Nutrition report
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Nutrition report

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  • Cation-  positive charge and characteristically moving toward the negative electrode in electrolysis converting glucose to glycogen that can be stored in the liver It is one of the main blood minerals called "electrolytes" (the others are sodium and chloride), which means it carries a tiny electrical charge (potential).
  • When potassium leaves the cell, it changes the membrane potential and allows the nerve impulse to progress. This electrical potential gradient, created by the "sodium-potassium pump," helps generate muscle contractions and regulates the heartbeat.
  • Diuretics-Hypokalemia is most commonly caused by the use of  diuretics . Diuretics are drugs that increase the excretion of water and salts in the urine Electrolytes  play a vital role in maintaining  homeostasis  within the body. They help to regulate myocardial and neurological function, fluid balance, oxygen delivery, acid-base balance and much more. 
  •   bananas - broccoli - chicken - citrus fruits (i.e. oranges) - dried fruits - fish (salmon) - leafy green vegetables, i.e. broccoli) - legumes (beans, peas, lentils, and peanuts) - potatoes with skins - tomatoes
  •   kidneys normally remove excess potassium from the body Most cases of hyperkalemia are caused by disorders that reduce the kidneys' ability to get rid of potassium.This may result from disorders such as: Acute kidney failure
  • Anion-
  • with hydrogen to make stomach acid (hydrochloric acid). Chloride makes up about 0.15 percent of our body weight and is found mainly in the extracellular fluid along with sodium. Less than 15 percent of the body chloride is found inside the cells, with the highest amounts within the red blood cells. As one of the mineral electrolytes, chloride works closely with sodium and water to help the distribution of body fluids. A constant exchange of chloride and bicarbonate, between red blood cells and the plasma helps to govern the pH balance and transport of carbon dioxide, a waste product of respiration, from the body. With sodium and potassium, chloride works in the nervous system to aid in the transport of electrical impulses throughout the body, as movement of negatively charged chloride into the cell propagates the nervous electrical potential.   (HCl), the key digestive acid
  • Chloride deficiency can arise from diarrhea, vomiting, or sweating
  • Alkalosis  can cause transient hypokalemia by two mechanisms. First, the alkalosis causes a shift of potassium from the  plasma  and interstitial fluids  into cells; perhaps mediated by stimulation of  Na + -H +  exchange  and a subsequent activation of  Na + /K + -ATPase  activity. [5] Second, an acute rise of plasma  HCO 3 -  concentration (caused by vomiting, for example) will exceed the capacity of the renal  proximal tubule  to reabsorb this  anion , and potassium will be excreted as an obligate  cation  partner to the bicarbonate. [6]  Metabolic alkalosis is often present in states of volume depletion, so potassium is also lost via  aldosterone -mediated mechanisms.
  • Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver and poor liver function
  • However....
  • But still, the human body can adapt to this...
  • Among adults more men have hypertension that female
  • I WILL ACT NOW! Success will not wait. If I delay, it will become betrothed to another and be lost to me forever.

Nutrition report Nutrition report Presentation Transcript

  •  
  • Water
    • Vital nutrient crucial to every bodily function
    • Medium for chemical reactions
    • Contributes to the structure of tisseue
    • Regulates body temp.
    • Lubricant in digestion,water in saliva facilitates chewing(Hydrolysis of nutrients)
    • Enzymes
    • -substances that initiate and accelerate a chemical reaction
    • Coenzymes
    • -portion of the enzyme required for activation of protein molecule to from the whole enzyme
    • Hormones
    • -Glandular secretions that stimulate and retard life processes
  • Body’s Source Of Water
    • ->Drinking water and beverages.
