northhalf of the reservoir. There is a fairly new and well-maintained landscape containing low vegetationthat offers a buffer zone around the North side of the reservoir.
    • ScenariosThere is a locked gate on the South side with ample space on the interior for a possible screened
    • compost drop-off area. Accessibility is a big question with this scenario, but would provide a moreconcealed area for composting. This may be a solution to potential complaints of visible compostingareas. The Eastern Side has a rectangular open grass area that is adjacent to the large power and“electrical” boxes. The metal boxes could be screened from the public by having a compost area anddrop-off at this location.The South, South Western and South Eastern edges could have potential for fruit trees and edibleclimbers along the fence line. These are areas that would not interfere with the solar panels receivingproper solar light. The strip of lawn area on the South Western edge has a slight slope (5%), but couldbe used for food production. It is low enough and has trees higher up on the slope that would providefor a fairly protected area from the wind. One concern would be getting enough sun light in this area.The area of extreme interest and possibly has the most potential for producing food in a timely fashionlies on the North West corner of the site. It is a triangular shaped plot of land measuring approximately30,000 sq. feet. The plot could potentially produce a yield of 15 – 25 lbs. of food a week. The area iscurrently grass with a few existing trees (type needs to be investigated), and has a walking path throughthe middle of it. The plan of action would involve investigating the soil more extensively, then sheetmulching the entire area. This would build up the biomass to a level that is ready to be planted. It issuggested that there be a fruit guild set up here (planting plan in power point). The fruit guild couldoperate under permaculture principles and guidelines. Involvement of the local high school (AbrahamLincoln High) that is located at the South Eastern corner of the reservoir to help maintain and managethe area is a possibility to be explored. It was stated on the school website last year that the eco clubwas in need of a school garden. This could provide the opportunity to help educate the kids involvedwith permaculture and how urban food systems can work. The fruit guild could provide food for thefarmers market and/or a community forage plot. The possibility of the school providing parking forweekend market days in exchange for the use of the land is one to explore further.The farmers market would be located on the North side of the reservoir, along a fairly flat linear paththat wraps around the upper boundary of the property. The cement path has the stability and the widthfor vehicular or flatbed cart traffic for unloading and loading at the market. It is a wonderful spot forviews of the city and has benches and a grassy hill to socialize and relax. Another area for further
    • research would be who would be participating in the market and how far would the radius be for peopleto travel to market, as well as logistics on types of food etc.
    • Possible Integrated Design Scenario 1. Compost Drop-off Site 2. Fruit Tree Guild 3. Farmer’s Market/Fruit-Vegetable Stand(s)The three main recommendations for the highest use of the site relate to a few themes:a. Keeping Carbon on Site – The local compost drop off site will provide an opportunity for buildingbiomass and provide a healthy soil matrix for growing conditions around the reservoir. The idea is forresidents of the sunset district to have the opportunity to drop off compostable materials and eventuallyin return receive a share of food from the yield. The fruit guild could act as a food commons for peopleparticipating in building the biomass/composting on site or volunteering at the farmer’s market/fruitstands.b. Slow It, Spread It, Sink It (pertaining to rainwater and drainage systems) – The slope above the fruitguild provides an opportunity for water filtration and water conveyance to help irrigate the agriculturalareas. The current concrete culverts direct all the water into storm water drains and essentially wastethe water instead of putting it into good use on site. The reconfiguration of the culverts and addingswales and canals to properly sep up the system still needs hydrological design attention. The need foradded irrigation is likely and could be powered around the solar energy produced by the panels on site. c. Close the Loops - The relationship of production, distribution, consumption, and cycling isspecifically addressed in this design. The fruit tree guild and possible edible fence lines will providesome food for the community. It will also serve as a model and hopefully lead to more ediblelandscapes within the neighborhood. When enough biomass and healthy soil has been achieved at thereservoir, then the Food Forest will continue to thrive and expand. There are still many spaces andopportunities that could prove to be efficient in food production around the reservoir, even on moderateto steep slopes. The distribution and consumption of food relates to the farm stand and communityparticipation in exchange for access to the food commons (fruit guild). The compost drop-off and sheetmulching relate to cycling and giving back to the land as it provides for us. Involving the localschool(s) and organizations adds to the educational process, which will in turn, be importantknowledge, techniques, and ethics for the future of the local food system. The design is aimed atLOCAL production, distribution, consumption, and cycling. Just as the reservoir serves the communityas a model for reusable energy, the sunset district could be a leading example of the sustainable urbanfood systems model.
    • Sutro ReservoirBy: Natalie ForsythAssessmentMaps, Dimensions and ElevationsSitting just below Sutro tower, the Sutro Reservoir and Midtown Terrace Recreational Area is on thewestern slope of Twin Peaks. The elevation is around 500 ft above sea level. It lies just below thelooming Sutro Tower, which is less than a half mile away up the hill. The site is close to the geographiccenter of the city, located in the hills to the east of the Sunset District.The areas outlined in blue are the suggested sites to examine for the site. The full dimensions of thearea, including the reservoir measures 592,852. The sections of the site which are being directlyassessed for this project make up a much smaller area. The land of the site has both flat and extremelysteep sections. The small triangular-shaped field to the west of the recreation building (white roofed building at thecorner of Clarendon and Olympia.) is 3,100 square feet. This corner of the site has a gentle, nearlynegligible, slope from the corner up to the doors of the recreation center. The strip of land to the northof the reservoir is 28,000 square feet. This section beyond the reservoir is either very steep or quitesteep, held up by a retaining wall. It is so steep that it would not be easily climbed on foot. The sectionwhere the retaining wall is is slightly less steep.The field to the east of the community center is 25,000 square feet. This field is very flat, with a steeperslope on the north side leading up to the reservoir.Sector AnalysisThis hilly location guarantees strong wind from the ocean, across the Sunset and up and over theMidtown Terrace neighborhood. It seems to be windy most of the time. With this wind often comes
    • fog. The fog, which roles around Sutro tower, is also constantly rolling over this site. During site visitsthroughout the summer months, the sun was never witnessed. The sun must emerge at times, but fogand wind are the predominant weather characteristics of the area.People frequently interact with this land. Throughout the site visits, it became apparent how active thissite is in the community, and how important it is for community purposes. It seems to be a place ofrecreation, with people playing with their children, their dogs and doing exercise. There are sectionsthat are clearly not accessible to humans, such as the top of the reservoir, and the steep hills around thereservoir. These are clearly marked with fences and signage. Otherwise, the park is an open space forthe community to engage with how they see fit.Site History and Current UsesThe Sutro Reservoir was built in 1952 and holds 32 million gallons of water. It is a large space witharound 300,000 square feet of rooftop covering the reservoir. The top of the reservoir used to becovered with tennis and basketball courts. When the top of the reservoir was redone (for siesmicstabilization) in 2006, they intended to put the courts back on top, but due to some design issue, has notyet been completed. Many community members miss this space. (Historical information gathered fromhttp://www.sutrotower.org/)The Midtown Terrace Neighborhood Association The Midtown Terrace neighborhood was designed asa planned community in 1957. Characteristics of note about the neighborhood include the following:●All Midtown Terrace homes are separated and detached.●There are no homes built directly behind one another. All Midtown Terrace homes are separated by a strip ofland called a green belt.●All telephone lines, power lines and utilities are located underground.●The 817 homes located in Midtown Terrace neighborhood are represented by a homeowners associationdedicated to fostering better homes and better community life.(Statistics from Midtown Terrace Homeowner’s Association:http://www.midtownterrace.net/community.html)The Sutro Reservoir site is a cornerstone of the community where people are consistently engagingwith the space for many different purposes, including but not limited to:-All ages of children playing at the recently replaced park structure-Soccer and other children’s sport practice and general playing in the field to the east of the communitycenter.-People walking their dogs around periphery of the park and using the paved walkways along the northand south sides of the reservoir to throw balls for their dogs to fetch.-Picnics on the field to the East of the Recreational Center.-Small children walking the stairs and pathways around the playground for exploring and going onadventures.-After school program as well as summer camp program at the Recreational Center.-Birthday parties at the Recreational Center, on the playground and on the field. Birthday parties oftenbring large inflatable “jumpy” houses, even pony rides.-Other social occasions when the community center is rented out, such as office parties.-Senior classes at the Recreational Center.-Basketball on the basketball courts.-Stretching and exercising around the reservoir.-Storing and preparing food for parties, camps, etc in the small kitchen in the Recreational Center.
    • Site AccessibilityThere are two roads which intersect at the suth-west corner of the site: Clarendon Avenue and OlympiaWay. Clarendon Avenue is the main thoroughfare connecting Laguna Honda Blvd and the rest of theSunset in the west to Cole Valley, the Upper Haight and the Panhandle of the city to the east. ClarendonAvenue is a steep and winding two to four lane road. This road seems to be traveled mostly by personalcars. No bicycles were observed. There is a bus line that goes through Midtown Terrace. It operatesabout every 20 minutes. It is the 36-Teresita (Forest Hill Station) line. Midtown Terrace is near thegeographic center of the city, so it’s accessibility to all parts of the city is theoretically great, ifsomewhat car-bound. The site itself is readily accessible to foot traffic. Many people were observedwalking from inside their neighborhoods to the site. Many people were also observed parking outsidethe recreation center, and then using the services of the recreation center and the park. There is apedestrian bridge that crosses Clarendon Avenue just north of the site. It clearly connects the school (onthe west side of Clarendon) with the site (on the east side of Clarendon.) This is important to notebecause of the in-place infrastructure that will continue to support this site as a community hub.Once on the site itself, it is not readily accessible to vehicular traffic. There are no obvious roads on thesite, and might require some infrastructural shift if it was necessary to bring in any sort of equipment todo work.Nearby Neighborhood Groups and OrganizationsMidtown Terrace Homeowner’s AssociationBrian McDermottP.O. Box 31097San Francisco, CA 94131415.675.5864Email: brian_mthoa@hotmail.comYahoo Group:http://groups.yahoo.com/group/midtownterraceClarendon Alternative Elementary School500 Clarendon AvenueSan Francisco, CA 94131-1113(415) 759-2796Second Community Child CareCooperatively-run preschool with parents directly involved in the community.500 Clarendon AvenueSan Francisco, CA 94131-1113(415) 759-1897www.secondcommunity.org/St. John Armenian Apostolic Church275 Olympia WaySan Francisco, CA 94131-1136(415) 661-1142stjohnarmenianchurch.comLaguna Honda Hospital and Rehabilitation Center
    • 375 Laguna HondaSan Francisco, CA 94127(415) 759-3333 (volunteers line)lagunahondavolunteers.orgSan Francisco Fire Department StationOn Olympia at Clarendon.ScenariosScenario: Community and Educational Garden:Community and Educational gardens are an important component to any sustainable urban foodsystem. It engages the community with the food growing process. When children work in gardens, theylearn where their food grows, how to care for the earth, and how to make the most responsibleenvironmental decisions. Since the site is so heavily used by children, creating an educational garden ison obvious addition to the site. The garden could be placed on the field to the east of the RecreationalCenter. As the field is quite large (25,000 sq. ft), it could take up the far eastern section perhaps takingup as much as 5,000 ft. Reducing the current play area by 1/5th. This garden could have individualplots for people in the community to garden as they see fit. There could be 50 garden beds measuring10 by 3 feet, taking up a total of 1,500 square feet in planting space, plus space needed for paths, etc.People could plant fog tolerant vegetables and flowers, artichokes and tree collards for example. As thearea is so foggy, windy and cold, a green house would be a necessary part of the community garden. Acomprehensive composting system would also be part of a well functioning garden space.Yields:- education of community on gardening, cooking and food preservation.- individual yields of the community plots- 1,500 square feet of gardening space- 50 families gardening who would not be otherwise- increased community involvement and connection- increased awareness around food productionQuestions:-What is current irrigation infrastructure?-Who would be the organizing group?-Could netting or other barrier (fruit trees?) be put up between the play field and the garden? (So thatballs would not constantly go into the garden.)-What would be the best material for the green house? (for warmth, as well as strength- in case oferrant balls)-Would it be worth using the space for this in terms of sunlight-fog ratio?Scenario: Farmer’s MarketFarmer’s markets allow neighborhoods to shop for nutritious whole food close to home. They allowfarmer’s to sell their food in a consistent way. Relationships develop between farmers and communitymembers. The farmer’s market becomes a gathering place for the community.A small scale farmer’s market with about 10 vendors would be appropriate for this site- includingvendors who sell vitamin and mineral rich perishable fruits and vegetables, eggs, dairy and meat, as
    • well as other food items such as bread, grains and nuts. On this site, the market would work well as anafternoon week day market. Many people already frequent the area making use of the playground, afterschool programs and sports practices. It could become a consistent part of the communities routine,supplying them with fresh, nutritious food and enriching community life. The market could be on thefar southwest triangular corner of the site, where Clarendon and Olympia Way meet. As this would beonly one afternoon a week, the area would be free for usual uses for most of the week.Yields:-ability for community to buy nutritious, whole food within neighborhood (there are currently nogrocery stores within the neighborhood.-greater opportunity for community development-greater percentage of communities money going to local food sources, rather than large super marketchains-education of children and community members about the importance of a local, decentralized foodsystem-income for farms participating in market-more time for community members to be with family, not shopping farther from homeQuestions:-What sort of community outreach would need to happen to make a farmer’s market successful?Scenario: Demonstration Fog Collection AreaTechnology on fog collection is currently advancing with some real success stories throughout aridregions of the world. These systems work by placing “fog fences” in the path of the fog. The fog thencondenses on the fences and drips down into a collection barrel. “Larger fog collectors ofapproximately 40 square meters, which can produce 200 liters per day, can be set up for $1000 to$1500 each. The system is completely passive, requires no energy inputs, and can last ten yearsprovided it’s taken care of.” Summer in San Francisco is notoriously foggy. The summer months arealso generally rain-free. The ability for the San Francisco peninsula to accumulate water during the dry,but foggy, months would be a great step in being water-independent. The western slope of Twin Peaks,which is often totally socked in with fog, would be a perfect location for a test demonstration site of fogcollection. With the large and constant circulation of community members around the site, it is a greatopportunity to not only collect water, but also to educate the community members on waterconservation and collection. The best location on the site for fog collectors is perhaps on the backretaining wall on the far north side of the site. Could also perhaps be on top of the reservoir, or on thefar east side of the reservoir. Could also be placed on the eastern edge of the community garden,allowing the immediate utilization of the water collection as irrigation in the garden.
