Permaculture:  Renewable Energy Kevin Bayuk
Overview <ul><li>Outline and brief description of renewable energy technologies </li></ul><ul><li>General overview of tech...
General Principles & Considerations <ul><li>Thermodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>EMERGY / EROEI </li></ul><ul><li>Supply and D...
Terminology - Units of Measurement Ampere: Amps - A unit in which electrical current flow is measured. Voltage: Volt - V u...
Examples An electrical bulb burning on 220 volts draws 3 Amps. What is the Power consumption if it runs for two hours? Pow...
Kilowatt   Hour i.e.  22000 watt hours  = 22 kwh 1000   You pay for your household electricity as so much $ per kilowatt h...
Solar water heating <ul><li>Heats your tap water not your radiators </li></ul><ul><li>50% of hot water needs overall </li>...
Types Flat   plate Evacuated tube Unglazed Increasing efficiency/cost
How do they work? Closed system Open (direct) system
Photovoltaics (PV) <ul><li>Convert light into electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Single PV Cell: 1.5  Watts  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Types Polycrystalline Si Thin Film Increasing efficiency/cost Monocrystalline Si
How do they work?
 
 
 
 
 
 
Load Analysis <ul><li>Household load analysis estimates the peak and average power and energy required </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Solar Potential
Roof-top Solar Array Computations <ul><li>Find the south-facing roof area; say 20 ft * 40 ft = 800 ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>...
Battery Charge Controller <ul><li>Limits charge current to protect battery from overheating and damage that shortens life ...
Storage Batteries <ul><li>Lead-acid (car) batteries are most economical; but must be deep-cycle type </li></ul><ul><li>Cri...
Batteries So if a battery is rated at 24 Amp Hour Capacity we can draw  -2 Amps from it for 12 hours or -12 Amps for two h...
Inverter <ul><li>The inverter converts low voltage (12V to 100s V) direct current to 120 Vac </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous...
Invertors An invertors is an electronic device that will convert D.C. Power into A.C Power  i.e. 12 volt D.C. from a batte...
Energy Transmission <ul><li>Solar power is expensive, so design wires for 1% loss instead of usual 3 to 5% for utility pow...
Some Important Electrical Information <ul><li>P = E • I = E 2 /R = I 2 • R, where P is power (instantaneous), E is electro...
Solar Power Applications <ul><li>Water heating, i.e. for rural clinics </li></ul><ul><li>Drying (often grain or other agri...
PV systems: Strengths & Weaknesses Use of toxic materials is some PV panels The user is less effected by rising prices for...
Wind Power <ul><li>Temperature differences create currents affected by earth’s rotation and land contours = wind  </li></u...
Wind Turbines <ul><ul><li>Wind turbines start at 400 watts and go up to many megawatts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only wor...
Siting a Turbine <ul><li>Requires** clearance without obstructions 200 yards from turbine within 20 feet of turbine height...
Orientation <ul><li>Turbines can be categorized into two overarching classes based on the orientation of the rotor </li></...
 
Performance: Energy <ul><li>Based in kWh a month not rated power  </li></ul><ul><li>Household sized turbine (10->23’ diame...
Tower Heights <ul><li>Anemometors, to be accurate, need to be in the exact location for a year </li></ul><ul><li>Tower hei...
Wind Power Applications <ul><li>Milling grain </li></ul><ul><li>Driving other, often agricultural, machines </li></ul>Othe...
Wind systems: Strengths & Weaknesses The Technology can be adapted for complete or part manufacture (e.g. the tower) in de...
Micro Hydro <ul><li>water+gravity+turbine+generator = electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Site dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Can b...
You need two things to make power Head and Flow
Measuring Head <ul><li>Pipe with pressure gauge at the bottom (1 person) </li></ul><ul><li>2.31 feet = 1 psi </li></ul><ul...
5 gallon bucket This may be tricky… Small stream, little waterfall Most typical method for microhydro
5 gallon bucket <ul><li>If the measured flow using a 5 gallon bucket and a stop watch was 5 gallons in 1.5 seconds, how ma...
Larger Streams <ul><li>Float Method </li></ul>Weir
Power Estimate <ul><li>Power (watts) =  Net Head (ft) * Flow (GPM) </li></ul><ul><li>9-14 (use 10) </li></ul>10 assumes a ...
Nozzles Flow through the pipe is controlled by the nozzle size
Mollies Branch Case Study <ul><li>100 ft of net head </li></ul><ul><li>Stream flow: 300 gpm </li></ul><ul><li>Design flow:...
 
Measuring Flow
The 4” HDPE arrives in 50’ lengths
Fusing the pipe with the ASU Wind & Hydro Class
<ul><li>Fusion welder </li></ul><ul><li>Shave pipe ends </li></ul><ul><li>Heat with 500 degree iron </li></ul><ul><li>Pres...
The penstock gradually drops 100 feet along the 1200 feet of pipe. It is supported along the bank with steel stakes and ai...
This log house is moved into place to house the turbine
The wire run and Balance of System is roughed in
A battery box is built to contain the eight Trojan L16 batteries (48V)
A silt trap/intake filter is built from a 55 gallon plastic drum
The penstock is connected to the turbine house
A stand is constructed for the turbine. A union and hinge allows the turbine to be tilted back for servicing. Screw-type g...