    • 6-8 glasses per day
    • ->ingested solid food
    • Metabolic water- from the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
    • Water requirements are based on body size and are determined per kg of body weight
  • Body Fluids-basic Cell processes
    • Water
    • Protein
    • Solutions of electrolytes( +,- ions)
    • eg. Sodium, Potassium ,Chloride
    • Nonelectrolytes (less)
    • eg. Glucose, urea
    • makes up 65% of our body weight ( 10% loss can already cause metabolic disorders)
    • Percentage of water present depends on amt of fat in the body. More fat, less water
    • Also related to body surface and metabolic activity. At birth 78%, adulthood 65%)
  • Inter-Extracellular Fluids
    • Intracellular( within)
    • Contains 60% water
    • Consists of water and solutes
    • Site of metabolic processes
    • Ionic solutes: potassium and manganese cations
    • Mostly Protein, phosphate, carbonate&sulfate anions
    • Extracellular
    • Contains 40% water
    • Interstitial fluid and blood plasma
    • Environment surrounding the cell
    • Sodium is major cation
    • Less protein,Chloride and Bicarbonate are anions
  • Osmotic Equilibrium
    • -inter& extracellular fluids are stable; no gains or losses of Na, K
    • -no abnormal shift of water into or out of cells that can impair cellular functions
  • Water Balance
    • Achieved when there is osmotic equilibrium bet. different body fluid compartments and when water intake= output
    • Mechanism for regulating the flow of water
    • Excreted in Urine, feces,sweat,expired air
  • Sodium
    • An essential nutrient
    • Functions:
    • Maintains extracellular fluid volumes and cellular osmotic pressures
    • Aids in transmission of nerve impulses; permeablity of cell membrane; muscular contraction
    • Needs depends on age, environmental temp.,humidity, amt. of physical activity.
    • Increases when there is significant loss when sweating, diarrhea
    • 3-4g of salt per day
    • Sodium balance is maintained by renal(kidney) and hormonal mechanisms(adrenal gland)
  • Salt and Na containing cpd.
    • Flavoring agents
    • Technological reasons: raise the bp of water, lower the fressing pt of water; preservative of food;cure meats, ferments food, etc…
  • Consumption of Sodium
    • Sodium naturally on food and Discretionary sodium( salt added) <limit
    • Sodium free- < 5mg per serving
    • Very low sodium – 35 mg or less
    • Low sodium- 140 mg or less
    • Reduced sodium- 75% less
    • Unsalted,no salt added, w/o salt- salt not used in the preparation
  • POTASSIUM
    • Principal cation in intracellular fluid
    • Present in very small amount in extracellular fluid
      • Extracellular Potassium – control cardiac function , muscle and nerve irritability
      • Intracellular potassium – essential in many cellualr enzymatic functions :
        • Glycogen synthesis
        • Glucose degradation
        • Amino acid uptake
  • POTASSIUM
    • It assists in the regulation of the acid-base balance.
    • It assists in protein synthesis from amino acids and in carbohydrate metabolism.
    • It is necessary for the building of muscle and for normal body growth.
    • It is essential for the normal electrical activity of the heart.
    • Maintaining a balance between the many electrical and chemical processes of the body
  • POTASSIUM (cont)
    • Minimum amount of potassium : 300 mEq(milliequivalents) per day
    • Maximum amount of potassium : 400 mEq
  • Potassium Deficiency ( hypokalemia)
    • Caused by prolonged potassium-free diet
    • Reduced intake of bicarbonate precursor
    • Excessive losses from :
      • Diarrhea
      • Acidosis
      • Diuretics
      • Steroids
      • Purgatives
      • Severe potassium deficiency quickly leads to electrolyte imbalance which affects all muscles, nerves and numerous key body functions.
  • Potassium Deficiency (cont)
    • Manifested by :
      • Muscle weakness
      • Paralysis
      • Reduced reflexes
      • Mental confusion
      • Cardiovascular signs :
        • Poor pulse
        • Weak heart sounds
    • Cooked Lima beans581
    • Banana440
    • Avocado136
    • Potatoes130.3
    • Tomatoes96.7
    • Oranges90
    • Frozen peas63.3
    • Cauliflower43.8a
    • Dried Aproicots35.3
    • Raisins16.5
    • Canned Tuna6
    • Pork5.5
    • Chicken3.9
    • Salmon3.8
    • Cod3.7
    • Whole milk2.8
    SourcePotassium: Sodium ratio
  • Potassium Excess
    • Hyperkalemia
      • occurs when the level of potassium in the bloodstream is higher than normal
      • Sudden increase intake about 18 g of potassium
      • Can cause fatal cardiac arrest
  • CHLORIDE