    • Yields:-Education around water conservation, supply/collection-Accumulated water, perhaps to use as irrigation water in the demonstration garden.-Potential to teach the whole Bay Area about the value and logistics of fog collection-Moving towards water independence for San Francisco-PR value of high impact image for SF PUCQuestions:Would it be possible to use this water for irrigation on the site?How much water could be collected at this site?How many hours of fog are there yearly?What direction do the fog cloths need to face in order to best collect the fog?How would this information impact the suggested preliminary placement on the site?Resources:http://www.fogharvesting.com/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fog_collectionhttp://www.fogquest.org/http://www.oas.org/dsd/publications/unit/oea59e/ch12.htmhttp://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2011/03/07/the-fog-collectors-harvesting-water-from-thin-airScenario: CSA- Community Supported Agriculture- Pick Up SiteCommunity Supported Agriculture is a method of purchasing vegetables and fruits, directly from afarm, through a weekly box supplied at a pick up site. The CSA is purchased at the beginning of thefarming season, and allows the farmers to have the up-front capital needed for the season.
    • If one farm could supply the community of Midtown Terrace with a CSA delivered to the site, thendozens of homes would receive all the vegetables and most of the fruit that the families would need forthe week by simply dropping by the neighborhood playground. Having a farm in the peri-urban that theneighborhood supported would create more community connection.Yields:-Healthy nutritious food reaching the community on a weekly basis without having to travel out of theneighborhood-Greater community involvement, a whole neighborhood supporting one farmResources:http://www.wilson.edu/about-wilson-college/fulton/robyn-van-en-center/index.aspxhttp://www.csafarms.org/csafarms0656231.asphttp://www.ecovian.com/s/sanfrancisco/csahttp://nuttyfig.com/2011/03/starting-a-successful-csa-tips-from-the-calif-small-farm-conference/Placement of Different Possible Elements on SiteMapFarmer’s Market and CSA Pickup- small yellowish triangle on SW side
    • Community and Demonstration Garden- small red section in the fieldFog collectors- blue lines on far north side and on reservoir itself.Possible Integrated Vision for the SiteThe primary goal for using this site as a component of the San Francisco sustainable food system willbe to bring greater awareness and action around the food system to the Midtown Terrace community,including over 800 homes. This site is already at the center of the neighborhood, with communitymembers using the site daily. With a shift in the focus of the land purpose and use, the wholeneighborhood can become more empowered and enlivened to engage with a sustainable food systemdirectly inside their own community.Production Elements:-Educational garden, including community plots and greenhouse, chickens and geese-Hardy fruit trees planted throughout area on gentle slopes-Hands-on educational programming on gardening, from seed saving to food productionDistribution Elements:-Micro Farmer’s Market, including fresh fruits and veggies, grains, nuts and seeds, eggs, dairy andmeat-CSA pick-up site, possibly an egg CSA from the chickens on the site-Educational opportunities at Farmer’s Market about why local, decentralized food systems areimportantConsumption Elements:-Snacks for after school program provided by garden and orchard trees, when possible-After school program food also supplied by micro-farmer’s market, or perhaps CSA-Community garden plot yields consumed in private homes-Hands-on educational programming on cooking, food preservation and nutrition in commercialkitchen in the recreation centerCycling Elements:-Composting system, possibly vermiculture, taking all compostables from garden and from recreationcenter, near greenhouse, taking advantage of thermal and wind block-Grey-water and black-water recycling in the recreation center, used as fertilizers-Fog collection site, used to irrigate garden and educate community-Educational programming on water conservation, purification and compostingBy incorporating different elements from each of the stages of the food system, this design for the siteat Midtown Terrace, guarantees an expanding positive interaction between the community and the foodsystem. Emphasizing community involvement throughout the design is necessary for this site, as it isalready hugely utilized by the community. There are already many students and children who use thesite daily. By shifting land use, the children will still be learning and playing, with the food system atthe center of their activities. Children are an essential element in helping their parents make transitions.Through the stacking of functions, as well as maximizing the input and output to each of the elements,this design has the potential to create a comprehensive plan that will be able to serve the communitythrough education, community growth, food production and distribution.
    • University Mound ReservoirBy: Tim RyanAssessment 1. Orientation- The site is rectangular in shape, the longest side(s) is parallel to a south/southeast-north/ northwest axis 2. Street Boarder(s)- University St. (west-side), Felton St. (north-side), Bowdoin St. (east-side) and Woosley St. (south-side). Bacon St. bisects the property on an east/northeast- west/southwest axis, (currently it is closed to the public but scheduled to reopen) 3. Elevation changes- The roof of each reservoir is the highest & flattest area on the site, the planted area(s) descend at different slopes from the reservoir toward the street(s). The greatest change in elevation is on the Southeast corner. 4. Wind/Surrounding Terrain- the Northern side is the most exposed to winds, as it is located near the break in the mountains running north along the peninsula (I-280 runs through this corridor). The rest of the site is somewhat protected by hills rising to an elevation of nearly 500’ which wrap around the Southwest corner. This elevated feature is important also to the drainage around the site. The southwest corner of the site is located near the base of a valley which funnels rainwater run-off toward the reservoir. 5. Area with Existing Plantings - The majority is located on the southern & eastern edge(s) of the rectangle with a small strip on the northern side of the property. 6. Existing Trees- Within the property are mostly Cupressa macrocarpa- “Monterey Cypress” and along the street Arbutus marina “Strawberry Tree” 7. Structures/Paved areas- The reservoir(s) occupy the majority of the site. In the north section are maintenance sheds & storage, a pumping station and parking lot. In the south section are several small maintenance sheds. There is a two-story house on the corner of University & Bacon St. with a small garden enclosed by the fence, which also surround the reservoir. 8. Access- An area on the northern side is the only section that is not fenced off. There is a staircase located near the pumping station on Felton St. This area is terraced with two retaining walls. 9. Fencing- most of the property is surrounded by a +10’ high chain-link fence.Surrounding Neighborhood(s) 1. Parks a. John McLaren Park, specifically the Louis Sutter Playground, is adjacent to the property of the southwest corner. b. Palega-Portola Recreation Center is one block east on Felton St. 2. Schools within a 5-10min walk a. St. Elizabeth’s b. Edward R Taylor Elementary c. Martin Luther King Middle d. Phillip & Sala Burton Academic High e. Hillcrest Elementary f. Cornerstone Academy (2 locations) 3. Other Organizations a. University Mound Ladies Homes is an assisted living center adjacent to the property at University St. & Bacon St. 4. Unused/ Abandon Property
    • a. Greenhouse adjacent to the property at Bowdoin St. & Woolsey St.Questions about the site 1. Granting access to fenced areas (excluding the roof of the reservoirs) a. Could student groups be allowed to farm the site under the guidance of teachers during designated hours? 2. Is the house on the corner of University and Bacon St. used/owned by the PUC or is it a private residence. Could it be used as to store gardening tools, distribution of food, as a teaching center and/or a residence for an on-site care taker(s)? 3. Would the PUC be will (in the future) to re-position the fence surrounding the southern reservoir to allow access to the planted area?Scenarios 1. Immediate use of the north side to create a teaching garden for local schools a. Create a wind break using fruiting trees which will eventually replace aging Cypress and Eucalyptus trees b. Use those trees (as they are removed) for construction timbers and/or mulch on or off- site. Timber could also be sold to local artisans as a raw material. c. Create smaller terraces to make plant-able areas easier to access 2. Begin outreach to local schools, the Rec. center and the University Mound Ladies Home for participants as wells Non-profit organizations focusing on a. Grant students, supervised by teachers/ instructors, scheduled access to southern section to begin farming existing soils. b. Students may use time on site toward community service hours c. Programs matching students with the elderly
    • 3. Fences as support for climbing edible plants a. Structures are already in place b. Use of several varieties of climbers c. Plants will a an aesthetic quality to the site, softening the harsh feel and look of the chain-link4. Installation of Solar Panels, based on results of the Sunset Reservoir Solar project a. This site is larger and more than likely experiences more sun exposure than the Sunset location5. Rainwater collection-Based on the surrounding topography a. Construct rain gardens where the street(s) meets the curb edge to capture and clean street run-off. These would be best located on the south and west sides of the site. (this system can daylight the historic location of a creek that flowed toward the Yosemite slough) AND/OR b. Construct rain gardens at the edges of the reservoirs to collect and clean reservoir run- off. These would be best located on the south and north sides of the site c. These rain gardens could catch the “1st flush” and allow the overflow to collect in basins to provide irrigation to the on-site gardens.6. Create an orchard a. The southern section of the site can support a large number of trees. b. Fruiting trees could begin to replace existing/aging trees, c. An orchard would need less daily maintenance than a vegetable garden requiring fewer visits to fenced/ secured areas on the site d. Trees selected for the orchard should bear fruit/nuts during various times of the year to spread the yield and work load.7. An education center/ Teaching Kitchen a. The yellow house on University & Bacon could be used to prepare meals using food grown on site b. If there is an existing kitchen small groups of students could attend classes on preparation methods and nutrition related to the foods grown on site.8. Transformation of Bowdoin St. a. This street could be easily closed on a temporary basis or permanently to host a farmers’ market or small festival b. Food from the site’s garden as well as off site farms could be sold here. c. This street could also become an extension of plant-able space by building soil on top of existing road surface. d. As the area is unfenced, admission would require a lower level of supervision.
    • Central Pump Station / Merced ManorBy: Laura RoseAssessment • Rainfall – October through April are the wet months, while June through August are the driest. • Fog/Sun – Merced Manor is slightly south facing, just west of the ridgeline, so it receives good exposure when there is sun. It can be blanketed in fog during the foggy season, sometimes multiple times a day interspersed with sun, and receives approximately two thirds of possible sunlight annually. • Wind – The site is relatively exposed to a predominantly westerly wind, which averages around 8mph but can reach speeds of over 45mph. • People – RC Hobbyist on reservoir top, smokers, its a public open space, potentially active community and educational centers nearby. • Traffic – Lots of street noise from Sloat Blvd. • Site History – Central Pump Station was originally built at the Merced Manor Reservoir in 1915, and recently underwent a restoration that wrapped up in 2007. • Water – Located at reservoir, potentially irrigate that way. Other options include rainwater harvesting from the roof of the pump station and/or reservoir, or fog harvesting, with storage on-site. • Vegetation – Grass, white clover, cheeseweed, dandelions(few, and not very healthy), plantains. • “Weed” bio-indicators show that soil is somewhat compacted and nitrogen deficient. • Accessibility – Good accessibility for both vehicles and pedestrians, with lots of on-street parking and a potentially usable small parking lot behind the station. • Soil – Sandy, not obviously stained or chemically odiferous. ◦ Composition: ▪ 60-70% Sand, 20% Silt, 10% Clay, 5% Organic Matter • Elevation Characteristics – Located at 200ft above sea level. Large flat open area in NE corner of site, flat surrounding pump station at N end. Steeply sloping edge of land surrounding the reservoir, approaching 30 degrees on W and S edges, slightly less sloped along E edge.