The water passes through the floor and returns to the creek
Water is diverted from the creek to the silt trap
A second silt trap barrel is added to improve performance
The battery bank and inverter are wired. The electrician installs a subpanel for the hydro loads.
The log house does a nice job of reducing the sound level (sounds like a sewing machine)
Hydropower: Strengths & Weaknesses The technology can be adapted for manufacture/use in developing countries Engineering s...
Biomass Basics <ul><li>-Biomass fuels have the potential of providing 4%-25% of the United States energy needs </li></ul><...
Solar Energy Conversion 1 hectare = ~2.5 acres
Boiling 1l of Water
Rocket Stoves and Mass Heaters
Bioenergy Technologies
Gasification <ul><li>Biomass heated with no oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Gasifies to mixture of CO and H 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Pyrolysis <ul><li>Heat bio-material under pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500-1300  ºC  (900-2400 ºF) </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Anaerobic Digestion <ul><li>Decompose biomass with microorganisms  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed tanks known as anaerobic d...
Methane Digesters
BioFuels <ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created by fermentation of starches/sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US ca...
Bioenergy Applications <ul><li>Cooking and lighting (direct combustion) </li></ul><ul><li>Motive power for small industry ...
Bioenergy: Strengths & Weaknesses Likely to be uneven resource production throughout the year Resource production may be v...
Geothermal <ul><li>Energy available as heat from the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Usually hot water or steam </li></ul><ul><li>...
Trompe
RE Applications: Summary  Mini-grids usually hybrid systems (solar-wind, solar-diesel, wind-diesel, etc.). Small-scale res...
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Renewables can be used for both electricity and heat generation. There is a wide range of renewable en...
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Permaculutre Renewable Energy

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  • Dorset has a very good solar source. This means that a 3-4 m 2 array of solar collectors should provide at least 50% of your total annual hot water needs. Because, it is more sunny in the summer you get virtually all your needs catered for at this time but much less in the winter. In total, you should expect to save 1500-2000 kWh per year. To get the optimum solar gain the collectors should face due south at an angle of 40 ° but slight variations are also possible. North facing roofs should not be used. A solar system needs a hot water tank so integrate well with old style immersion heating systems. They can be linked with combi style boiler but will need a specially made tank which will add to the cost.
  • Solar water heating is the most common domestic renewable energy installation. There are three types of solar collector: unglazed are the least efficient and are typically used for swimming pool systems; flat plate systems look like Velux windows and offer good efficiency at an affordable price; evacuated tubes collectors are most efficient and require less roof space to provide the same amount of hot water but the systems are typically more expensive.
  • Most systems are closed and the fluid (usually antifreeze) circulates around the system and heats the water tank by a heat exchanger. Open systems circulate water which is pumped into the tank and then to your taps. This loses less energy but needs slightly more expensive piping.
  • Whereas solar water heating uses the suns thermal energy to heat water, photovoltaic cells produce electric current when exposed to light. The efficiency of PV panels is much less than SWH panels so you needs a lot more on your roof to produce a similar amount of energy. There are several types which can be roof mounted or integrated into the building fabric as tiles or facades. These blend in looking like normal building materials. Unlike SWH systems they need good quality light to produce the maximum amount of electricity. The pictures are PV arrays in Dorset (clockwise from top): House in Swanage Poundbury eco home Sherborne Primary School
  • Most PV cells are composed of silicon. Amorphous, thin film are made from a very thin layer of semiconductor atoms deposited on a glass or metal base. These panels are flexible and therefore allow a variety of shapes but the efficiency is very low (~4-7%) Polycrystalline are wafer thin slices of melted and recrystallised silicon. They are mid range in cost and efficiency (~8-12%) Monocrystalline are thin slices cut from a single crystal of silicon. These are the most expensive type with a typical efficiency of 15%
  • Solar cells are composed of a semi conducting material, usually silicon and tiny amounts of boron and phosphorous. A photovoltaic cell comprises two very thin layers:  one, containing phosphorous, with spare electrons – the n-type (negative)  the other, containing boron, with fewer electrons – the p-type (positive). Sunlight striking the PV cell is absorbed and this energy generates particles with positive or negative charge which move randomly in all directions within the cell. The electrons (-) tend to collect in the n-type semiconductor, whilst the positive charged particles move to the p-type semiconductor. When an external load, such as an electric bulb or an electric motor, is connected between the front and back electrodes, electricity flows in the cell. NB battery systems are also possible.
  • Nonrenewable energies come from combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas. Their creation took millions of years, and we are using it faster than it was produced and faster than it is being created. Renewable energies come from the sun. Collection is from natural occurrences. While the energy is free, it costs money to collect it. Nuclear and geothermal energies aren’t renewable but are treated that way since the quantity is so large.
