Permaculture Passive Solar Design


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Permaculture Passive Solar Design

  1. 1. Permaculture: Appropriate Structures & Passive Solar Design Kevin Bayuk
  2. 2. Presentation Objectives <ul><li>What form of structure is appropriate? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Passive Solar Design </li></ul><ul><li>What principles are applied? </li></ul><ul><li>Different approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropics, vs. Temperate, vs, Drylands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculations </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Appropriate? <ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement in the landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul>
  4. 4. Principles & Strategies Appropriate to Place
  5. 5. Principles & Strategies Appropriate to Place
  6. 6. Principles & Strategies Appropriate to Place
  7. 7. Principles & Strategies Appropriate to Place
  8. 8. Principles & Strategies Appropriate to Place
  9. 9. Principles & Strategies Appropriate to Place
  10. 10. Principles & Strategies Appropriate to Place
  11. 11. Principles & Strategies Appropriate to Place
  12. 12. Tropics and Sub-Tropics <ul><li>Orient to prevailing winds, not the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Shaded valleys optimal </li></ul><ul><li>Materials – light, even permeable to wind </li></ul><ul><li>Mind flooding and plan for hurricane areas </li></ul><ul><li>Mind insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screens, Stilts allow ground birds access to termites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool air currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attached shade house </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White surfaces in and out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove heat sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-detached kitchen? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Drylands <ul><li>Passive solar, summer cooling, winter (night) warming </li></ul><ul><li>Cool interior courtyards narrow and tall for shade </li></ul><ul><li>White surfaces, small windows </li></ul><ul><li>Towers for ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking outdoors under trellis </li></ul><ul><li>Underground </li></ul><ul><li>Vines on walls if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Homes as shade for gardens </li></ul>
  14. 14. Temperate <ul><li>Space and Water Heating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive solar design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Settlement on thermal belt </li></ul><ul><li>Close housing 2-4 floors </li></ul><ul><li>Dense windbreaks poleward </li></ul><ul><li>Materials, dense earth or wood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation (attached to masonry, out from wood) for insulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stepped housing </li></ul><ul><li>Insulated ceiling </li></ul>
  15. 15. Passive Solar Design <ul><li>Designing a building to work with the sun </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>There is a type of solar energy that uses no equipment at all. This is called Passive Solar, and it uses the basic structural elements of a building, careful site selection and home planning, and various homebuilding strategies to keep buildings comfortable at very low energy cost. It also incorporates energy-efficiency features. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Looking at the Whole Structure: <ul><li>WHOLE HOUSE APPROACH: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENERGY EFFICIENCY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LIGHTING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>APPLIANCES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INSULATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIR INFILTRATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HVAC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLUMBING FIXTURES </li></ul></ul>U.S. Department of Energy :
  18. 18. The principles of passive solar are nothing new. More than 2500 years ago in ancient Greece, entire cities were built to take advantage of the sun and the climate. Buildings were designed to take advantage of daylighting, ventilation and other good design practices.
  19. 19. In the U.S., drawings and photographs of the cliff dwellings of the American Indians and the sod homes of the early pioneers show the popularity – and the necessity – of building homes to respond to the environment.
  20. 20. Natural Conditioning <ul><ul><li>PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PASSIVE COOLING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAYLIGHTING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NATURAL VENTILATION </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Passive solar designs include open areas with walls that absorb heat during the day and release it at night – into the home in winter and out of the home in summer.
  22. 22. Large windows take advantage of the winter sun, but blinds and drapes keep the home cooler in summer. Windows let daylight in, and operable windows let the occupants control the flow of natural ventilation.
  23. 23. Sunspaces give homeowners bright greenhouse-style rooms that are very comfortable in cold weather.
  24. 24. Know the site <ul><li>SOUTHERN EXPOSURE </li></ul><ul><li>VEGETATION </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL CLIMATE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PREVAILING WINDS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VIEW/ PRIVACY </li></ul><ul><li>ADJACENT PROPERTIES/ FUTURE DEVELOPMENT </li></ul>NCDC Online Document Library, Publications :
  25. 25. Know the Sun! <ul><li>SUNRISE/ SUNSET </li></ul><ul><li>ALTITUDE ANGLE </li></ul><ul><li>SOLSTICES AND EQUINOXES </li></ul><ul><li>ALL SEASONS </li></ul><ul><li>OBSERVATION </li></ul>Sustainable by Design :
  26. 26. Altitude Angle The altitude angle (sometimes referred to as the &quot;solar elevation angle&quot;) describes how high the sun appears in the sky. The angle is measured between an imaginary line between the observer and the sun and the horizontal plane the observer is standing on. The altitude angle is negative when the sun drops below the horizon. (In this graphic, replace &quot;N&quot; with &quot;S&quot; for observers in the Southern Hemisphere. The altitude angle is calculated as follows: sin (Al) = [cos (L) * cos (D) * cos (H)] + [sin (L) * sin (D)] where: Al = Solar altitude angle L = Latitude (negative for Southern Hemisphere) D = Declination (negative for Southern Hemisphere) H = Hour angle
  27. 27. Azimuth Angle The azimuth angle is calculated as follows: cos (Az) = (sin (Al) * sin (L) - sin (D)) / (cos (Al) * cos (L)) where: Az = Solar azimuth angle Al = Solar altitude angle L = Latitude (negative for Southern Hemisphere) D = Declination (negative for Southern Hemisphere)      The solar azimuth angle is the angular distance between due South (see note below) and the projection of the line of sight to the sun on the ground. A positive solar azimuth angle indicates a position East of South, and a negative azimuth angle indicates West of South.