    • Occurs in the combination with sodium or potassium cations
    • Highest concentrations: in the secretions of the gastrointestinal tract and in the CSF
    • Low concentration : in muscles and nerve tissues
    • Anion component of hydrogen chloride (HCL) in gastric juices
      • Initiation of digestion of protein
  • Functions of Chloride:
    • Regulate the osmotic pressure
    • Regulate the water balance in the body
    • Acts as a coenzyme in the digestive process
    • Helps maintain the acid-base balance of the blood
    • Enhances the ability of the blood to carry large amounts of CO 2 to the lungs for exhalation
    • Aids in the conversion of potassium
  • Chloride Deficiency
    • HYPOAKALEMIC ALKALOSIS
      • Marked loss of chloride
      • condition in which the concentration of potassium (K + ) in the blood is low
        • Alkalosis- increase in the concentration of bicarbonate (accumulation of base) body fluids becoming too alkaline
  • Chloride Deficiency (cont)
        • CAUSES:
        • Low-potassium diet
        • Diarrhea
        • Excessive vomiting
        • Excessive sweating
  • Hyperchloremia
    • Too much chloride may be caused by:
    • • eating or absorbing too much ammonium chloride, or the bowel’s reabsorbing too much chloride
    • • dehydration, which raises the proportion of chloride to other fluids in the blood
    • Too much chloride from salted foods can:
      • Increase your blood pressure
      • Cause a buildup of fluid in people with congestive heart failure or cirrhosis
  • Food Sources
    • Common table salt
    • Dairy
    • Meat products
    • Fruits and vegetables
      •   tomatoes, lettuce, celery, olives, seaweed and the grain, rye
      • Daily chloride intake : 2 to grams
  • Acid-Base Balance
  • Acid-Base Balance
    • Normal pH in the blood is 7.35 – 7. 4 5
      • Prevented by lung and kidneys
    • “ acidosis”- accumulation of acid
    • “ alkalosis” – accumulation of base
  • Classification of Foods
    • Grouped as:
      • Alkali-producing
      • Acid-producing
      • Neutral
  • Alkali-producing Foods
    • Fruits (except cranberries, prunes and plums )
    • Vegetables (exce pt corn and lentils )
    • Milk
    • Nuts
      • Once metabolized will yield an alkaline ash
      • Produce Na + , K + , Ca 2 + and Mg 2 +
  • Acid- producing Foods
    • Meat
    • Cereals
    • Eggs
      • Will yield acid end products
      • Produce P, S, and Cl
  • REMEMBER!!
    • The Human Body has a wide range of adaptability!!
    However....
    • Lactic acid and acetoacetic acid which are produced in the body in high amounts in certain conditions can cause acidosis !!
    But still, the human body can adapt to this...
  • Effects of H 2 O and Electrolyte Imbalance on Oral Health
    • General dehydration or edema of tissues will cause shrinkage or swelling of the oral tissues
    • High salt diet resulting to high sodium residue tend to accumulate body water
    • Low-carbs, high-fat diet or high protein diet for loss of weight tend to lose large amounts of water from the excessive oxidation of body fats
  • Xerostomia
    • “ Dry mouth”
    • Result from decrease salivary flow due to dehydration
    • Associated with lack of lubrication of mucosal surfaces
    • Roof of the mouth and tongue develop a burning sensation
    • Corners of the mouth become macerated and infected causing a tendency of licking
    • Promotes dental plaque formation and more dental caries production
  • Hypertension
  • Hypertension
    • “ HBP”
    • Elevated arterial blood pressure
    • Can lead to:
      • Stoke (brain )
      • failure, (CHD )
      • Renal failure (kidney )
    • Systolic and diastolic pressures > normal
  • Normal BP ( age groups ) Age Group BP Infants 90/60 3-6 110/70 7-10 120/80 11-17 130/80 18-44 140/90 45-64 150/95 65 and above 160/95
  • Hypertension
    • Mild : diastolic pressure is 9 0 – 105
    • Moderate : diastolic pressure is 105 – 120
    • Severe : diastolic pressure is exceeds 120
    ...Among adults more men have hypertension that female
  • Causes
    • Maybe:
      • unknown (essential hypertension ) or
      • known (secondary hy pertension )
    • Factors contributing:
      • genetics, environment, nutritional ones, obesity, smoking, stress, diabetes, high cholesterol level and
      • excessive sodium intake
  • Treatment
    • Weight loss
    • Relaxation, meditation and biofeedback techniques
    • Use of Kempner (rice-fruit ) semistarvation diet
    • Limit dietary sodium intake to 200-250mg
    • Oral diuretics
      • ↓ sodium intake + diuretics = reduction of intracellular fluid volume, plasma volume and total exchangeable sodium
  • TY!