  • Whereas solar water heating uses the suns thermal energy to heat water, photovoltaic cells produce electric current when exposed to light. The efficiency of PV panels is much less than SWH panels so you needs a lot more on your roof to produce a similar amount of energy. There are several types which can be roof mounted or integrated into the building fabric as tiles or facades. These blend in looking like normal building materials. Unlike SWH systems they need good quality light to produce the maximum amount of electricity. The pictures are PV arrays in Dorset (clockwise from top): House in Swanage Poundbury eco home Sherborne Primary School
  • For the consumer, energy is the most important calculation. Everyone’s electric consumption is measured in kWh. With an understanding of the wind speed, a person can gain an early picture of what their monthly energy savings would be by comparing their electric bill to the expected kWh production
  • Wind speed increases with height above ground, and increasing speed increases wind power exponentially. Thus, relatively small investments in increased tower height can yield very high rates of return in power production. For instance, installing a 10-kW generator on a 100-foot tower rather than a 60-foot tower involves a 10% increase in overall system cost but can result in 29% more power. Taller towers also raise blades above air turbulence, allowing the turbines to produce more power. A rule of thumb for proper and efficient operation of a wind turbine is that the bottom of the turbine’s blades should be at least 10 feet (3 meters) above the top of anything within 300 feet (about 100 meters).   County ordinances that restrict tower height may adversely affect optimum economics for small wind turbines. Unless the zoning jurisdiction has established small wind turbine as a “permitted” or “conditional” use, it may be necessary to obtain a variance or special use permit to erect an adequate tower. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has regulations on the height of structures, particularly those near the approach path to runways at local airports. Objects that are higher than 200 feet (61 meters) above ground level must be reported, and beacon lights may be required. If you are within 10 miles of an airport, no matter how tall your tower will be, you should contact your local FAA office to determine if you need to file for permission to erect a tower.
  • Whereas solar water heating uses the suns thermal energy to heat water, photovoltaic cells produce electric current when exposed to light. The efficiency of PV panels is much less than SWH panels so you needs a lot more on your roof to produce a similar amount of energy. There are several types which can be roof mounted or integrated into the building fabric as tiles or facades. These blend in looking like normal building materials. Unlike SWH systems they need good quality light to produce the maximum amount of electricity. The pictures are PV arrays in Dorset (clockwise from top): House in Swanage Poundbury eco home Sherborne Primary School
  • Biomass Gasification When biomass is heated with no oxygen or only about one-third the oxygen needed for efficient combustion (amount of oxygen and other conditions determine if biomass gasifies or pyrolyzes), it gasifies to a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen—synthesis gas or syngas. Combustion is a function of the mixture of oxygen with the hydrocarbon fuel. Gaseous fuels mix with oxygen more easily than liquid fuels, which in turn mix more easily than solid fuels. Syngas therefore inherently burns more efficiently and cleanly than the solid biomass from which it was made. Biomass gasification can thus improve the efficiency of large-scale biomass power facilities such as those for forest industry residues and specialized facilities such as black liquor recovery boilers of the pulp and paper industry—both major sources of biomass power. Like natural gas, syngas can also be burned in gas turbines, a more efficient electrical generation technology than steam boilers to which solid biomass and fossil fuels are limited. Most electrical generation systems are relatively inefficient, losing half to two-thirds of the energy as waste heat. If that heat can be used for an industrial process, space heating, or another purpose, efficiency can be greatly increased. Small modular biopower systems are more easily used for such &amp;quot;cogeneration&amp;quot; than most large-scale electrical generation. Just as syngas mixes more readily with oxygen for combustion, it also mixes more readily with chemical catalysts than solid fuels do, greatly enhancing its ability to be converted to other valuable fuels, chemicals and materials. The Fischer-Tropsch process converts syngas to liquid fuels needed for transportation. The water-gas shift process converts syngas to more concentrated hydrogen for fuel cells. A variety of other catalytic processes can turn syngas into a myriad of chemicals or other potential fuels or products.
  • http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/pyrolysis.html Pyrolysis and Other Thermal Processing Solid biomass can be liquefied by pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, or other thermochemical technologies. Pyrolysis and gasification are related processes of heating with limited oxygen. Conditions for producing pyrolysis oil are more likely to include virtually no oxygen. Pyrolysis oil or other thermochemically-derived biomass liquids can be used directly as fuel, but also hold great promise as platform intermediates for production of high-value chemicals and materials. Pyrolysis Fast pyrolysis is a thermal decomposition process that occurs at moderate temperatures with a high heat transfer rate to the biomass particles and a short hot vapor residence time in the reaction zone. Several reactor configurations have been shown to assure this condition and to achieve yields of liquid product as high as 75% based on the starting dry biomass weight . They include bubbling fluid beds, circulating and transported beds, cyclonic reactors, and ablative reactors. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a liquid product, pyrolysis oil or bio-oil that can be readily stored and transported. Pyrolysis oil is a renewable liquid fuel and can also be used for production of chemicals. Fast pyrolysis has now achieved a commercial success for production of chemicals and is being actively developed for producing liquid fuels. Pyrolysis oil has been successfully tested in engines, turbines and boilers, and been upgraded to high quality hydrocarbon fuels although at a presently unacceptable energetic and financial cost. In the 1990s several fast pyrolysis technologies reached near-commercial status. Six circulating fluidized bed plants have been constructed by Ensyn Technologies, with the largest having a nominal capacity of 50 t/day operated for Red Arrow Products Co., Inc. in Wisconsin. DynaMotive (Vancouver, Canada) demonstrated the bubbling fluidized bed process at 10 t/day of biomass and is scaling up the plant to 100 t/day. BTG (The Netherlands) operates a rotary cone reactor system at 5 t/day and is proposing to scale the plant up to 50 t/d. Fortum has a 12 t/day pilot plant in Finland. The yields and properties of the generated liquid product, bio-oil, depend on the feedstock, the process type and conditions, and the product collection efficiency. Biomass Program researchers use both vortex (cyclonic) and fluidized bed reactors for pyrolyzing biomass. The fluidized bed reactor of the Thermochemical Users Facility at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is a 1.8 m high cylindrical vessel of 20 cm diameter in the lower (fluidization) zone, expanded to 36 cm diameter in the freeboard section. It is equipped in a perforated gas distribution plate and an internal cyclone to retain entrained bed media (typically sand). The reactor is heated electrically and can operate at temperatures up to 700°C at a throughput of 15-20 kg/h of biomass. Recently, a catalytic steam reformer was coupled to the pyrolysis/gasification system. Like the pyrolyzer, the reformer is an externally heated fluidized bed reactor that will be used to produce hydrogen from pyrolysis gas and vapors generated in the first stage of the process and to clean the gas from tars. Biomass Program micro-scale pyrolysis systems include externally heated different types reactors coupled to the molecular-beam mass-spectrometer (MBMS). These systems are very efficient tools, especially for studying mechanisms of thermal and catalytic processes and to optimize process conditions for different products from variety of feedstocks. For example, the ongoing research sponsored by Philip Morris resulted in understanding the chemical processes of biopolymer pyrolysis and oxidation leading to aromatic hydrocarbon formation.
  • &amp;quot;Biogas Platform&amp;quot; — Decomposing biomass with natural consortia of microorganisms in closed tanks known as anaerobic digesters produces methane (natural gas) and carbon dioxide. This methane-rich biogas can be used as fuel or as a base chemical for biobased products. Although the Biomass Program is not currently doing much research in this area, a joint Environmental Protection Agency/Department of Agriculture/Department of Energy program known as AgStar works to encourage use of existing technology for manures at animal feedlots. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/other_platforms.html
  • Biofuels A variety of fuels can be made from biomass resources including the liquid fuels ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and gaseous fuels such as hydrogen and methane. Biofuels research and development is composed of three main areas: producing the fuels, applications and uses of the fuels, and distribution infrastructure. Biofuels are primarily used to fuel vehicles, but can also fuel engines or fuel cells for electricity generation. For information about the use of biofuels in vehicles, see the Alternative Fuel Vehicle page under Transportation. See the Transportation page for information about the biofuels distribution infrastructure. See the Hydrogen page for more information about hydrogen as a fuel. Fuels Ethanol Ethanol is made by converting the carbohydrate portion of biomass into sugar, which is then converted into ethanol in a fermentation process similar to brewing beer. Ethanol is the most widely used biofuel today with current capacity of 1.8 billion gallons per year based on starch crops such as corn. Ethanol produced from cellulosic biomass is currently the subject of extensive research, development and demonstration efforts. Biodiesel Biodiesel is produced through a process in which organically derived oils are combined with alcohol (ethanol or methanol) in the presence of a catalyst to form ethyl or methyl ester. The biomass- derived ethyl or methyl esters can be blended with conventional diesel fuel or used as a neat fuel (100% biodiesel). Biodiesel can be made from soybean or Canola (rapeseed) oils, animal fats , waste vegetable oils , or microalgae oils . Biofuels from Synthesis Gas Biomass can be gasified to produce a synthesis gas composed primarily of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, also called syngas or biosyngas. Hydrogen can be recovered from this syngas, or it can be catalytically converted to methanol . It can also be converted using Fischer-Tropsch catalyst into a liquid stream with properties similar to diesel fuel, called Fischer-Tropsch diesel. However, all of these fuels can also be produced from natural gas using a similar process. Conversion Processes Biochemical Conversion Processes Enzymes and microorganisms are frequently used as biocatalysts to convert biomass or biomass derived compounds into desirable products. Cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes break down the carbohydrate fractions of biomass to five and six carbon sugars, a process known as hydrolysis. Yeast and bacteria ferment the sugars into products such as ethanol. Biotechnology advances are expected to lead to dramatic biochemical conversion improvements. Photobiological Conversion Processes Photobiological processes use the natural photosynthetic activity of organisms to produce biofuels directly from sunlight. For example, the photosynthetic activities of bacteria and green algae have been used to produce hydrogen from water and sunlight. Thermochemical Conversion Processes Heat energy and chemical catalysts are used to break down biomass into intermediate compounds or products. In gasification , biomass is heated in an oxygen-starved environment to produce a gas composed primarily of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In pyrolysis , biomass is exposed to high temperatures in the absence of air, causing it to decompose. Solvents, acids and bases can be used to fractionate biomass into an array of products including sugars, cellulosic fibers and lignin . http://www.eere.energy.gov/RE/bio_fuels.html
  • Permaculutre Renewable Energy

    1. 1. Permaculture: Renewable Energy Kevin Bayuk
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Outline and brief description of renewable energy technologies </li></ul><ul><li>General overview of technologies and applications integrated using permaculture design </li></ul><ul><li>Information on costs </li></ul><ul><li>Common barriers and issues limiting wide spread use/dissemination </li></ul>
    3. 3. General Principles & Considerations <ul><li>Thermodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>EMERGY / EROEI </li></ul><ul><li>Supply and Demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negawatts (Accept Feedback) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embrace Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Observe and Interact - Scale </li></ul>
    4. 4. Terminology - Units of Measurement Ampere: Amps - A unit in which electrical current flow is measured. Voltage: Volt - V unit in which electrical force is measured. Wattage: Watts unit in which electrical power is measured and is obtained by multiplying Voltage and Ampere. Watt Hours: Whrs is A unit in which electrical power consumption is measured and is obtained by multiplying the wattage by the number of hours of use.