    • Local/Community Organizations of Interest • San Francisco State University (Sustainability Committee or Friends of the Greenhouse?) • Lowell High School • Lakeshore Alternative Elementary • The Urban Farmer Store (not a community organization, but close by and may be interested in involvement)Risks/Unknowns • Water access for irrigation • Security concerns regarding reservoir • Community involvement • CostsScenariosScenario 1:Vision & Goals:To provide a space for community building and involvement, to provide an educational resource for thecommunity and nearby schools, to provide food and forage for local people, and to provide forage forbirds and insects, while cycling as many elements and closing as many loops with as little waste aspossible.Elements: • Greenhouse (for plant starts, tree starts, and slightly warmer/less foggy climate plants like tomatoes) • Thermal composting (if maintained and turned frequently with a good C/N balance, can also be used to provide some heat for the greenhouse. Innoculate with micro-organisms needed to help form a healthy rhizosphere in the soil. Should have three 4x4 batch compartments) • Community Garden (raised beds, natural slug traps)
    • • Tool shed • Berry/Fruit polycultural forage border (interplanted apple, plum, linden, blackberry, comfrey, fava beans, olallieberry, nasturtium, mint, etc, planted on slopes wrapping around reservoir, possibly on a couple of swales on contour dug/piled in) • Woodchip Distribution node • Rainwater Harvesting & Storage (from the roof of the central pump station building, and possibly the greenhouse roof)Estimated Yields: • Increased community awareness of issues surrounding urban food systems and healthy and complete human nutrition. • Increased community access to educational and material resources related to a sustainable food system. • Mulch, compost inputs, and finished compost • Thousands of pounds of fruits & vegetables per year, depending on community garden crops. • Bird & insect forageScenario 2Vision & Goals:To provide local access to market elements of a sustainable food system, provide forage for localpeople, birds, and insects, to provide a functionally aesthetic space for the neighborhood andcommunity, to produce a relatively healthy natural sweetner (honey), and to provide an access point fordistribution of useful waste from other parts of the system.Elements: • Outdoor (Seasonal?) Farmers Market (there are no Farmers Markets held anywhere within 3 miles) • Berry/Fruit polycultural forage border (interplanted apple, persimmon, linden, blackberry, elderberry, comfrey, fava beans, olallieberry, nasturtium, mint, white clover, dandelion, borage, etc, planted on slopes wrapping around reservoir, on a couple of swales on contour dug/piled in) • Herb Labyrinth (lavender, rosemary, sage, thyme, mint, yarrow, chamomile, etc. which together function as medicinals, spiritual metaphor, and stress reduction)
    • • Perennial Flowerbeds • Earthworks or benches • Woodchip Distribution node (waste woodchips to be upcycled in kitchen gardens, mulch, etc.)Estimated Yields: • More and better convenient local access to local, organic food • Honey • Calming space and Medicinal Herbs • Bird and insect forage, human forage (thousands of pounds of fruit, other forage, annually) • Mulch (chop and drop it in the forage border)Possible Integrated VisionTo create a context in which people positively interact with and influence their community towardsactive participation in more sustainable models of urban food production, better human health andnutrition, and education on the principles and specificity involved in those goals. This context will becreated by a diverse array of elements that interact in a complex system of mutual feedback thatmimics an ecosystem in order to derive most of its overall nourishment from within, and implementsvarious permaculture strategies to educate both participants and observers by their demonstration.The elements that will be involved in this system are: • A greenhouse, for plant and tree starts as well as growing a limited number of less frost and fog tolerant crops, such as tomatoes. • Next to the greenhouse, and rigged to heat and circulate water through the greenhouse from its active compartment(s) is set of three thermal composting containers, each 4x4, and teeming with appropriate microbial life, such as mychorhizal fungi and aerobic bacteria. This will serve as a method to replenish the soil in the garden and beginning food forest. • Also next to the greenhouse, rigged to capture water from the greenhouse roof and the central pump station roof is a cistern for storing rainwater. • Arrayed down the eastern side of the reservoir is a series of shade-cloth fog-condensers, each with a smaller cistern on the lower leg/support to catch the condensed fog runoff. • Wrapping around the south and west edges of the reservoir is a food forest with two polyculture guilds, an apple tree guild and a coastal live oak tree guild. • Bee boxes would be stacked along the northern edge of the reservoir, with a woodchip distribution pickup spot near the small parking lot directly behind the pump station, to distribute for kitchen garden/mulch upcycling. • In front of the Central Pump Station are two perennial flowerbeds to either side of the paths, with a healing herb labyrinth and earthwork benches between them. • Back around in the flat open space near the green house is a tool shed, more earthworks or benches, and a raised bed vegetable garden. The area around the greenhouse, shed, garden, and compost and water systems is fenced, with chayote squash growing on the fence.The greenhouse will provide some plant and tree starts for the garden and food forest, which couldprovide organic matter for the compost which will heat and nourish the greenhouse, and nourish thegarden. The rain and fog capture/storage systems will provide water for all of these elements, and theflower and herb gardens, and a demonstration of the potential of the techniques employed to helplocalize water use along with food production and consumption. The food forest will provide bird,
    • insect, and human forage in large quantity, as well as “chop and drop” mulch for itself. The bees willpollinate the food forest and gardens, assuring their production and future fecundity, and produce honeyfor human consumption.The forest will provide a multiplicity of functions, as will each of its elements. It will provide fruits,nuts, leafy greens, medicinals, edible roots, berries, and more for human consumption.The Food Forest is designed to slowly develop from pioneer plant communities to more complex,diverse, and stable communities whose interactions mimic natural forest ecosystems to build soil andregenerate the landscape. If we do it right it will transform itself into an interdependent network ofcooperatively self-maintaining systems.Structure: Two swales wrapping around the West and South edges of the reservoir to capture water andcounteract erosion.Initial Inputs: Sheet mulch, compost, water, seeds, startsSpecies Selection Notes: For trees, cultivars with borderline-frost tolerant and low chill characteristicsare suitable for this foggy west SF site.The start of an implementation timeline: • 1st 6 months: Start with community and local schools involvement, sheet mulching, One time inputs (compost, mulch, seeds, starts), Plant ground cover and all oak guild except climbers, Build swales • 1st Year: Oak guild established, soil building, plant apple guild, except climbers; Start harvesting, reap increasing yields from here on out. • 2nd Year: finish planting, continue to reap educational opportunities
    • Lake Merced TractBy: Lisa BarretThis report explains the context of the three PUC sites at Lake Merced – including both current landuse and features and historical land use and features—analyzes the unique features of each site, andproposes ten permaculture design ideas to develop local components of a sustainable food system. Theproposal also highlights relevant issues, such as the presence of pesticides, and addresses communityconcerns and groups that need to be part of any design considerations. Finally, the proposal presents acoherent long-term vision for use of the PUC sites that integrates elements of the ten individual designideas. The integrated vision outlines how the three PUC sites can be designed to recover lost energy,cycle energy toward food production, grow food sustainably, and ensure that lake visitors, localresidents, and area establishments directly benefit from both food production and food education at thethree sites.While many local conversations need to follow this proposal and precede design implementation, thepotential to implement a sustainable program that aligns with the goals of Lake Merced advocates andsupports the long-term health of lake ecosystems is both exciting and tangible.AssessmentThere are three PUC sites for possible development at Lake Merced:The three sites vary in size and geographical context:Surrounding Lake Merced are various local establishments, organizations, and resources that play arole in the local community and should play a role in determining the most effective use of the PUCsites within the local context:
    • Within close proximity of the lake are several golf courses, Lowell High School, San Francisco StateUniversity, the Zoo, and other groups and organizations that could contribute to a local, sustainableurban food program and/or benefit from it. In later design ideas, this proposal will circle back to howvarious local establishments and organizations might contribute volunteer time and resources toprogram components, and how they should be considered as main food consumers and programbeneficiaries.This proposal also takes seriously the established current uses of the lake area and the context of LakeMerced neighborhoods, to ensure that futures uses of the area will work well with (and also improve)existing local structures:
    • Current uses and usage features: *• Biking/walking path around the lake– Thin but steady stream of walkers, runners, bikers, dog walkers– Walking paths give access to the lake and are used by walkers, student groups,and fishermen• Three Golf Courses• Several restaurants, including banquets, weddings, golf tournaments, and regular dinersheld at Harding Park * Based on observations over two days, 7/2011 Current neighborhood: *• Mostly single family homes, denser on the north and west sides• Traffic on Skyline Blvd. on the west side of the lake is fast (45+ mph)– Almost no stop signs/intersections– Likely a high number of commuters– Relatively loud (both car and airplane noise)• Traffic on Lake Merced Blvd. on the east side is relatively slower (three5 mph)– More stops, traffic lights, residential off-shoot streets– Likely more residential traffic * Based on observation over two days, 7/2011An effective design will put local residents and lake users at its center, viewing them as theprimary local consumers of, volunteers for, and contributors to the various programcomponents. For example, residents may really appreciate a new local farmers’ market to buygood produce, but they may be more likely to go if it is in a highly visible location with easyaccess and attractive signage. Additionally, an effective design should complement current lakeuses and goals to ensure community support and program success.An effective permaculture design must also consider and work within the context of the area’s history,including changes to the lake area ecology and human impact over time, and Lake Merced hasundergone significant changes in the past 200 years. In the late 1700s, the lake area was covered insand dunes with minimal human usage, and the lake had an outlet to the sea. Today Lake Mercedfunctions as a city park with many human uses and includes a range of micro-ecosystems around thelake that vary in soil quality, flora, and fauna. Today there are also numerous, well-established non-native species of plants and animals that co-exist with the remaining native species in and around thelake. The following is a brief history of Lake Merced and its uses. Brief historical timeline:• Before 1774:– Dune landscape and ecology– Lake had an outlet to the sea– Inhabited by Ohlone Indians who used the lake for fish• 1774 – 1868:
    • – Passed from the Spanish to the Mexicans, used for limited but increasingagriculture– Increased grazing led to decreased grasses, increased brush• 1868 – 1890– Sea outlet disappeared– Spring Valley Water Company purchased water rights and exercised near-monopoly on city water, holding the city hostage for drinking water and fire fighting needs– City of SF built Hetch-Hetchy to ensure stable water source• 1890-1950– Without a monopoly SVWC sold off land pieces, housing/development began tosoar– Fort Funston was activated for military use in WWI and WWII• 1960 – present– Citizens established concern over water levels and loss of flora/natural habitat– PUC acquired water rights, charged with ensuring potable water supply andkeeping water levels from dropping– Water levels and health of the fishery have fluctuatedGiven both this historical context and the importance of contextualizing permaculture designs in localpriorities, it is worth noting the priorities established by a 1998 report commissioned by the SFPUC forthe purposes of establishing baseline information on the existing ecology of Lake Merced and settinggoals for future management: • The report stated that the number one priority of area management should be the use of Lake Merced as an emergency water source for San Francisco. • The report also listed three goals for a suggested Natural Resources and Education Program: 1. Enhance biodiversity. 2. Minimize human impact.3. Educate the public about natural resources and restoration.These three priorities inform the design ideas outlined later in this proposal and thedifferentiated approach suggested for the three (very different) PUC areas.Analysis of the Three Sites
    • The following analyses are based on site observations over two days in July 2011.1. Harding AreaWind • Strong wind from west and slightly from the north • Not much shelter provided by trees on this part of the lakeSunlight • Often overcast but with a lot of indirect light coming through cloudsSoil and • Gentle slope from parking lot down to the lakeElevation • Mostly grassy, manicured effect (mowed lawns) • Soil quality appeared good: black, rich texture, many earthwormsPlants • In terms of trees, eucalyptus dominate, also cypress • Some shrubs and grassesAnimals • Fish in the lake, dogs on leashes (relevant to all parts of the lake) • High concentration of seagulls on the abandoned building (southern side) with strong smell and large amount of feathers, poopPeople use • Observed use north of Harding Drive: Grills and picnic tables that show signs of recent use, walking paths, parking areas for 80+ cars, boat launch/storage area, student groups kayaking and learning water safety • Observed use south of Harding Drive: No obvious current human use; abandoned parking lot with chopped wood and cleared debris (possibly from the golf course), next to abandoned building • Heavy traffic/steady stream of cars to Harding Park Golf Course
    • 2. Sunset AreaWind • Regular wind from the west, not as strong as Harding but noticeable • Area directly west of parking lot is somewhat protected by older treesSunlight • Often overcast but with a lot of indirect light coming through cloudsSoil and • Steep slope from large parking lot down to the waterElevation • Area just southwest of parking lot has been developed for lake access: steep slope down with winding paved paths, bushes between paths • Area directly west of the parking lot appears untouched: sloping, tree- filled, flattens out at bottom, no walking paths • Soil seems to be loamy sand (from basic soap and water test)Plants • Trees are mostly eucalyptus; there are numerous small bushes • Thick growth in the “untouched” area directly west of the parking lot • Numerous flowering plants that need identification and analysis for existing food potential; Lake Merced Taskforce documents California blackberry (Rubus ursinus) and red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa)Animals • Fish in the lake, dogs on leashes (relevant to all parts of the lake)People use • Observed use: walkers and fishermen on the established paths • Use of the large parking lot (can hold approx. 100 cars) as a starting point for walking/running around the lake
    • 3. Middlefield AreaWind • Relatively strong wind from the west: less windy than Harding area, windier than Sunset area • Some protection from trees closer to the road, although sparseSunlight • Often overcast but with a lot of indirect light coming through cloudsSoil and • Flat elevation, level with roadElevation • Dry in appearance: golden-brown plants grasses and plants in contrast with green in the other parts of the lake • Soil seems to be loamy sand (from basic soap and water test)Plants • Mostly grasses • Sparse and younger trees (possibly eucalyptus, need identification)Animals • Fish in the lake, dogs on leashes (relevant to all parts of the lake, although in the Middlefield Area most people walk by on the path/sidewalk and are not stopping or exploring in this area)People use • No observed or formal use by people in this area; evidence of informal walking trails • Joggers, runners, and bikers pass by on the sidewalk/path on the edge
    • 4. Accessibility Cars • Overall easy car access with steady traffic  • More commuter traffic on the west side/ Skyline Blvd. (conjecture) • More local traffic on the east side/ Lake Merced Blvd. (conjecture) • Parking lot opposite Sunset Blvd. is large, easily visible, and attractive • Harding parking lot is smaller, invisible from the road, and suffers in parts from heavy amounts of bird manure and feathers • City should consider increasing access to the Sunset parking lot (e.g. for farmers’ markets): reconstruct north-west entrance to allow entry from west-bound cars exiting Sunset Blvd; possibly widen Lake Merced Blvd. by the eastern lot entrance to add a dedicated left-turn lane Bikes • Great bike lanes  • Could serve sunset neighborhood bike traffic • Not sure of neighborhood origin of bikers who use the lake paths Public Transit • At least one bus line  • Need more research on bus presence and use Pedestrians • Walkers currently appear to be mostly exercisers who drive, park, and walk (based on observation and conjecture)  5. Concerns – Pesticides are being sprayed on Harding Park Golf Course: • Confirmed: Cleary’s 3336 fungicide; active ingredient: Thiophanate Methyl • According to a sign observed by the Harding Park Golf Course on 7/26/11, human access was slated to resume on 7/28/11 after the last round of spray • According to the EPA (http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/tm_red.pdf) Thiophanate Methyl is “a likely human carcinogen” and “is expected to pose a chronic risk to endangered birds, mammals, aquatic animals, and aquatic plants under most of the registered use scenarios” – Permaculture designs that are less “complex” will have a higher likelihood of sustainability and effective management for years to come, but more complex solutions may better involve the community and ultimately lead to long-term change. • E.g. A zoo waste composting program run in partnership with Lowell HS students that produces compost and energy for a garden that feeds zoo visitors may be more meaningful and impactful than a simple composting program, whereas a simple program may be easier to maintain but less meaningful/impactful. • Any permaculture design will need to answer the question of who will maintain these areas in 2, 6, 10, and 30 years. – Currently there is no composting at Lake Merced. Given the presence of energy bi- products from picnickers, dogs, birds, fish, grass cutting, landscaping, and the nearby zoo, there is a clear need for an energy cycling program to tap this resource. As a “must do,” the city should prioritize creating an effective composting program.