  28. 28. Design the System <ul><li>COLLECTION </li></ul><ul><li>ABSORBTION/ STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROLS </li></ul>
  29. 29. COLLECTORS (i.e. windows) <ul><li>OPTIMAL SIZING </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTH VS. EAST AND WEST </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES </li></ul><ul><li>FRAME </li></ul><ul><li>SEALING </li></ul><ul><li>GLAZING </li></ul>
  30. 30. GLAZING, GLAZING, GLAZING … <ul><li>SINGLE, DOUBLE, OR TRIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>INERT GASES </li></ul><ul><li>LOW-E </li></ul><ul><li>HARD COAT VS. SOFT COAT </li></ul><ul><li>POLYESTER FILMS </li></ul><ul><li>SPACERS </li></ul>Energy Savers: Advances in Glazing Materials for Windows :
  31. 31. ABSORBTION/ STORAGE <ul><li>SURFACES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COLOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLACEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THERMAL MASS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MATERIALS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLACEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MASS TO GLASS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COVERINGS </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. DISTRIBUTION <ul><li>NATURAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RADIATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONVECTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONDUCTION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MECHANICAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FANS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BLOWERS </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. CONTROLS <ul><li>SHADING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OVERHANGS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXTERIOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INTERIOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LANDSCAPING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grapes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kiwis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>REFLECTING </li></ul><ul><li>INSULATING </li></ul>
  34. 34. CONTROLS (CONT.)
  35. 35. PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS <ul><li>SOLAR TEMPERING </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT GAIN </li></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT GAIN </li></ul><ul><li>ISOLATED GAIN </li></ul>
  36. 36. SOLAR TEMPERING <ul><li>INCIDENTAL MASS </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT OVERGLAZE </li></ul><ul><li>LOW-COST </li></ul>
  37. 37. DIRECT GAIN <ul><li>COLLECTORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UP TO 12% FLOOR AREA TO GLAZING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SKYLIGHTS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CONTROLS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SHADING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INSULATING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REFLECTING </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. DIRECT GAIN-STORAGE <ul><li>ALSO ABSORBER AND DISTRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><li>4”-6” THICK </li></ul><ul><li>5 – 6 SQ. FT. MASS TO EVERY SQ. FT. GLASS OVER 7% </li></ul><ul><li>EVEN DISTRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT SUN </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIUM TO DARK COLORS </li></ul>
  39. 39. INDIRECT GAIN: THERMAL STORAGE WALL <ul><li>COLLECTORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SAME SURFACE AREA AS STORAGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEPARATED BY 2”-6” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ABSORBER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DARK COLOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SELECTIVE SURFACE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STORAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIZE DEPENDENT ON LAT. & AVG. TEMP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8”-12” THICKNESS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UPPER AND LOWER VENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 SQ. FT. FOR EVERY 100 SQ. FT. MASS </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. ISOLATED GAIN: SUNSPACE <ul><li>LEVEL WITH HOUSE OR “PIT” TYPE </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECTING OR “WRAP-AROUND” </li></ul><ul><li>SUBSYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OPEN WALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DIRECT GAIN/ GLASS WALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIR EXCHANGE/ STANDARD WALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THERMAL STORAGE/ MASS WALL </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. SUNSPACE REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>COLLECTORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OVERHEAD, SLOPED OR VERTICAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMOUNT DEPENDENT ON AVG. TEMP. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STORAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DEPENDENT ON SUBSYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 SQ. FT. OF 4” THICK MASS TO 1 SQ. FT. GLASS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VENTS, WINDOWS AND DOORS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3% OF WALL AREA </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. ISOLATED GAIN: CONVECTIVE LOOP <ul><li>SOLAR COLLECTOR PANELS- THERMOSIPHON AIR PANELS (TAPs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VERTICAL OR “U-TUBE” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COLLECTOR AND ABSORBER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STORAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RADIANT SLAB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GRAVEL BED </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DUCTS, VENTS AND/OR FANS </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. PASSIVE COOLING <ul><li>NATURAL VENTILATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WING WALLS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LANDSCAPING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SHADING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AWNINGS, TRELLISES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VEGETATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THERMAL CHIMNEY </li></ul><ul><li>FANS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CEILING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHOLE-HOUSE </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Designer’s Checklist <ul><li>Small is beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>East-west axis </li></ul><ul><li>South facing glazing </li></ul><ul><li>North-side earth berming </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal mass inside building envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Open airways to promote internal circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Tight insulation and radiant barriers in roof </li></ul><ul><li>Energy conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to details </li></ul><ul><li>Regular air exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Do not over-glaze </li></ul>