    5. 5. Examples An electrical bulb burning on 220 volts draws 3 Amps. What is the Power consumption if it runs for two hours? Power consumed will be = watts x hours = volts x amps x hours = 220 x 2 x 3 = 1320 watt hours
    6. 6. Kilowatt Hour i.e. 22000 watt hours = 22 kwh 1000 You pay for your household electricity as so much $ per kilowatt hour (kwh) which is just the watt hours divided by a thousand.
    7. 7. Solar water heating <ul><li>Heats your tap water not your radiators </li></ul><ul><li>50% of hot water needs overall </li></ul><ul><li>Roof should face between SE and SW </li></ul><ul><li>3-4m 2 array for households </li></ul><ul><li>Need hot water tank </li></ul><ul><li>20-30 years useful life </li></ul>Opportunity: Combine with re-roofing to reduce costs
    8. 8. Types Flat plate Evacuated tube Unglazed Increasing efficiency/cost
    9. 9. How do they work? Closed system Open (direct) system
    10. 10. Photovoltaics (PV) <ul><li>Convert light into electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Single PV Cell: 1.5 Watts </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Panel (30-40 cells): 40-60 Watts </li></ul>Opportunity: Captures photons at peak use periods
    11. 11. Types Polycrystalline Si Thin Film Increasing efficiency/cost Monocrystalline Si
    12. 12. How do they work?
    13. 19. Load Analysis <ul><li>Household load analysis estimates the peak and average power and energy required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind the “Edge Events” like refrigerator cycling on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some might be reduced or time-shifted to decrease system costs </li></ul><ul><li>A spreadsheet program like Excel will speed analysis of the various loads, their use time, peak power, and energy required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List the loads, enter the power, time per day, and compute the rest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From total energy required and total power, one can compute the size of solar modules and batteries </li></ul></ul>
    14. 20. Solar Potential
    15. 21. Roof-top Solar Array Computations <ul><li>Find the south-facing roof area; say 20 ft * 40 ft = 800 ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Assume 120 Wp solar modules are 26 inches by 52 inches; 9.4 ft 2 /120 watt; 12.78 W/ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Assume 90% of area can be covered, 720 ft 2, ~ 9202 W </li></ul><ul><li>and that there are (e.g) 5.5 effective hours of sun/day; 51 kWh/day </li></ul><ul><li>The south-facing modules are tilted south to the latitude angle </li></ul><ul><li>76 modules would fit the area, but 44 would provide an average home with 30 kWh/day and cost ~$17600 for modules alone </li></ul>Siemens Solar SM110 Maximum power rating, 110 W Minimum power rating, 100 W Rated current. 6.3 A Rated voltage, 17.9 V Short circuit current, 6.9 A Open circuit voltage, 21.7 V
    16. 22. Battery Charge Controller <ul><li>Limits charge current to protect battery from overheating and damage that shortens life </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnects battery loads if voltage falls too low (10.6 V is typical) </li></ul><ul><li>Removes charge current if voltage rises too high (14V is typical) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates charge voltage to avoid battery water gassing </li></ul><ul><li>Diverts output of source to a secondary load (water heater or electric furnace) if battery is fully charged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves energy wisely </li></ul></ul>Soltek Mark IV 20 Amp Regulator “ Big as a breadbox” for a 4 kW inverter
    17. 23. Storage Batteries <ul><li>Lead-acid (car) batteries are most economical; but must be deep-cycle type </li></ul><ul><li>Critical rating is 20-hour value or Reserve Capacity (RC) in minutes at 25A load </li></ul><ul><li>Charge cycle is ~70% efficient -- rather wasteful </li></ul><ul><li>Requires maintenance to ensure long life </li></ul><ul><li>A home might have ten of these batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Need to know the length of time without full sun in days </li></ul><ul><li>Inverter must match series battery voltage </li></ul>Soltek Deep-Cycle Battery AP-27 12 Vdc, 115 A-hr 20-hour rate
    18. 24. Batteries So if a battery is rated at 24 Amp Hour Capacity we can draw -2 Amps from it for 12 hours or -12 Amps for two hours or -24 Amps for 1 hour etc. The capacity of a battery can be given in watt hours but this is very cumbersome, and since the battery voltage is always fixed we divide the watt hours by the voltage. = volts x Amps x hours Volts To get Amp hours.