    • Outstanding QuestionsMany questions came up in researching design ideas to turn the PUC sites at Lake Merced intoworking parts of a sustainable urban food program. These questions should be fleshed out inthe next phase of design and in ongoing discussions of appropriate, effective uses of these sites: ? What pollutants are affecting the water quality of Lake Merced? What are possible permaculture solutions? ? How can Harding Park Golf Course use non-chemical pesticides? How can the city enforce eco-friendly practices? Is there a local permaculture solution? ? Does the zoo currently have an animal waste compost program? Does it compost/recycle all of its manure? How is energy regained from dead animals? ? What existing relationships at Lowell High School and/or SFSU can facilitate management of urban food program structures at Lake Merced? Based on relationships to date, what is the assessment of effort it would require vs. impact it would have to leverage Lowell/SFSU to manage such structures? ? What consumer markets can be tapped by food production at Lake Merced, e.g. Harding Park Golf Course (tournaments, dining, banquets, weddings, and normal users), SFSU community, shooting range visitors, local residents? ? How sustainable is the fishery? Is it possible to run a sustainable fishing program in the lake, i.e. no restocking? Are there bi-products of the fishery that can be utilized for the energy cycle in an overall urban food program? ? Is there a way to manage seagull manure to result in energy benefits and minimize annoyance (smell, appearance) for lake visitors? ? What material are the clay pigeons used by the shooting ranges? Is there a good permaculture re-use for bi-products? Are there sustainable clay pigeon material options that can benefit an urban food program (a la rock dust)? ? Should biogas also be explored as a possible use of zoo animal waste?ScenariosThe following permaculture designs are potential ideas to maximize resources available at theLake Merced sites, while considering the context of the Lake Merced ecology and localcommunity resources.Each design idea includes subjective “effort” and “impact” ratings of high, medium, or low,where “effort” means the amount of human time and resources required to start and maintainthis design, and “impact” refers to how great of an impact this design can have on overallsustainable food production in SF.These ideas are not mutually exclusive and ideally should be synthesized and integrated into anoverall long-term vision. An integrated design proposal for the best use of the Lake MercedPUC sites follows the individual design ideas.
    • Design Scenario #1: Composting ProgramRationale: Compost recaptures energy and diverts materials that would otherwise end up in thewaste stream. Good compost also means high food yield and has many potential uses.Details:• Lowest level of effort: Create composting program in the Harding Area to captureenergy from dog and picnickers’ compostable waste around the lake• Build enclosed compost bins that meet city regulations• Establish Lowell HS program to manage compost• Medium effort: Add on composting program to recover all grass and landscaping bi-products from Harding Park Golf Course• Enforce SF regulations for eco-friendly golf course management, potentiallyleveraging Friends of Lake Merced and Lake Merced Taskforce• Remove toxins through compost process• Medium effort: Add on composting component to recover lost energy from seagullguano and/or fish emulsion (high in N, P, K)• Create a fish-cleaning station to encourage fishermen to clean fish on-site andcompost bi-products in special containers; manage emulsion process through designated,trained staff or volunteers• Collect seagull feathers and waste for compost, or design nesting areas that willconcentrate waste for increased compost collection• Highest level of effort: Add on zoo bi-product composting program at the Middlefieldsite to recover massive amounts of available (unused) energy• Collect animal waste and dead animals• Compost through non-odorous processes (well-managed compost piles and blackfly larvae programs)• Sell or offer top-quality soil for urban gardens, turning this area into a compostpick-up site• Could create green-collar jobs for SF residentsDesign Scenario #2: Food ForestRationale: A food forest, once established, takes care of itself and complements lake goals topreserve natural species, beauty, and habitats.Details:• Lowest level of effort: Preserving the current “wild” feel of the area directly west of theSunset Blvd. parking lot, cultivate native food plants• Analyze existing plants for food potential• Create materials to teach what is available and how to cook with it,including posting signs to indicate what is ripe and not (and/or)• Teach local restaurants what is available and how to cook with it toreduce food miles for Lake Merced establishments• Low-medium effort: Cultivate additional fruits (e.g. berries) and vegetables that cangrow in sandier soil
    • • Cultivate new food plants near existing walking paths, or constructlimited additional walking paths from local, abundant materials• Bring in native food-producing plants that can also tackle erosion• Higher level of effort:• Cultivate native plants (more research needed) that can out-compete non-nativeplants (e.g. Eucalyptus); potentially sheet mulch specific areas• With invasive species under control, diversify with local plants in phase IIDesign Scenario #3: OrchardRationale: The trees currently dominating the Harding and Middlefield Areas are invasive, non-native, and non-food producing. Orchards, once established, take little effort to maintain andbring joy to those who benefit.Details:• Medium effort: Bring in appropriate local, fruiting frees to the Harding Area• Establish a wind break on the west side, near Skyline Blvd., which will cut noiseand wind and allow for an orchard on the edge of the picnic area• Create a healthy guild with multiple nitrogen fixers, insectaries, etc. and withtrees with varying harvesting seasons and that can prevent erosion• High effort: Create a fruit orchard in the Middlefield Area, which currently is largelyunused and generally lacks native plant species• Designate an intensive composting and mulching area, leveraging availablenutrient-rich sources (dog poop, zoo animal waste, picnickers)• After 1-2 years of intensive mulching, plants windbreaks, nitrogen fixers,appropriate keystones, climbers, insectaries, etc. in designated part• Manage harvesting with help from Lowell HS students or green collar cityworkers, posting signs to inform the community whether fruit is ripe/ready• Medium effort: Establish chicken flock at the base of the orchard, complemented by ablack fly larvae compost program to feed themDesign Scenario #4: Small-scale food gardensRationale: Reduce food miles for local restaurants and consumers. Create a model that can bereplicated in many local backyards.Details:• Medium effort: Turn the unused south side of the Harding Area into garden plots withseveral potential uses:• Green collar city workers could receive training to manage the garden and sell oroffer crops to local restaurants and residents• Local restaurants could lease space to grow food and reduce food miles• SFSU or Lowell HS students could lease or manage plots• Community members could lease or manage plots• Medium to high effort: Create a learning center in the Harding Area in the unusedbuilding or the newly developed food gardens
    • • Increase wind breaks to increase diversity of potential cultivars• Create a model garden with species and cultivar labels where city residents cancome learn, pick a garden to replicate, and start a garden in their own backyards• Provide education about edible plants, mushrooms, nuts, etc.Design Scenario #5: Farmers Market in Sunset Blvd. Parking LotRationale: The closest farmers’ markets are currently at 8th & Irving and Stonestown. TheSunset Blvd. parking lot is large and highly visible to lake visitors and local traffic patterns.Details:• High effort: Redesign parking lot entrances and traffic lanes and redraw parking spots toincrease accessibility and maximize space• Add left turn lane and parking entrance for drivers exiting Sunset Blvd. andheading west on Lake Merced Blvd.• Add dedicated left turn lane into the parking lot for drivers heading north onLake Merced Blvd. from the east side of the lake• Add additional pedestrian crosswalks in the vicinity• Add attractive, hand-painted signs on all approaching streets• Medium effort: Run monthly or weekly farmers’ markets (start slow to gauge interest)• Manage through green collar city workers, SFSU students, or residents,depending on their readiness and goals of the market• Low effort: Set up roadside stands for seasonally grown produce• Self-managed booths, requiring minimal city oversightDesign Scenario #6: Food distribution centerRationale: Significant energy is currently spent on packaging and refrigerating perishable foods.The cool climate of the lake creates the conditions for a green storage and distribution facilitywith “natural air conditioning.”Details:• High effort: Revamp the abandoned building in the Harding Area to create a storage anddistribution facility• Use root cellars and manage natural air circulation to regulate conditions year-round• Store tubers, squash, melons, etc. which can be stored and sold over severalweekends of Farmers’ Markets• Use re-usable packaging and crates (wooden, cardboard)• High effort: Install egg vending machines to reduce food miles and support local,decentralized food exchange; if successful, expand to other products• Use cool climate (not electricity) to regulate temperature• Depends on local egg production/farmers to put eggs in the machine• Best location is Sunset Blvd. parking lot for accessibility; aesthetic design wouldbe key
    • • Numerous preconditions (health regulations, physical design) for successDesign Scenario #7: High-Water-Usage Crop CultivationRationale: Use lake water irrigation to cultivate crops that require high amounts of water.Create a specialty for lake food production. Reduce water use in other parts of the city.Details:• High effort: Design gardens in the Harding area for high-water-need crops• Use multi-layered worm/compost bins to filter lake water, digest possible toxinsin the water, and cycle water into simple, sub-soil drip irrigation system• Plant melons, cucumbers, and/or other high-water-need plants• Adjust light and wind (reflective light, natural wind breaks, etc.)• Create guilds with plants that match possible toxins, i.e. analyze toxins in the soiland water and introduce appropriate plants that can absorb or break down toxins to keep themout of food production• High effort: Replace invasive eucalyptus trees, which use a ton of water• Designate pieces of the Harding area to remove eucalyptus, sheet mulch,“restart” the soil, and envision new guilds of food-producing trees• Include a significant number of trees to break wind• Determine which trees can thrive in a relatively harsh, cold climate• Consider phasing in high-water-need trees and plants in designated plots of theMiddlefield area, with years of soil-enrichment work/mulchingDesign Scenario #8: Consumer FocusRationale: Focusing on the perspective of existing users can produce a simple, streamlineddesign approach, with the goal of complementing existing practices with sustainable designs.Details:• Cyclists: Create a water re-fill station for cyclists with treated lake-water• Design attractive educational boards to promote sustainable practices• Explore using a root system to filter water (similar to using watercress to filterfish waste out of water in closed-loop aquaponic systems)• Zoo visitors: Sell sustainably-grown food to the zoo café/restaurant• Capitalize on visitors’ inherent interest in nature and the environment• Use zoo waste to grow plants to feed zoo visitors; highlight this cycle to zoorestaurant visitors to increase consumer interest and spread good practices• Zoo animals: Raise plants at the lake to feed zoo animals, reduce food miles• Walkers: Create a seasonal juice stand using fruit/berries grown at the lake• Address the fact that beverage consumption practices are particularly wasteful(packaging waste, many food miles, refrigeration energy)• Fishermen: Create a designated baiting and fish-cleaning area• Develop a worm/grub harvest program using dedicated plots/bins• Post attractive educational materials with sustainable practices/ regulations
    • • Provide an area to clean fish on site and recover “waste” for energy cyclingDesign Scenario #9: PackagingRationale: There is a huge need for sustainable food packaging made from local, abundantsources. Willows and other weaving plants can grow in the lake climate.Details:• Low effort: Analyze existing lake-side plants for weaving potential (for packagingproduction), and increase the abundance of plants that can be used for weaving material• Integrate planting of new plants with lake beautification goals, which shouldinclude planting more trees to reduce wind, reduce sound, and absorb pollutants• Establish Lowell HS program to appropriately harvest plants for weaving• Sell or provide raw packaging materials to local individuals who can producesustainable packaging• Medium effort: Explore low-city-investment options for packaging production, e.g. hireor appoint community members or SFSU art students to develop a weaving program• Medium-high effort: Establish formalized, commercial packaging program• Invest in branding• Invest in tools or machinery, as well as locationDesign Sceanrio #10: Seagull ManagementRationale: Although seagull management alone is not necessary for urban food production, ifintegrated with sustainable agriculture practices at Lake Merced it will recover energy (scat) fornutrient cycling, improve the appeal of the lake to visitors and potential food buyers, andaddress possible disease transmission.Details:• Low effort: Introduce closed compost, recycling, and garbage containers around the laketo remove unintended seagull food sources• Include effective educational signs on the importance of proper waste disposaland proper trash separation• As part of regular park clean-up activities, collect feathers and poop fromHarding Area and deposit into the compost area on site• Medium effort: Design structures that will attract gulls to roost, in order to manage andconcentrate the population and recover waste products/energy• On land: Add an aesthetically attractive and gull-friendly rooftop design to theabandoned building in the Harding Area; use materials that will catch feathers and are easy toclean• Over water: Design a floating island with a mesh bottom to attract seagulls toroost and return feathers and poop to the water for energy cycling• Explore introducing a managed food scrap program, to manage human desire tofeed the birds, e.g. mechanism to deposit crumbs on the island
