Myco permaculture

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presentation prepared by Patrick Garretson with material from Paul Stamets and Mia Rose Maltz

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Myco permaculture

  1. 1. Myco-Permaculture UPI-SF All credit for slides to Patrick Garreteson, Mia Rose and Paul Stamets
  2. 2. Mycophobia?
  3. 4. Fungal Basics <ul><li>Genetically closest Kindom to animals </li></ul><ul><li>Flesh is composed of similar material to animals </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual beings, with a range of 20-20,000 different “gender” types </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest record of mushroom fruiting body found encased in amber, estimated to be 90-94 million years old </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete digestive enzymes similar to digestive enzymes produced in anamalian stomachs </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1-2 million species, of which roughly 14,000 named, less than 100 actively cultivated </li></ul>
  4. 5. Four fruiting fungus among us <ul><li>Saprophytic- most commonly known group. Live on logs, dead leaves and plant matter, compost, feces, and other hydrocarbon based material. Easiest to cultivate. Oysters, Shiitake, Agaricus Bisporus </li></ul><ul><li>Mycorrhyzal- consist of a great deal of the more exotic mushrooms. Have a necessary, mutualistic relationship with specific plant species, especially trees. Known to vastly increase a plants ability to thrive. 90% of plants have mycorrhyzal relationship. Chantrelles, Boletes, Amanitas </li></ul><ul><li>Endophytic- plant loving group that are thought to penetrate and occupy inner vascular wall of plant without killing the plant. May even create a bio-shield against infection </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic- fungi that live off of living hosts. Generally considered blights. Armillaria melea (the “meadow maker”), SOD, Cordyceps sp. </li></ul>
  5. 13. Form Follows Function
  6. 14. Is there cellular intelligence? Physarum Polycephalum
  7. 16. Mycorestoration, restoring the cycle of ecological equilibrium <ul><li>Mycofiltration- using the net-like structure of mycelium as a living filter for catching various contaminants, including silt . </li></ul><ul><li>Mycoforestry- the application of mycological understanding to regenterative forestry practices. Combines both mycofiltration and mycoremediation in addition to applications specific to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Mycoremediation- the use of specific fungal species to target specific contaminants and break them down and/or remove them from the soil, (heavy metals). </li></ul><ul><li>Mycopesticides- the use of Cordyceps sp. and similar predatory fungi in the elimination of targeted insect colonies. Only applied to homes thus far. </li></ul>
  8. 17. Cordyceps llodyii
  9. 22. Psudomona flourescens Bacillus subtilis
  10. 24. Mycofilters can be applied: <ul><li>As buffer zones around riparian areas </li></ul><ul><li>Down-slope from livestock areas </li></ul><ul><li>As sediment catchments below roadway culverts </li></ul><ul><li>Between agricultural settling ponds </li></ul><ul><li>In early stage eroding cuts or banks </li></ul><ul><li>In combination with erosion control plantings </li></ul><ul><li>On contaminated sites </li></ul><ul><li>Downstream of impervious surfaces </li></ul>
  11. 26. Mycoforestry
  12. 27. Mycoforestry <ul><li>Preservation of Native forests </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery and recycling of woodland debris </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement of replanted trees </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening sustainability of ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Diversity </li></ul>
  13. 28. Stacking Functions <ul><li>Road decomissioning/clearcut rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion control </li></ul><ul><li>Replant enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Soil building </li></ul><ul><li>Increased food for wildlife and people </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine for wildlife and people </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerated fuels reduction through decomposition </li></ul><ul><li>Increased bio-diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminant removal </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of mycorrhyzal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Gourmet and medicinal mu$hroom harve$t management </li></ul>
  14. 29. Road Melting
  15. 32. Functions Stacked <ul><li>Sediment flow interrupted </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture enhancement and infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Soil & water cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Subsurface soil hydrophysics </li></ul><ul><li>Insectaries- phorid flies and others </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics- (roads into nature trails) </li></ul><ul><li>Educational platform </li></ul>
  16. 33. Erosion control?
  17. 34. With bunker bags
  18. 38. Spore oil
  19. 40. Mycorryhizal fungi
  20. 41. Mycoremediation
  21. 50. Mushrooms re-mediate: <ul><li>Heavy metals out of soil and into fruiting bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Break-down of synthetic hydrocarbon based materials in situ. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate pathogenic microbes from soil and water </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption of excess nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion of chemical and biological warfare agents </li></ul>