    19. 25. Inverter <ul><li>The inverter converts low voltage (12V to 100s V) direct current to 120 Vac </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous inverters may be “inter-tied” with power line to reduce billable energy </li></ul><ul><li>In “net metering” states, the energy is metered at the same rate going into and out of the electrical grid --- no storage required (except for outages)! </li></ul><ul><li>Loads can use 12 volt low-voltage directly at higher efficiency with special lamps </li></ul>Trace Legend 4 kilowatt Inverter
    20. 26. Invertors An invertors is an electronic device that will convert D.C. Power into A.C Power i.e. 12 volt D.C. from a battery into 220 volt A.C. Smallest practical size for our application is 150 watt. One of 10 KW is large enough to power a 3 Bedroom House. Invertors come in two basic types: True Sine wave such as EDM Delivers 50Hz Modified Sine Wave 50Hz Disadvantage: Not as efficient as true sine wave Equipment such as specialized electronic medical instruments and measuring instruments might not perform, as they should. No problem with normal household and consumer electronic products.
    21. 27. Energy Transmission <ul><li>Solar power is expensive, so design wires for 1% loss instead of usual 3 to 5% for utility power </li></ul><ul><li>Use higher voltage (120Vac for long lines) instead of 12 Vdc </li></ul><ul><li>Spend more on larger wire than normal to reduce resistance loss </li></ul><ul><li>Battery and inverter wires might be AWG #0 or 2 or larger </li></ul><ul><li>Inverter output is 120Vac, so AWG#12 and 14 are common for 20A and 15A home service </li></ul><ul><li>Danger with batteries is not shock but flash burns and flying molten metal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special dc-rated fuses and circuit breakers are required </li></ul></ul>
    22. 28. Some Important Electrical Information <ul><li>P = E • I = E 2 /R = I 2 • R, where P is power (instantaneous), E is electromotive force, I is intensity or current, and R is resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Energy = P • t, where t is the time that power flows </li></ul><ul><li>V = I • R for a load or E = I • R for a source , where V is voltage drop across resistor </li></ul><ul><li>Wire size numbers roughly double the area and halve the resistance for every three size number changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#18 AWG is used in ordinary lamp cord (zip cord) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#18 AWG has a resistance of 6.385 ohms per 1000 ft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#12 AWG has a resistance of 1.588 ohms per 1000 ft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#9 AWG has a resistance of 0.7921 ohms per 1000 ft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#6 AWG has a resistance of 0.3951 ohms per 1000 ft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#3 AWG has a resistance of 0.197 ohms per 1000 ft </li></ul></ul>
    23. 29. Solar Power Applications <ul><li>Water heating, i.e. for rural clinics </li></ul><ul><li>Drying (often grain or other agricultural products) </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling </li></ul>Stand-alone Solar thermal <ul><li>Supplementing supply of hot water and/or space heating provided by the electricity grid or gas network </li></ul>Connected to existing water and/or space heating system Solar thermal <ul><li>Small home systems for lighting, radio, TV, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Small commercial/community systems, including health care, schools, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications and navigation aids </li></ul><ul><li>Water pumping </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial systems </li></ul><ul><li>Remote settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Mini-grid systems </li></ul>Stand-alone PV (solar electric) <ul><li>Supplementing mains supply </li></ul>Grid connected PV (solar electric) Application System Technology type
    24. 30. PV systems: Strengths & Weaknesses Use of toxic materials is some PV panels The user is less effected by rising prices for other energy sources Provision for collection of batteries and facilities to recycle batteries are necessary The solar system is an easily visible sign of a high level of responsibility, environmental awareness and commitment Energy intensity of silicon production for PV solar cells Environmental impact low compared with conventional energy sources Specific training and infrastructure needs Modular nature of PV allows for a complete range of system sizes as application dictates High capital/initial investment costs No fuel required (no additional costs for fuel nor delivery logistics) Storage/back-up usually required due to fluctuating nature of sunshine levels/no power production at night Automatic operation with very low maintenance requirements Performance is dependent on sunshine levels and local weather conditions Technology is mature. It has high reliability and long lifetimes (power output warranties from PV panels now commonly for 25 years) Weaknesses Strengths
    25. 31. Wind Power <ul><li>Temperature differences create currents affected by earth’s rotation and land contours = wind </li></ul><ul><li>A wind turbine obtains its power input by converting the force of the wind into a torque (turning force) acting on the rotor blades. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of energy which the wind transfers to the rotor depends on the density of the air, the rotor area , and the wind speed. </li></ul>
    26. 32. Wind Turbines <ul><ul><li>Wind turbines start at 400 watts and go up to many megawatts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only work when the wind blows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not easily installed on houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work better when at the top of tall towers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not like turbulent air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be noisy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 33. Siting a Turbine <ul><li>Requires** clearance without obstructions 200 yards from turbine within 20 feet of turbine height </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a good macro wind resource with good micro wind elements </li></ul>