    • Possible Integrated Design ScenarioContext:An effective overall design for the Lake Merced PUC sites, to support the larger city goals ofdesigning and promoting sustainable urban food programs across San Francisco, needs tointegrate the various design ideas above into a comprehensive long-term vision. Then in orderfor the vision to move forward, the process must involve local stakeholders and communitygroups for the purposes of incorporating local input, aligning goals, and determiningcommunity commitments. This plan cannot be successful without the support and commitmentof local groups (see Next Steps).As alluded to previously, the goals of many Lake Merced advocates include preserving naturalhabitats and native species in and around the lake. Effective permaculture designs also dependon replicating and developing healthy, balanced ecosystems. Therefore the integrated designproposed here differentiates its approach to each PUC area, to consider the unique naturalfeatures of each:• Harding: The Harding Area presents a manicured setting with a traditional park feel(grass, picnic tables, paths, parking, outdoor activities). Therefore proposed design features are“hands-on,” bringing in sustainable human activities such as gardening and composting tocomplement existing uses.• Sunset: The Sunset Area is composed of a well-accessed, highly-used and paved area ofhuman activity right alongside a largely untouched tract of trees, shrubs, and other plants. Tocomplement these features, the proposed design preserves human and natural boundaries.• Middlefield: The Middlefield Area is a more unused (by humans), dry, sandy area withnumerous invasive species. The presence of invasive species and the changes to this area overtime suggest that appropriate management should preserve some of the existing features butrequires significant human intervention to address current imbalances in the micro- ecosystem.The proposed design features therefore strive to achieve a middle ground between preservationand re-envisioning of this area.This proposal also makes assumptions about the human resources necessary to set up and thenmanage ongoing Lake Merced design components and includes some ideas for humanresourcing in the text below in italics. The assumptions need to be scrutinized and refinedbefore finalizing the program design. To manage all aspects of the proposed program, a paidsite-manager position could be a full-time, city-funded, green-collar job that conceivably paysfor itself or is subsidized through the successful sale of crops, food products, and high-qualitysoil from the program. However, to determine the most effective management and staffingstructure, a detailed analysis will need to be undertaken to confirm true costs and projectedprofits/outcomes of the program, as well as available community resource to help sustain it.Rationale:The integrated design proposal naturally combines the individual design elements by weighingthe benefits of any component or strategy against the effort it will take to implement thatcomponent, in order to ensure the overall plan is not only effective but efficient. The integrateddesign proposal also continues to focus on local context: how to ensure benefits to local users
    • and expand the impact into local establishments, backyards, and routines.More specifically, the integrated design proposal stems directly from the larger permaculturegoal to maximize use of the PUC sites to support sustainable food practices in San Francisco.Therefore, the integrated design proposal• Pulls out individual design ideas that are high impact, in order to maximize useof the available land (e.g. composting is a central feature, seagull management is not) andfocuses on implementation of these ideas.• Selects lower-effort means of achieving high-impact results (e.g. creating acompost program in the Harding Area with existing lake waste products) to work mostefficiently and also take advantage of “low-hanging fruit.”• Only selects higher-effort strategies with significant positive impacts (e.g. a zooanimal waste composting program is a big operation but benefits a significant numerous cityresidents in multiple ways, from increasing soil quality in the PUC sites to helping farmersthroughout the city fertilize new gardens to reducing landfill quantities to increasing foodproduction).• Includes a diverse range of program components in order to broaden the impactof this work by affecting multiple users (e.g. restaurants, fishermen, local households andshoppers, etc.).• Offers multiple entry points for long-term impact opportunities, includingthrough educational materials and training sessions (e.g. food foraging can become a high-impact activity if sustainable practices are replicated by visitors in their own backyards orreplace previously-practiced non-sustainable approaches).• Thinks both short- and long-term by• Ensuring that immediate, tangible results (“quick wins”) will buildimmediate community support (e.g. food production in gardens and food forest), and• Putting in place design components that will help local residentsinternalize and implement permaculture practices (e.g. through model gardens, food foraging,local egg production, etc.) for years to come.• Increases in complexity year over year to ensure incremental success (e.g. startswith gardens only in the Harding Area – the natural choice –but builds soil quality in theMiddlefield Area to eventually implement a well-managed guild there, expands the HardingArea gardens to increase impact and scope, etc.).• Addresses issues that are obstacles to success (including the presence of toxinsand harsh wind which will affect human use and enjoyment of the area no matter what, inaddition to permaculture success).Long-Term Vision:
    • 20-Year Vision: Simplified Overview Zoo Food forest Orchard, gardens Egg vending, regular farmers’ Gardens market Eco-friendly golf course practices Harding Park Compost material collection Food production Educational info. Compost production Food selling and consumptionOver the next 20 years, Lake Merced PUC sites could become effective food- and energy-producing hubs of urban food production. This plan envisions a comprehensive program thatwould complement existing lake uses and priorities, utilize currently unused local resources,cycle energy through healthy ecosystems, and produce job and educational opportunities forgreen-collar workers and community residents, students, and volunteers. In this plan, zoo wasteproducts would no longer be “waste”: They would contribute to the health of the lakeecosystems. Rather than shipping in produce from great distances, local restaurants would havethe opportunity to grow food crops close to their establishments, reducing food miles and usingsustainable resources. Residents would have opportunities to appropriately harvest edibleplants already growing around the lake and learn how to start gardens in their own backyards.The 20-Year Vision: Simplified Overview gives a general overview of a well-managed, locally-supported, sustainable urban food program at Lake Merced that works with and benefits thelocal community in multiple ways. Details for achieving this vision follow.Integrated Design: Year 1
    • Year 1 Overview Berry bushes, food foraging Collect bird waste for compost LMTF/FLM manage toxins Compost, trash, recycling Educational information Dog waste collection Fishermen’s hut Composting site Food stands Gardening plots Model gardenYear 1 Details:• Take basic steps to recover existing waste products/energy at the lake• Introduce covered trash, recycling, and compost bins around the lake withattractive educational signs on trash separation and importance• Create a managed composting site on the southern side of the Harding area,starting with a basic (enclosed) compost bin but with room to expand• Introduce a worm bin, to be used for watering and other uses in year 2• Designate or hire a student or resident with permaculture experiencewho can manage on a weekly basis• Introduce at least five waste cans around the lake to deposit dog poop• Move all compostables from compost bins and dog waste cans to the compostingsite in the Harding area (not the city-wide Recology program)• Add to regular park maintenance activities (with training as needed)• Regularly sweep bird feathers and manure from Harding parking lots into theHarding area compost site• Add to regular park maintenance activities• Address issue of toxins from the golf course• Appoint and provide training to specific members of Friends of LakeMerced/LM Taskforce to work with golf courses to ensure compliance with SF environmentalregulations for golf courses• Run training through the appropriate city department• Access lake water toxin tests to determine issues with food growing in LakeMerced area and possible solutions (Permaculture students?)
    • • Recover all landscape bi-produces (tree branches, etc.) and grass clippings fromgolf courses to the new Harding Area composting site• Golf course employees, with training from park staff• Lay the groundwork for foraging/a food forest approach in Sunset Blvd. Area• Catalogue existing edible cultivars around the Sunset Blvd. parking lot• Develop educational materials on culinary uses and preparation• Plant and cultivate additional berry bushes near existing walkways• Enlist permaculture-trained students, residents, and professionals to catalogueexisting plants, create materials, and cultivate new plants• Designate and begin to plant model gardens/guilds in the Harding Area• Work with the Lake Merced taskforce to establish and address known toxins• Mark off plots in the northwestern section of Harding where soil quality appearshigh and human usage is minimal• Plant appropriate fruiting trees• Design guilds with heavy windbreak and a number of nitrogen fixers,dynamic accumulators, pest suppressors, insectaries, etc.• Monitor soil quality and, as needed, add good mulch from the newmanaged compost bins in the Harding area• Plan with birds in mind: Consider plants that will attract birds and collectwaste/fertilize the soil, and plants that will be eaten by local birds• Train green collar workers and Lowell HS volunteers to manage model gardensand mark plant species for community education• Establish a simple fishermen’s hut by the lake, near Sunset Blvd. parking lot: woodentable with wooden roof covering, open air• Introduce a black fly larvae compost bin or emulsion program for fish guts• Larvae that are ready to hatch will travel up a tube and drop down intothe lake to be eaten by fish• Explore a bin design solution to be able to also use fly larvae for bait• Introduce a worm bin for bait, building off of the Harding compost site• Establish fish-gutting and cleaning area and gut deposit• Establish well-posted rules for sustainable fishing and lake usage• Enlist permaculture-trained students, residents, and/or professionals to set upand manage this area• Train Lowell HS volunteers to assist with maintenance• Establish several small food stands by the lake to act as simple, informal “pop-up”farmers’ markets for lake visitors (requiring no city management)Integrated Design Proposal: Year 2
    • Year 2 Overview Walking paths, food foraging Farmers’ market events Collect bird waste for compost LMTF/FLM manage toxins Compost, trash, recycling Educational information Dog waste collection Fishermen’s hut Composting site Food stands Gardening plots Orchard site Model gardenYear 2 Details:• Harvest food from the forest• As berry plants near Sunset Blvd. prepare to produce fruit, establish simple,limited walking paths made from local, abundant material• Construct paths as part of normal park maintenance, in collaborationwith Friends of Lake Merced/LM Taskforce and with permaculture advisement• Have Lowell HS students create hand-painted signs to signal if fruit isready to be picked or not• Have SFSU or Lowell HS students design materials to explain forest foragingunder guidance of permaculture-trained students or professionals• Continue with the garden program in the Harding area• Harvest food as it is ready, distribute or sell in the community• Approach Lake Merced restaurants, SFSU cafeteria, and zoo café/restaurant tolease garden plots to grow kitchen-ready food nearby their establishments• Train Lowell HS or SFSU students to manage plots (leased or their own)• Design and lay the groundwork for food production in the Middlefield Area• Establish a garden-to-be site with a path to minimize foot traffic to sensitivelandscape in other parts of this area• Begin receiving compost from the zoo in limited quantities and mulchingin the designated Middlefield garden• Design a future fruit orchard guild, considering the need for a significant windbreak and changes to soil composition over time; begin mulching and working on soil qualitythrough zoo compost
    • • Enlist a dedicated permaculture student or professional and local volunteers;ensure solid design• Analyze potential to produce sustainable packaging from Lake Merced plants• Catalogue current plants, including willows, that can be used for weaving• Analyze ability to introduce other cultivars or species or increase the abundanceof these plants around the lake• With Friends of Lake Merced/LM Taskforce, discuss alignment with lakebeautification goals• Hire or appoint permaculture students/professionals for analysis, liaise withartists/weavers who can discuss production aspects• Test run the farmers’ market through city staff (green collar workers)• Hold several weekend farmers’ market events with good advanced publicity• Collect data on attendance and purchase numbers and feedback from buyers andsells• Analyze results to determine market need for a regular lakeside farmers’ marketIntegrated Design Proposal: Year 3 Year 3 Overview Walking paths, food foraging Farmers’ market events Collect bird waste for compost LMTF/FLM manage toxins Compost, trash, recycling Educational information Cardboard, paper pick up Dog waste collection Fishermen’s hut Carcass composting Composting site Food stands Gardening plots Orchard site Model gardenYear 3 Details:• Leverage the success of the Harding garden plots to encourage small-scale, backyardgardens• Publicize the success of Harding “model” gardens that anyone can copy to start