  22. 54. Myco-Permaculture – Some Species of Interest <ul><li>1. Oyster Mushrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Oyster mushrooms can be grown indoors on pasteurized corn stalks, wheat, rice, & rye straw and a wide range of other materials Soaking bulk substrates in cold water creates a residual &quot;tea&quot; that is a nutritious fertilizer and potent insecticide; hot water produces a different brew of &quot;tea&quot;&quot;: a naturally potent herbicide. Oyster mushrooms can also be grown on hardwood stumps and logs. The waste substrate from Oyster production is useful as fodder for cows, chickens, & pigs. </li></ul>
  23. 55. Myco-Permaculture – Some Species of Interest <ul><li>1. Oyster Mushrooms (cont) </li></ul><ul><li>Since half of the mass of dry straw is liberated as gaseous carbon dioxide, pumping this CO2 from mushroom growing rooms into greenhouses to enhance plant production makes good sense. (Cultivators filter the airstream from the mushroom growing rooms so spores are eliminated.) Furthermore, the waste straw can be mulched into garden soils, not only to provide structure and nutrition, but also to reduce the populations of nematodes which are costly to gardeners and farmers. </li></ul>
  24. 56. Myco-Permaculture – Some Species of Interest <ul><li>2. King Stropharia </li></ul><ul><li>This mushroom is an ideal player in the recycling of complex wood debris and garden wastes, and thrives in complex environments. Vigorously attacking wood (sawdust, chips, twigs, branches), the King Stropharia also grows in wood-free substrates, particularly soils supplemented with chopped straw. I have seen this mushroom flourish in gardens devoid of wood debris, benefiting the growth of neighboring plants. </li></ul><ul><li>- Mycofiltration, bees covet the nectar at mycelial stage and fly larvae are attracted at maturity and the fruit bodies act as aquaculture feedstock housing </li></ul>
  25. 57. Myco-Permaculture – Some Species of Interest <ul><li>3. Shiitake/Nameko/Lion's Manes </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoors, inoculated logs can be partially buried or lined up in fence-like rows. Once the logs have stopped producing, the softened wood can be broken up, sterilized, and re-inoculated. Indoors, these mushrooms can be grown on sterilized substrates or on logs. Once the indoor substrates cease production, they can be recycled and re-inoculated with another mushroom, a process I call species sequencing. Later, the expired production blocks can be buried in sawdust or soil to elicit bonus crops outdoors. </li></ul>
  26. 58. Myco-Permaculture – Some Species of Interest <ul><li>4. Maitake/Reishi/Clustered Woodlovers </li></ul><ul><li>Several species can be incorporated into the management of a sustainable multi-stage, complex Medicinal Mushroom Forest. Logs can be inoculated and buried or stumps can be impregnated. The greatest opportunities for stump culture are regions of the world w here hardwoods predominate. Presently, only a few gourmet and medicinal mushrooms grow on coniferous woods. Nevertheless, Enokitake (Flammulina velutipes), Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum), Clustered Woodlovers (Hypholoma capnoides), Chicken-of-the-Woods (Laetiporus sulphureus), and Oyster (Pleurotus spp.) are good candidates for both conifer and hardwood stump decomposition. </li></ul>
  27. 59. Myco-Permaculture – Some Species of Interest <ul><li>5. Shaggy Manes </li></ul><ul><li>A cosmopolitan mushroom, Shaggy Manes (Coprinus comatus) grow in rich manured soils, disturbed habitats, in and around compost piles, and in grassy and gravel areas. Shaggy Manes are extremely adaptive and tend to wander. Shaggy Mane patches behave much like King Stropharia and Morels, travelling great distances from their original site of inoculation in their search for fruiting niches. </li></ul>
  28. 60. Myco-Permaculture – Some Species of Interest <ul><li>6. Morels </li></ul><ul><li>Morels grow in a variety of habitats, from abandoned apple orchards and diseased elms to gravelly roads and stream beds. However, the habitat that can be reproduced easily is the burn-site. Burn-sites, although increasingly restricted because of air pollution ordinances, are common among country homesteads. If a burn-site is not possible, there are alternatives. The complex habitat of a garden compost pile also supports Morel growth. When planting cottonwood trees, you can introduce spawn around the root zones in hopes of creating a perennial Morel patch. Cultivators should note that Morels are fickle and elusive by nature compared to more predictable species </li></ul>
  29. 61. Myco-Permaculture – Some Species of Interest <ul><li>7. Mycorrhizal Species </li></ul><ul><li>Mycorrhizal species can be introduced via several techniques. The age-old, proven method of satellite planting is probably the simplest. By planting young seedlings around the bases of trees naturally producing Chanterelles, King Boletes, Matsutake, Truffles or other desirable species, you may establish satellite colonies by replanting the young trees after several years of association. For those landowners who inherit a monoculture woodlot of similarly aged trees, the permaculturally inclined steward could plant a succession of young trees so that, over time, a multi-canopy forest could be re-established. </li></ul>
  30. 62. Myco-Permaculture – Some Species of Interest <ul><li>8. The Sacred Psilocybes </li></ul><ul><li>In the Pacific Northwest of North America, the Psilocybes figure as some of the most frequently found fungi in landscaping bark and wood chips. These mushrooms share a strong affinity towards human activities -from chopping wood, the planting of ornamentals, landscaping around buildings, to the creation of refuse piles. Many spiritually inclined cultivators view the establishment of Sacred Psilocybe Mushroom Patches as another step towards living in harmony within their ecosystem.. </li></ul>
  31. 63. [email_address]

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