    28. 34. Orientation <ul><li>Turbines can be categorized into two overarching classes based on the orientation of the rotor </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Axis Horizontal Axis </li></ul>
    29. 36. Performance: Energy <ul><li>Based in kWh a month not rated power </li></ul><ul><li>Household sized turbine (10->23’ diameter) </li></ul>
    30. 37. Tower Heights <ul><li>Anemometors, to be accurate, need to be in the exact location for a year </li></ul><ul><li>Tower height restrictions may apply but it is important to get the generator up as high as possible to maximize energy production </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid obstructions position turbine at least 30 feet above nearby features </li></ul>http://rredc.nrel.gov/wind/pubs/atlas/
    31. 38. Wind Power Applications <ul><li>Milling grain </li></ul><ul><li>Driving other, often agricultural, machines </li></ul>Other Wind power - mechanical <ul><li>Drinking water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation pumping </li></ul><ul><li>Sea-salt production </li></ul><ul><li>Dewatering </li></ul>Water pumping Wind power - mechanical <ul><li>Commercial systems </li></ul><ul><li>Remote settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Mini-grid systems </li></ul>Stand-alone, autonomous diesel Wind power - electrical <ul><li>Small home systems </li></ul><ul><li>Small commercial/community systems </li></ul><ul><li>Water pumping </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation aids </li></ul>Stand-alone, battery charging Wind power - electrical <ul><li>Supplementing mains supply </li></ul>Grid connected Wind power - electrical Application System Technology type
    32. 39. Wind systems: Strengths & Weaknesses The Technology can be adapted for complete or part manufacture (e.g. the tower) in developing countries Cranage and transport access problems for installation of larger systems in remote areas Mature, well developed, technology in developed countries Potential market needs to be large enough to support expertise/equipment required for implementation Environmental impact low compared with conventional energy sources High capital / initial investment costs can impede development (especially in developing countries) No fuel required (no additional costs for fuel nor delivery logistics) Variable power produced therefore storage/back-up required. Automatic operation with low maintenance requirements Site-specific technology (requires a suitable site) Technology is relatively simple and robust with lifetimes of over 15 years without major new investment Weaknesses Strengths
    33. 40. Micro Hydro <ul><li>water+gravity+turbine+generator = electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Site dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Can be most efficient renewable energy source (little environmental impact) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cost as little as one tenth of a PV system of comparable output </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low volume and high head systems work and high volume low head systems work </li></ul>
    34. 41. You need two things to make power Head and Flow
    35. 42. Measuring Head <ul><li>Pipe with pressure gauge at the bottom (1 person) </li></ul><ul><li>2.31 feet = 1 psi </li></ul><ul><li>This gauge reads 38 psi </li></ul><ul><li>38 psi x 2.31 feet/psi = 88 ft of head </li></ul>
    36. 43. 5 gallon bucket This may be tricky… Small stream, little waterfall Most typical method for microhydro
    37. 44. 5 gallon bucket <ul><li>If the measured flow using a 5 gallon bucket and a stop watch was 5 gallons in 1.5 seconds, how many GPM would this be? </li></ul>
    38. 45. Larger Streams <ul><li>Float Method </li></ul>Weir
    39. 46. Power Estimate <ul><li>Power (watts) = Net Head (ft) * Flow (GPM) </li></ul><ul><li>9-14 (use 10) </li></ul>10 assumes a system efficiency of 53%
    40. 47. Nozzles Flow through the pipe is controlled by the nozzle size
    41. 48. Mollies Branch Case Study <ul><li>100 ft of net head </li></ul><ul><li>Stream flow: 300 gpm </li></ul><ul><li>Design flow: 85 gpm </li></ul><ul><li>Penstock: 1200’ of 4” HDPE </li></ul><ul><li>Turbine: Harris Hydro 4-nozzle PM </li></ul><ul><li>Power: 850 W for now </li></ul><ul><li>Energy: .85 kW x 24 h/day x 30 day/mon = 612 kWh/mon </li></ul><ul><li>Cost = about $16,000 </li></ul>
    42. 50. Measuring Flow
    43. 51. The 4” HDPE arrives in 50’ lengths
    44. 52. Fusing the pipe with the ASU Wind & Hydro Class
    45. 53. <ul><li>Fusion welder </li></ul><ul><li>Shave pipe ends </li></ul><ul><li>Heat with 500 degree iron </li></ul><ul><li>Press ends together to fuse </li></ul><ul><li>Makes a “double roll back bead” </li></ul>
    46. 54. The penstock gradually drops 100 feet along the 1200 feet of pipe. It is supported along the bank with steel stakes and aircraft cable
    47. 55. This log house is moved into place to house the turbine
    48. 56. The wire run and Balance of System is roughed in
    49. 57. A battery box is built to contain the eight Trojan L16 batteries (48V)
    50. 58. A silt trap/intake filter is built from a 55 gallon plastic drum
    51. 59. The penstock is connected to the turbine house
    52. 60. A stand is constructed for the turbine. A union and hinge allows the turbine to be tilted back for servicing. Screw-type gate valves insures slow operation
    53. 61. The water passes through the floor and returns to the creek
    54. 62. Water is diverted from the creek to the silt trap
    55. 63. A second silt trap barrel is added to improve performance
    56. 64. The battery bank and inverter are wired. The electrician installs a subpanel for the hydro loads.