    • their own guilds• Label every cultivar in the model gardens with attractive, informative labels• Leverage permaculture-trained students or professionals to hold regular, well-publicized weekend sessions to teach local residents in the community how to copy the modelgardens in their backyards (where soil, sun, wind conditions are ostensibly the same)• Lease additional plots in the Harding area to local restaurants• Build off of the limited compost program in year 2 to scale up the composting of zooanimal waste and establish a high-quality soil production program in compost bins in the backpart of the Middlefield area (run by SF green-collar workers)• Compost as much zoo animal waste as possible while managing odors• Set up a paper, cardboard, and other carbon-collection program in theneighborhood for compost use, to balance the manure• Establish a minimal dirt drop off lane for zoo/compost access only• Maintain the existing tree cover by the road to minimize changes in appearanceand manage neighborhood perceptions• Sell or distribute high-quality compost for other gardens• Begin energy cycling component to process animal carcasses (Middlefield)• Use black fly larvae process to break down carcasses and return energy tothe lake via larvae dropping into the water and being eaten by fish• Train green collar city workers or zoo workers to manage• Continue other programs already in place• Continue to manage local composting program, use compost soil for Hardingand Middlefield gardens, oversee food production in the gardens, keep an eye on golf coursepractices, and cycle back golf course waste• Upkeep food forest and fishing hut programs and educational signsIntegrated Design: Year 4
    • Year 4 Overview Zoo Walking paths, food foraging Egg vending, regular farmers’ Collect bird waste market for compost LMTF/FLM manage toxins Harding Park Compost, trash, recycling Educational information Cardboard, paper pick up Dog waste collection Fishermen’s hut Carcass composting Composting site Food stands Chicken program Gardening plots Orchard site x Lake Merced food sold in restaurant Model gardenYear 4 Details:• Continue to oversee and manage programs in place, tending to food production andmonitoring yield• Check in with community members and stakeholders to ensure investment,check perception, and ensure alignment with overall goals• Make changes as needed• Phase in chickens in the Middlefield area, managed by green collar city workers andLowell or SFSU volunteers (or workers), including breeding program• Feed compost scraps and garden waste• Use black fly larvae to supplement food• Leverage chicken poop to enrich the soil• Gather eggs to sell to the zoo or by vending machine (explore no-electricity-needed designs) in the Sunset parking lot• Establish formal relationship to sell produce to the zoo and launch “locally grown”menu and branding in the zoo café/restaurantIntegrated Design Proposal: Year 5
    • Year 5 Overview Zoo Walking paths, food foraging Egg vending, regular farmers’ Collect bird waste market for compost LMTF/FLM manage toxins Harding Park Compost, trash, recycling Educational information Cardboard, paper pick up Dog waste collection Fishermen’s hut Carcass composting Composting site Food stands Chicken program Gardening plots Orchard site x Lake Merced food sold in restaurant Model gardenYear 5 Details:• Continue to oversee and manage programs in place, tending to food production andmonitoring yield, and making changes as needed• If reasonable given resource analysis, conduct and promote tours to highlight all of thesustainable design components of the Lake Merced program and promote urban food programsNext Steps – Potential Implementation PlanHow can the city move this vision from idea to reality?1. Get community input and investment: • Meet with key stakeholders to establish a common knowledge base (e.g. what preserving native species and habitats might mean, given current ecosystem context), align values, and get feedback on possible plans • Friends of Lake Merced • Lake Merced Taskforce • Harding Park Golf Course • Olympic Club • San Francisco Golf Club • Meet with local groups to assess interest and get commitments • San Francisco Zoo • Lowell High School • San Francisco State University
    • 2. Establish goals: • Contextualize Lake Merced goals within city and local food needs and goals • Determine which groups should be primary beneficiaries of food production (e.g. should garden food be given away, or is it right to focus on getting restaurants to use local food to reduce their food miles?) • Publicize goals to ensure shared understanding and accountability.3. Revise and implement the plan.San Francisco once again has the opportunity to be a national pace-setter. Across the countrywe have unsustainable, unhealthy food programs that we believe are efficient (because they arecentralized) and effective (because we can eat whatever we want whenever we want it). But asmore and more people are paying attention to the long-term consequences of industrial foodproduction, now is the time to make change. A Lake Merced program can become one of manySF models of sustainable, healthy food practices in this city. And once residents see the manybenefits of this work, they will get behind it.Sources“Conservation Projects Overview.” http://www.sfzoo.com/openrosters/ViewOrgPageLink.asp?LinkKey=14942&orgkey=1858. San Francisco Zoological Society, 2007. Web. 06 Aug. 2011.http://www.harding-park.com/sites/courses/layout9.asp?id=1017&page=58531. TPC HardingPark, n.d. Web. 06 Aug. 2011.“How do you Make Homemade Fish/Seaweed Emulsion?” Garden Webhttp://faq.gardenweb.com/faq/lists/organic/2002080041031662.html. iVillage Home andGarden Network, n.d. Web. 06 Aug. 2011.“Lake Merced.” www.goldengateaudubon.org/conservation/make-the-city-safe-for-wildlife/lake-merced/. Golden Gate Audubon Society, 2009-2011. Web. 06 Aug. 2011.“Lake Merced, San Francisco, California.” Yelp.com, n.d. Web. 30 Jul. 2011“Lake Merced Watershed.” Guide to San Francisco Bay Area Creekshttp://museumca.org/creeks/1700-RescMerced.html. Oakland Museum of California, n.d. Web.06 Aug. 2011.“Large Quantities of Guano.” Garden Webhttp://forums2.gardenweb.com/forums/load/organic/msg0215584615429.html. iVillage Homeand Garden Network, 3 Feb. 2006. Web. 06 Aug. 2011.www.lmtf.org. Lake Merced Task Force: An Organization of Lake Stewards and Advoocates,n.d. Web. 30 Jul. 2011.
    • “Reregistration Eligibility Decision: Thiophanate-Methyl.” Prevention, Pesticides and ToxicSubstances http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/tm_red.pdf. United States EnvironmentalProtection Agency, Oct. 2005. Web. 06 Aug. 2011.“Seagull Population Management.” http://www.fbiltd.co.uk/seagulls.htm Web. 05 Aug 2011.Flybird Installations Ltd., 2008. Web. 05 Aug. 2011.SFSU Master Plan. http://www.sfsumasterplan.org/analysis_08.html. San Francisco StateUniversity, n.d. Web. 30 Jul. 2011.Turner, Grahame. “The Best Practice Guide to Urban Bird Management.” Network Birdwww.networkbird.net/pdf/think-bird-guide.pdf. P + L Systems, n.d. Web. 3 Aug. 2011.Van Houton, Tom. “A short history of Lake Merced.” www.outsidelands.org. WesternNeighborhoods Project, 6 Oct. 2004. Web. 30 Jul. 2011.
    • Richmond TransportBy: Kalen AckermanAssessmentNestled below the Cliff House, Sutro Baths and Sutro Heights, across the Great Highway from Ocean Beach,and paralleled on one side by Balboa Avenue in San Francisco’s Richmond District resides the PUC site calledRichmond Transport. This 1.8 acre site is also referred to as Balboa Natural Area and Balboa Dunes on differentmaps. The locals who have spent time keeping it a beautifully restored dune colony with dune vegetation andboardwalks have put up a sign calling it Sutro Dunes – A Special Place.Balboa Avenue and The Great Highway have stop signs and crosswalks directly at the corner where one of thethree boardwalks start. The Great Highway crosswalk leads across the street to a large parking lot that parallelsOcean Beach. There’s parking along two sides of site, with a four car parking lot at the far eastern side of thesite. The other side borders Sutro Heights where the dunes sharply steepen into the high-sided hill.Across the street off Balboa Avenue on La Playa are a few strip-mall shops located on the bottom floor of a threelevel apartment building. They include: a mini Burger King, a Russian market/liquor store, a yoga/martial artsstudio, a dry cleaner, a hair salon, a dental lab and a dentist and a few empty store fronts. One block down is asurf store and a Safeway that takes up an entire city block with a very large parking lot.Large apartment building complexes are all around within two blocks. Most of them are three stories on top ofparking garages. Many of the areas apartments look over Balboa Dunes towards the ocean and the Cliff House.Balboa Dunes is a major orientation vantage point.The neighborhood is a very diverse ethnic mix of people with lots of small and medium sized dogs beingwalked. A strong Russian and Asian influence is felt by the smattering of small restaurants types and languagesone hears while walking around. A very active surfing, exercising and tourist population comingling on theirway to and from the beach keeps the streets and parking lots bustling even in windy, cold weather.Balboa Dunes is two blocks from the bottom of Golden Gate Park. It’s near the soccer fields, the Park Chaletrestaurant and the San Francisco Zoo. Balboa Dunes is passed by people going to these places constantly.
    • *Detailed maps are available in the Ocean Beach Master PlanDimensions:The space is 1.8 acres. Shaped like a wedge the perimeters are approximately 462ft (hillside) X 311ft (alongBalboa) X 323ft (along the Great Highway).Elevation Characteristics:Mostly level, but rolling-dune topography getting higher towards the back as it rises up to meet Sutro Dunes.The lot is wedge/triangle shaped and approximately 25ft above sea level depending on the tides. As the ocean isdirectly across the street the tide is important and the site will be greatly affected by rising sea levels due toclimate change.Sector Analysis (Wind, Sun, People, animals):Animals: Pelicans, gulls, plovers, dogs, seals, shorebirds . . .Weather: Windy, damp, cool, fog. Temperatures range between 36 to 75, on average, with some higher temps inthe summer and early fall.People: Surfers, tourists, dog walkers, people riding bikes on the bike path, cars and busesAccessibility (vehicular and personal):Major Muni hub one block away, bicycle paths, parking everywhereNearby neighborhood groups and organizations related to food system:Integral to helping with any project in the area would be PAR - Planning Association of the Richmond -http://www.sfpar.org/site/about-par.html - PAR is San Franciscos largest membership-based neighborhoodorganization. Established in 1970, PAR has a dues-paying membership of about 1,400 Richmond Districthouseholds and businesses. iiPAR’s mission includes:To develop and implement policies and recommendations for that maintain and enhance the physical and socialdimensions of life in the Richmond District.To stimulate formation of neighborhood organizations in the areas of the Richmond District currently unserved.To support individual associations in pursuing issues relating to planning and the physical and socialenvironment.iiiOther organizations:Local Harvest: http://www.localharvest.org/SF Planning & Urban Research: http://www.spur.org/San Francisco Recreation and Park Department: http://sfrecpark.org/Rec-CommunityServices.aspxSan Francisco Unified School District: http://www.sfusd.edu/San Francisco Urban Agriculture Food Alliance: http://www.sfuaa.org/Urban Permaculture Institute: http://www.upisf.com/ 3Site history/ current/ past uses:Balboa Natural Area/Balboa Dunes/BalboaivLocation: Balboa Street & The Great HighwayEstablished: 2002Size: 1.8 acresPark Type: DuneHistoryPlayland at the Beach occupied this site from the 1920s until 1972. Before the site was restored back to dunes in2002 it was used for construction staging for the Richmond Transport Project two blocks away. Sand from theconstruction site of the new de Young Museum was used to create dune mounds. Foredune vegetation wasplanted by Golden Gate National Recreation Area/Natural Areas Program staff and volunteers in 2003, 2004 and2005.v
    • Natural HistoryUntil recently, most of western San Francisco was covered by a patchwork of wind-blown sand dunes, patches offlowering shrubs, and occasional oases of ponds edged by willow, wax myrtle and oak. viNatural to the The Balboa Dunes would be sand verbena, silver beach bur and coast strawberry. viiRisks/Unknowns that are relevant (historical use, toxicity concerns, etc.):How much water could be created by fog catchment alone?How will rising sea levels and increasingly severe and frequent storms affect the dunes and the site due to itsproximity to the ocean?How toxic is the soil?Will a glass greenhouse be strong enough to withstand the salt air and the strong winds?Will there be people who want to bring these ideas to fruition and will there be enough interest to keep the ideasgoing?Shared risk of CSAs – will the clients get frustrated if they don’t get the goods they think they should be getting?ScenariosWhen choosing strategies for the PUC Richmond Transport site I wanted to do accomplish two goals. I wantedto bring in elements that brought the community together in a nice gathering space and I wanted to bring freshfoods and food education to the neighborhood. To do this I chose to incorporate a Greenhouse for plantpropagation and plant education, a mobile Farmstand for a CSA drop-off point and food education, fogcatchment screens for water collection and Belgian/espalier fencing to surround the site and make it more securewhile adding a small amount of food.Green house/farm stand:The introduction of a greenhouse and a farm stand will be used for Belgian fence tending, propagating of duneplants and Belgian fence plants, dispersal of foods, education/classes/workshops and community gathering.Dune vegetation will be important as storms get more severe and sea levels rise. Propagation of dune vegetationwill make sure that threatened species will have back-up if they need to be replanted. The farm stand andgreenhouse may even inspire the neighbors to create their own kitchen gardens. 4CSA drop-off : Drop-off point for CSA boxes, clients can collect boxes and chat with farmers.Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) are a way for the consumer to buy local, seasonal food directly from afarmer. Here are the basics: a farmer offers a certain number of "shares" to the public. Typically the shareconsists of a box of vegetables, but other farm products may be included. Interested consumers purchase a share(aka a "membership" or a "subscription") and in return receive a box (bag, basket) of seasonal produce eachweek throughout the farming season. viiiCSA locations gathered from OM Organics website as of 8.20.11 that deliver to SF:http://www.omorganics.org/page.php?pageid=107&contentid=90Covelo Organic - Farm: Fruit, mixed vegetables Farm Fresh to You - Most from Capay Farm: Fruit, mixedvegetables, nuts Full Belly Farm - Farm: Fruit, mixed vegetables, nuts Good Humus - Farm: Fruit, mixedvegetables, flowers, herbsGreen Hearts Family Farm - Farm: Fruit, mixed vegetables; pastured eggs and chickens and grass fed beef andporkHappy Child CSA (Frog Hollow Farm) - Farm: FruitHerbert Family Organic Farm - Eating With the Seasons - Farm: Fruit, mixed vegetables High Ground Organics(along with Mariquita Farm) - 2 small farms: Fruit, mixed vegetables, flowers (if requested) Marin Sun Farms -Meat - Farm: Steaks, roasts, ground beef, lamb, goat, pork, veal, poultry Mariquita Farm (along with HighGround Organics)- 2 small farms: Fruit, mixed vegetables, flowers (if requested) Shooting Star CSA - Farm:Mixed vegetables, melons Soul Food Farm - Meat Terra Firma Farm Farm: Fruits, mixed vegetables, nutsWinter Creek Gardens Farm: Fruit, mixed vegetables
    • Belgian Fence : Create a beautiful, edible barrier between the heavily populated roads and the site. Protect kids,dogs and creates a place to gather.A Belgian fence is a type of espalier, composed of living tree, which is both attractive and useful. Using fruittrees for a Belgian fence provides a harvest as well as a barrier. Creating a Belgian fence is a long process,starting with young saplings called whips that are trained in a criss-cross lattice pattern.xPlant selection: For the Belgian fence I chose plants that did well in zone 17 (mild, wet, frostless winters andcool summers with frequent fog or wind). For the base tree I chose the Brush Cherry and to intertwine betweenthe branches I chose Marionberry and Blueberry. For the understory I chose cabbage, artichoke and cauliflower.Brush Cherry (Syzvgium panicultum) – Can be sheared into formal shapes and hedges, making a commonbackground or screen plant. Oblong, 1/2 –3-in.-long leaves come in rich glossy green, often tinged with bronze;new growth is reddish bronze. Small, creamy white summer flowers have conspicuous tufts of stamens that looklike little brushes. Blossoms are followed by showy, edible, 3/4-in., rosy purple fruit that is … good in jellies. xiMarionberry : Cross of Chehalem x Olallie berries, this is a trailing, midseason berry whose rich, flavorful fruitsets the standard. Thorny canes can grow 10 ft. in a season, but are commonly controlled by pruning andtrellising. Roots are perennial, but canes are biennial: they grow to full length the first season. The second seasonthey bear clusters of white flowers followed by fruit. xiiBlueberry (rabbiteye): Handsome shrubs suitable for hedges or shrub borders. Leaves, to 3 in. long, are bronzewhen new, maturing to dark green, turning scarlet or yellow in fall. Tiny, urn-shaped spring flowers are white orpinkish.xiiiUnderstory/vegetables: Cabbage, cauliflower, artichoke:Fog water catchment: use runoff for greenhouse and to water Belgian fence and understory plantsThe fog water catchment concept would be placed towards the back of the site as the site gets steep and humanaccess is limited. This design is being used with ever increasing success in many parts of the world.Here’s how they worked it out in Peru:Fog collection works not by condensation, which is what happens when water vapor hits a cold surface andtransforms into a liquid. In fact, the water in fog is already in liquid form—its just in very, very small drops. xivThe collectors . . . started with what look like giant volleyball nets, 13 feet (4 meters) tall and 26 feet (8 meters)wide. The nets, perpendicular to the prevailing wind, stretch between pairs of wooden poles. The top of each netis 18 feet (5.5 meters) above the ground. As wind blows the heavy fog through, tiny droplets stick to the coarsewoven mesh, made of a kind of plastic netting that is designed to shade young fruit trees. As more and more tinydroplets stick to the net, they clump together and form drops, and eventually gravity pulls the drops down into agutter. From there, the water flows through tubes into two brick tanks and a pool . . . on a good day, a single netin Bellavista can collect an impressive amount of water—more than 150 gallons (568 liters).xv
    • List and description of potential yieldsYields are not the guiding reason for my selection of elements. Yields will be produced by the Belgian fence andthe understory of the fence but I anticipate that the food created by the fence will be picked and scavenged bypassersby and animals. There will be some food created in the greenhouse and plants propagated, but the yieldwill be minimal and distributed to neighbors for their own use in their kitchen gardens and to restore the dunes.Role(s) site scenario would/could play in the San Francisco food systemThis site scenario could play an important role in the San Francisco Food System for a variety of reasons. Byadding a greenhouse, a farmstand, and a Belgian fence surrounding the perimeter we can create a friendly placein a dreary climate where the community can gather, learn about their health and food systems. By adding thegreenhouse and the fog catching screens the site can be self-supported with water and create more plants forupkeep of the dunes. Ideas from this site could inspire the community’s inhabitants to do even more with theirurban food system and be emulated by other communities. 7
    • Possible Integrated Design Vision:The highest use for the site is the addition of a greenhouse and mobile farmstand with a CSA drop-off site.ElementsGreenhouse:Plant propagation – dune plants and Belgian fence plantsAttractive design adds an element of beauty to a sparse landscapeA place for people to gather and learn. A place for city dwellers to get in touch with nature and how the foodsystem works.A point of pride for the neighborhood.Farmstand:CSA drop-off pointEducation for kitchen gardensFoods procured at the farmstand can be eaten and composted in kitchen gardensCommunity gathering place, sharing common goals and meeting your neighborsMobile so it can be moved and adapted as needs of community changeQuirky design will attract interest and a give a splash of country charm to the cityCSA drop-off point:Organic, healthy foods for city dwellersSeasonal eatingBringing the foods closer to the consumer, taking the need to buy foods from neighboring Safeway that are notsustainableConnection to the land and farmersPlace to talk to the farmer’s and learnInspiration for community to get more involved – community gardens, farmer’s markets . . .A place for neighbor’s to meet each other and share experiencesGoalsTo create a beautiful and inspiring place out of a wedge of sandTo bring healthy foods and the country to the cityTo bring people together and create a communityTo educate and excite people so they want to be more involved in their city and its food systemTo create alliances of people who want to take their community to the next level. For instance, create communitygardens in their apartment complexes, in their medians, on their roofs.Diverse ethnic populations will want a diverse product assortment and introduce new foods to the communityFreshen-up, brighten-up, liven-up, community action-up the Richmond District.Justification/summary:My justification for the greenhouse, farmstand and CSA drop-off is two-fold – community and healthy food. TheRichmond District is a bustling community but disjointed. Tight, insular ethnic communities, egocentric surfersand tourists create the bustle, but they don’t create a sense of community. The area is very cool, windy, damp anddreary. By adding a beautiful focal point (greenhouse) and an interesting and attention grabbing farmstand andstocking it with delicious foods (CSA) I believe the people will gather and come together. Neighbors meetingneighbors. Neighbors inspiring neighbors. 8
    • i http://www.goldengateparkpreservation.orgii http://www.sfpar.org/site/about-par.htmliii http://www.sfpar.org/site/about-par.htmliv http://sfnap.org/n_area/parks/na_bal.htmlv http://sfnap.org/n_area/parks/na_bal.htmlvi http://sfnap.org/n_area/parks/na_bal.htmlvii http://sfnap.org/n_area/parks/na_bal.htmlviii http://www.localharvest.org/csa/ix http://www.localharvest.org/csa/x http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~dailey/pixs/espalier/espaliers.jpegxi http://plantfinder.sunset.com/sunset/plant-home.jspxii http://plantfinder.sunset.com/sunset/plant-home.jspxiii http://plantfinder.sunset.com/sunset/plant-home.jspxiv http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/07/090709-fog-catchers-peru-water-missions/xv http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/07/090709-fog-catchers-peru-water-missions/
    • Laguna Honda ReservoirBy: Eric OConnorAssessmentThe usable site is roughly 750,000 square feet though most of this is very steep and difficult to access.There is a paved area at the south-east end with great access that perhaps has the best utility of the site.The paved area is around 3,500 square feet and is fenced off. Through the lot there is a road that runsthe length of the actual reservoir, which is used by the bee keepers. There are numerous bee boxes atthe middle of the road and this, in my estimation, is the most important use of the land. The site facessouth at the southern end and east at the northern. Being in the western part of San Francisco the fog isfairly significant and limits the sunlight somewhat. Along the southern edge, separated from the mainsection by the reservoir, are a mixture of native and non-native plants, most of which are blackberrieswhich seem to be doing quite well. There is a bare patch, going up the hill underneath cypress trees thatalso shows good potential due to accessibility from the road and good sunlight. The northern sectionalong the road is overgrown and somewhat difficult to get around in. There is a grove at the northernend that shows good potential though has very little sun light.Beyond the grove at the northern end are the White Crane Springs community garden and beyond thatis the Garden for the Environment (GFE). Both of which are well utilized locations though from myinquiries it seems as though the local residents are not that involved with these facilities. The Gardenfor the Environment is extremely significant due to its emphasis on education, similar to the HayesValley Farm. Volunteers I met were enthusiastic and appreciative of the Garden though most livedelsewhere in the city. Using the GFE as a jumping off point would be crucial in effectively utilizing theLaguna Honda site.
    • The bee keepers have utilized this area for sometime and working to support their endeavors seemsextremely important. Many of the plants around the site help to support the bees and as a result areimportant, weather native or not. In addition there is significant attention at this site concerning theMission Blue Butterfly which is currently listed as endangered and uses the plants at this site as habitat.Coyotes, though not endangered, also are known to use this land. Due to these considerations mystrategy for using this site breaks down into three guidelines: • Protect the bees and help them flourish. • Keep what is native there. • Utilize the space there as best possible (though this is rather general)The view from Laguna Honda Blvd. Potential site for herb garden.ScenariosDue to the steep nature of the site much of it would be left as it is. There are three great areasfor use that have great potential for use. The overall theme I would recommend is a foragingforest but I have broken up my recommendation and strategy by location below:
    • The north end shows great potential and has the best access of the entire site. In addition it is adjacentto the White Crane Springs community garden. Sunlight in this area is rather low due to a west facingslope and a significant cover from trees. Fungi as a result could do quite well here. The yield wouldmost likely not be too significant due to the size of usable land. For this reason invasive and or energyintensive means of production would probably not be worthwhile. Rather I would suggest somethingmodest that could serve as a resource for both the community gardeners and the people at the Gardenfor the Environment. This is where I return to the idea of a foraging forest where the upper level isestablished and with a little effort the right kind understory could flourish and provide people withsome nourishment but more importantly an example of what a foraging forest could be (hopefully withthe help / education from the GFE).The mid-site area, with a great south east orientation show great promise as well. With plenty of sunmany plants could do well though the bee keepers boxes are right there. As a result something that thebees enjoy and that could also help stabilize the soil as this area is rather bare. One potential use ismaking this into a herb garden. While there is plenty of water around little seems to make it to this partof the site. As a result rosemary could be an excellent plant for this hill. Bees love it and it is quite goodin dry soil. In addition it would help to keep the soil from washing down the hill. Access to thislocation without disturbing the bee boxes would be extremely important. An herb garden would be wellsuited because its yield would be easily harvested in little time.The south-east lot has perhaps the best potential for utilization. The bee-keepers access the road fromthis lot but there is a separate fence that separate this lot from the reservoir and the road that they use. Itis accessible from the road and there is enough space for several cars to fit in the lot at any given time.The light is not great due to the tree’s cover but several uses are quite possible. A green house could beplaced at the north end of the lot where light is best. The best use of the space in my opinion would beto create compost or be a compost pick up/distribution point. It is relatively isolated and close to thehospital as well as several other facilities and houses that surely produce large amounts of food waste.