    57. 65. The log house does a nice job of reducing the sound level (sounds like a sewing machine)
    58. 66. Hydropower: Strengths & Weaknesses The technology can be adapted for manufacture/use in developing countries Engineering skills required may be unavailable/expensive to obtain locally Power is available at a fairly constant rate and at all times, subject to water resource availability High capital/initial investment costs Environmental impact low compared with conventional energy sources Although power output is generally more predictable it may fall to very low levels or even zero during the dry season No fuel required (no additional costs for fuel nor delivery logistics) Droughts and changes in local water and land use can affect power output Automatic operation with low maintenance requirements For SHP systems using small streams the maximum power is limited and cannot expand if the need grows Overall costs can, in many case, undercut all other alternatives Very site-specific technology (requires a suitable site relatively close to the location where the power is needed) Technology is relatively simple and robust with lifetimes of over 30 years without major new investment Weaknesses Strengths
    59. 67. Biomass Basics <ul><li>-Biomass fuels have the potential of providing 4%-25% of the United States energy needs </li></ul><ul><li>-3.6% of United States Energy Consumption derived from Biomass Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Three major forms of biomass energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Solid Biomass (Wood, Incineration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Liquid Fuel (Ethanol, Biodiesel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Gaseous Fuel (Landfills, Methane) </li></ul></ul>
    60. 68. Solar Energy Conversion 1 hectare = ~2.5 acres
    61. 69. Boiling 1l of Water
    62. 70. Rocket Stoves and Mass Heaters
    63. 71. Bioenergy Technologies
    64. 72. Gasification <ul><li>Biomass heated with no oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Gasifies to mixture of CO and H 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called “Syngas” for synthetic gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixes easily with oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Burned in turbines to generate electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like natural gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can easily be converted to other fuels, chemicals, and valuable materials </li></ul>
    65. 73. Pyrolysis <ul><li>Heat bio-material under pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500-1300 ºC (900-2400 ºF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50-150 atmospheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully controlled air supply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Up to 75% of biomass converted to liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Tested for use in engines, turbines, boilers </li></ul><ul><li>Currently experimental </li></ul>
    66. 74. Anaerobic Digestion <ul><li>Decompose biomass with microorganisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed tanks known as anaerobic digesters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces methane (natural gas) and CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methane-rich biogas can be used as fuel or as a base chemical for biobased products. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in animal feedlots, and elsewhere </li></ul>
    67. 75. Methane Digesters
    68. 76. BioFuels <ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created by fermentation of starches/sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US capacity of 1.8 billion gals/yr (2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active research on cellulosic fermentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic oils combined with alcohols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates ethyl or methyl esters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetable Oil </li></ul>
    69. 77. Bioenergy Applications <ul><li>Cooking and lighting (direct combustion) </li></ul><ul><li>Motive power for small industry and electric needs (with electric motor) </li></ul>Solid biomass <ul><li>Transport fuel and mechanical power, particularly for agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Heating and electricity generation </li></ul><ul><li>Some rural cooking fuel </li></ul>Liquid biofuel <ul><li>Cooking and lighting (household-scale digesters) </li></ul><ul><li>Motive power for small industry and electric needs (with gas engine) </li></ul>Biogas <ul><li>Supplementing mains supply (grid-connected) </li></ul>Biogas Application Fuel state
    70. 78. Bioenergy: Strengths & Weaknesses Likely to be uneven resource production throughout the year Resource production may be variable depending on local climatic/weather effects, i.e. drought. Environmental impact potentially low (overall no increase in carbon dioxide) compared with conventional energy sources May require complex management system to ensure constant supply of resource, which is often bulky adding complexity to handling, transport and storage Conversion can be to gaseous, liquid or solid fuel Production can have high fertiliser and water requirements Production can produce more jobs that other renewable energy systems of a comparable size Often large areas of land are required (usually low energy density) Fuel production and conversion technology indigenous in developing countries Production can create land use competition Conversion technologies available in a wide range of power levels at different levels of technological complexity Weaknesses Strengths
    71. 79. Geothermal <ul><li>Energy available as heat from the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Usually hot water or steam </li></ul><ul><li>High temperature resources (150°C+) for electricity generation </li></ul><ul><li>Low temperature resources (50-150°C) for direct heating: district heating, industrial processing </li></ul><ul><li>No problems of intermittency </li></ul>
    72. 80. Trompe
    73. 81. RE Applications: Summary Mini-grids usually hybrid systems (solar-wind, solar-diesel, wind-diesel, etc.). Small-scale residential and commercial electric power needs. Village-scale Grid electricity and large-scale heating. Geothermal Low-to-medium electric power needs. Process motive power for small industry. Micro and pico hydro Supplementing mains supply. Cooking and lighting, motive power for small industry and electric needs. Transport fuel and mechanical power. Bio energy Supplementing mains supply. Heating water. Cooking. Drying crops. Solar thermal – grid‑connected, water heater, cookers, dryers, cooling Supplementing mains supply. Power for low electric power needs. Water pumping. PV (solar electric) – grid- -connected, stand‑alone, pumps Supplementing mains supply. Power for low-to medium electric power needs. Occasionally mechanical power for agriculture purposes. Wind – grid‑connected & stand-alone turbines, wind pumps Energy Service/Application RE Technology
    74. 82. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Renewables can be used for both electricity and heat generation. There is a wide range of renewable energy technologies suitable for implementation in developing countries for a whole variety of different applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable energy can contribute to grid-connected generation but also has a large scope for off-grid applications and can be very suitable for remote and rural applications in developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Demand conservation is the key </li></ul>

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