    • Stanford Heights ReservoirBy: Elizabeth PenaAssessmentDimensions: • 484ft length by 170ft width (west), 251ft width (east) • 34ft high • Scale 1"=30-0"Elevation Characteristics: • Steep sides with a combination of 17 existing trees and a patch of bottlebrush trees on one side • 10ft high vinyl clad security fenceSector Analysis: • Average high 58 -71 degrees • Average low 46-56 degrees Fahrenheit • Precipitation in summer months on average .04 • Precipitation in winter months on average 4.72 • Winds from the WNW that change to WSW and West of about 13-16 mph •Accessibility: • Automobile access • Locked site with 4 accessible entrances by personalOrganizations Related To Food System: • Diamond Heights High School • Mira Loma Park Elementary School • San Francisco School Of Arts High School • Mollie Stones Tower Market • Glen Park Village Farmers Market On SundaysSite History: • Built in 1923 • Above ground water tanks • Seismic retrofit project finished in 2009 • Holds 9 million gallons of drinking water • Providing drinking water to thousands of homes and businesses in several areas of the cityRisks: • None that I can determine
    • ScenariosMIRA LOMA PARK URBAN GARDENThe Mira Loma Park Urban Gardens main focus will be to promote healthy living with a clean food system, toenrich the soil and to harvest rainwater over time. This design will include elements such as a diversity ofseasonal gardens for primary consumption, composting and above ground cisterns connected to drip lines.The first step of the detail design would be to install two 6800-gallon cisterns. The next step would be to addcovered gutters around the entire concrete flat roof and install downspouts to the cisterns. The next step in thedesign would be to excavate a top, 3ft wide swale starting on the west side, continuing on the north side andending on the east side around the perimeter of the roof. A recycled concrete seat wall on the north side of thereservoir would look nice, add comfort, serve as a windbreaker and radiate heat, giving the vegetables moreopportunity to grow. The seat wall would be 18in high by 1ft wide and extend through the entire north side,running parallel to the swale. A 2ft wide path would be directly adjacent to the seat wall, consist of permeablepavers and wrap around the perimeter of the entire swale. The next layer would be a continuous 5ft wide berm,starting from the west side, continuing through the north side and ending on the east side. Drip lines connected tothe cisterns should be installed on top of the berms. Another swale at the bottom of the slopes will catchadditional excess water. All the Callistemon Citrinus (Lemon Bottlebush) growing on the east slope should berelocated to the other side of the fence to increase gardening space on the east side. 6 trees on the northern slopeshould either be relocated or recycled for wood chips. The wood chips could server as a filter beneath thepermeable path or used as composting material. The tree relocation and/or removal would be done to increasegardening space on the north hill and allow more direct sunlight for the vegetables.Possible short-term benefits of this low impact design would be to improve soil quality by adding nitrogen fixingplants, to educate the community about permaculture, to use rain water as a resource, and to enrich soil bycomposting. A rough estimate of potential yields is 4000 pounds of fruit and vegetables during the summermonths; 200 pounds of compost a year and 13,600 gallons of harvested rainwater a year. In order to calculate theamount of total annual harvestable water, I used the following constants and formulas:
    • Constants: • 0.62 gallons of rainwater falls on 1 square foot on land when 1 inch of rain is measured 3 • 19.70 inches of normal annual rain1 • % Runoff Efficiency + 95% for concrete, flat roof2 • Design calls for the use of two 6800 gallon cisternsFormulas (sample calculation): Total gallons of rainfall received annually by 1 square foot = 0.62 x Normal Annual Rainfall: (12.214 gal/sq.ft = 0.62 gal/sq.ft.in x 19.70 in) Total Harvestable Gallons = Rooftop Area (sq.ft) x Total Gallons of Annual Rainfall (gal/sq.ft) x % Runoff Efficiency 2 (290,732 gal = (432ft x 58ft) x 12.214 gal/sq.ft x 95%2 this is the amount that could potentially be collected)* *This design calls for two 6800-gallon cisterns (2 x 6800 gal = 13600 gal)During the spring months, the seasonal garden would consist of herbs, root vegetables, stalk vegetables, leafvegetables, inflorescent vegetables and apples. During the summer months, the seasonal garden would consist ofbulb vegetables, leaf vegetables, fruit vegetables, legumes, herbs and oranges. During the fall/winter months thegarden would consist of tuber vegetables, fruit vegetables, herbs, root vegetables and persimmons. The fruit treeshave been selected for their various seasonal fruiting times: apples in the spring, oranges in the early summerand persimmons in the fall/early winter. On maturity, each tree would bear approximately a few hundred fruitseach. The southern exposure was selected as the best location to receive sun year around, in order for the trees tobear that much fruit.The success of this design will depend on community involvement. It is imperative that SFPUC sponsorsworkshops to teach volunteers composting techniques and how to maintain seasonal gardens. The Mira LomaImprovement Club is "dedicated to bringing community information and services to the neighborhood." 4Engaging the Mira Loma Improvement Club would ensure spreading awareness of the garden throughout theneighborhood. Ideally, after school programs from local schools will also play a vital role by engaging kids toparticipate in garden maintenance.Seasonal gardening and composting would help San Franciscos food system by reducing the amount of energyneeded to bring food into the city as well as reducing waste out to the citys landfill. SFPUC would also benefitby reducing the amount of water and energy costs it incurs by using swales and above ground cisterns to collectrainwater. The Swales would be used to sink the rainwater into aquifers while the cisterns would be attached todrip lines, which would supply the gardens’ water needs. This would reduce the usage of potable water otherwiseused to maintain the gardens. The drip lines could be gravity pumped lines from the cisterns. It is assumed thatthe cisterns could efficiently harvest 13,600 gallons of annual water if the normal rainfall continues to be 19.70inannually. The site would need two cisterns to collect the runoff from rainwater.Possible long-term benefits include a thriving urban community garden with low maintenance and continuouscommunity volunteers, with a waiting list, to give everyone an opportunity to garden in the space. Nearbyschools could participate in after school programs to take care of the gardens and learn about urban gardening. Along-term goal should be to maintain a seed library. Mira Loma Park is an upscale neighborhood with sociallyand environmentally conscience people. Once the garden’s yield has increased to surplus capacity, it could bedonated to less privileged neighborhoods and non-profit organizations. A portion of the surplus could also besold at the Glen Park Village Farmer’s Market. This could be a great way to brand and market this progressive
    • neighborhood as a more sustainable community. Looking at Mira Loma Park Urban Garden as a small solutionfor their neighborhood could encourage other neighborhoods in the area to start doing the same. ELEMENTS FOR THE DESIGN INPUTS OUTPUTS Water Runoff Water From Roof Space Possible Collection of 13600 gallons Collecting area Inlet/Outlet Line Above Ground Irrigation 2 each/6800 gallon Cisterns Wind Break Protection From: Sun, Wind, Habitat Debris, Contamination Screen/Line Filter Cooling Effect/Thermal Mass Distribution/Drip Lines Compost Tea Above Ground Cistern Overflow Design: swales, Gravity Energy To Work Drip valve release Lines Accessibility Fresh Drinking Water ? Low Maintenance Slow It, Spread It, Sink It Water Reservoir Carbon On Site Space Enrich Soil Double Cedar Container: 2 Heat each 36”H by 68”L by 36”W, Natural Pest Repellant Collecting Area Food For Plants Materials From Scraps, Compost Tea Compost Area Cardboard etc. Sun/Heat Wind Break Tools/Labor/Oxygen Instant Gardens Time No Waste Protection From: Distribution Contamination Screen Low Maintenance Accessibility Production of 200 pounds Urban Garden Water Reservoir Enrich Soil Space Diversified High Intensity Crops Compost Habitat For Wildlife Compost Tea Education Labor Healthy Living Seed Bank Slow It, Spread It, Sink It Low Maintenance Accessibility Community Volunteers Compost
    • INPUTS OUTPUTS Berms Surplus Distribution Protection From: Natural Pest 4000 Pounds of Fresh Control Fruits/Vegetables Intensive Gardening Mixed Fruit Trees Nitrogen FixersResources: • www.weather.com1, www.harvesth2o.com, www.virtualsecrets.com3, www.miralomapark.org4 • www.sfwater.orgPlant LegendNitrogen Fixers/Ground Cover • Ceanothus sp. • Lupinus sp. Lupine • Ceanothus sp. Legumes • White Clover • Sweet Peas • Crimson Clover • Lupine • Scarlet Bean Runner • Scarlet RunnerFruit Vegetables Bulb Vegetables • Chayote • Chive • Eggplant • Scallion • Bell Pepper • Leek • Cucumber • Garlic • Squashes • Onion • ShallotKeystone Species • Citrus sp. Lane Late Navel Orange Root Vegetables • Malus sp. Honey Crisp Apple • Beet • Diospyros – Ichikikei Jiro • Turnip • ParsnipTuber Vegetables • Carrot • Cassava • Celeriac • Potato • Black Radish • Yam • RadishWind Breakers • Daikon • Lupinus sp. – Lupine • Salsifi • Rosmarinus Officianalis sp. Rosemary
    • Shafter and FitchBy: Debra SingerAssessmentMap; Dimensions; Elevation CharacteristicsSector Analysis (Wind, Sun, People/animals)WIND: Some parts of the site (north/western) are windy and cold; some parts are more protected andwarmer. The area in general gets a lot of sunlight. Parts are bordered by large asphalt lots, streetscapesand big warehouses, e.g., heat island effect and smells transmitted from local industriesMostly bare wasteland, with a lot of trash, few street trees and a few residential pockets in theimmediate vicinitySUN: People living in the studios in Hunter’s Point claim this area has the best climate in all of SanFrancisco. A local garden in Hunter’s Point art studio area indicates that sunflowers, tomatoes andother sun-loving plants can thrive.PEOPLE: Industry- heavy and light. Auto traffic. Industrial / light manufacturing area. Visiblegarbage in waterways and streets includes rusting metal auto bodies, machinery, litter, trash.Invisible garbage in water includes heavy industrial wastes (See Naval Shipyard assessment)WATER: unknown quality See contaminant assessment below.Animals: Rats? DogsWildlife that could be in the area: king birds, blue birds, meadowlarks, shrikes, red-tailed hawks,kestrels. Mammals: meadow voles, beechy ground squirrels, foxes.Reptiles: California king snakes, gopher snakes, and fence lizards.Special status species inhabiting the general vicinity: California tiger salamanders, red-legged frogs,western burrowing owlsAccessibility (vehicular and personal)Buses? Mass transit not good to this area. Access by auto to Shafter Avenue, then on Fitch Street.Near HWY 280/101. Could be accessible via water once its cleaned up and if fencing is taken down.Yosemite Slough could be a beautiful water way for canoes/kayaks if was cleaned up.The PUC site borders the Hunter’s Point Naval Shipyard, a former Dept. of Defense military zone, nowa designated Superfund site with >100 brownfields. The site was created from landfill fromneighboring hills in the 1940’s and zones were used during WWII for ship repair, radiological testing,nerve gas and weapons storage, landfill and chemical storage, among the things we know about.Risks/Unknowns that are relevant (historical use, toxicity concerns, etc.)There needs to be much more detailed assessment and testing of chemicals and metals in particulates insoil, air and water quality in multiple sites, and done over time. Radioactive testing is needed. Muchmore detailed testing of the Navy’s mitigation efforts. More transparent reporting of data.The Shafter/Fitch site is heavily affected by what is in the water, air and land nearby and therefore
    • inextricably linked to conditions and developments for remediation at the Hunter’s Point NavalShipyardScenarios 1. DEMONSTRATION CENTER FOR VARIOUS METHODS OF BIOREMEDIATION AND WETLAND RESTORATION – based on assessment of chemical/toxic contaminants in water, air and land. A laboratory could be built for mycoremediation where mushrooms would be grown and their uses and effects on clearing chemicals, hydrocarbons, sewage, etc. would be measured and reported so protocols could be established to be used in other disaster scenarios, such as another Gulf Oil Spill. If something like this had been in place before the Gulf Oil Spill, perhaps …..San Francisco could become a nationwide center coordinating best practices for wetland restoration and toxic bioremediation. We can work with other cities actively pursuing regeneration of disturbed, polluted waterfront areas and pursuing habitat restoration, such as New York, Chattanooga and share best practices. Friendly competition between cities can motivate other cities to participate in filtering their water and cut pesticide and chemical use. There is a great movement nationally among municipal water agencies for low impact design. Wetlands restoration is a missing link needed for systemic regeneration of water tables and to bring back natural environmental filtration processes. 2. ORNAMENTAL PLANT GARDEN: Native plants, grasses, rushes selected for their function in water and pollutant filtration would be grown in ponds and a series of constructed wetlands. The plants selected would serve a double function in bioremediation and for their ornamental and aesthetic sculptural qualities. The garden could provide a business opportunity and training for local community members and schools – after safety for exposure is validated. It would provide a much needed aesthetic natural area and could evolve into a sculpture garden, with art created by many of the local artists having studios in the Hunter’s Point Shipyard and other interesting industrial craftspeople nearby and the local community members. A sculpture garden like the one at Recology could be aesthetic and interesting. Elements could be sited from Recology and kept out of landfill. Willows and other trees good for riparian ecosystem are also good for ornamental bouquets, to be sold at community markets. Fibrous grasses and rushes can be harvested for basketry and mats. This area would serve as a site for cultivation of non-edible basketry materials, grasses for tying packages, and big leaves for wrapping produce. Until the site is deemed safe for daily use by all members of the community (including those most vulnerable to toxics – children and the elderly – the site should be considered more of a zone 4 kind of place, where one visits infrequently to check on processes 3. MUSEUM OF ‘WASTE’ , ‘DIRT’ and ‘WEEDS’: Considering that this area has been used as a junk heap for detritus and toxic wastes for decades – by the federal government, the military, and by local and state agencies and developers – in a tremendously unjust way for the people living nearby – this is an opportunity to make the full ramifications and ongoing lifecycle of dumping practices transparent. There can be exhibits and imagery delineating the history of the area, what is in the landfill, and what constitutes a healthy soil web. One exhibit area should target the history of the Naval Shipyard and what is believed to be in the underwater zone and
    • dangerous things the military and the EPA have done to try to cap the toxics, e.g. injecting more chemicals into the zone. The most developed exhibit should focus on what the early wetlands looked like and how marshlands function to filter water in the bay so we have an impetus and are attracted to reclaim wetlands. 4. CLIMATE CHANGE DEMONSTRATION CENTER: Variation of the above. Wetland restoration gardens with outdoor exhibits on the various scenarios expected with increased C02 & methane emissions. Exhibits would provide information on what San Francisco and state agencies are planning for climate change mitigation. It would show where sea level was when SF was first settled and over time, with projections for the future, given different temperatures and different possible human behaviour scenarios. This would include a CENTER FOR DAYLIGHTING SAN FRANCISCO BAY CREEKS and information about hydrology. 5. COMPOST CENTER: The site could be used as a collection and demonstration center for various types of composting. It could accept compostable materials from local restaurants, the projects and residences in Hunter’s Point, the live/work studios and light industrial businesses. Classes could be held to teach the types of composting methods: Berkeley, vermiculture etc. and benefits of each. Since this area is near Recology’s Waste Transfer Station, perhaps part of the site on the existing gravel road could be used to store discarded building materials: wood, doors, etc. People from the community could take these things for free, and it would stay out of the landfill. This use is only possible after constructed wetlands and mycoremediation help make the land safe for public exposure.POTENTIAL YIELDS: Education about the real dangers of the way we have disposed of ‘wastes’Education about the health effects from long-term exposure to chemicals A place for an underservedlow –economic level community to participate in creation of a beautiful wetland park.Beauty is typically in short supply in the poorer urban areas. Trees are typically only for the rich. Whyis that? Studies show that crime rates go down as tree cover goes up, and air quality goes up. Quality oflife goes up with more access to nature and beauty.A place for older gardeners of varying cultural backgrounds to share how they grow things and howthey re-purpose and use thingsProduction of beautiful and interesting ornamental plants for sale and display, on the edge of the site,after succession of plants that filter out toxins. The actual markets should be sited at other urban agsites until this site is deemed safe for daily contact.Production of native American food plants, berries, nutsHabitat for birds, bees, butterflies and other insects and wildlife and cleaner underwater habitat forwhatever is left in the SF Bay.Healthier watershed and cleaner air.Cleaner environment leading to better health and daily quality of life.Cultural awareness of the importance of the watershed and estuaries, marshlands, grasses, and what wehave referred to as ‘weeds’