Endo 3 myka

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Endo 3 myka

  1. 1. Trophic hormones – secreted by the anterior pituitary (the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis)Trophic – “feed”High concentrations = hypertrophy of target organLow concentrations= atrophy of target organ
  2. 2. 1. Growth Hormone (GH or somatrotropin) -promotes movement of amino acids  overall tissue and organ growth2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) -stimulates thyroid gland to produce and secrete thryoxine and triiodothyronine3. Adrenocoritcotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) -stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids such as hydrocortisone
  3. 3. 4. Follicle-stimluating hormone (FSH or folliculotropin) -stimluates the growth of ovarian follicles in females -production of sperm cells in males5. Luteinizing hormone (LH or luteotropin) -with FSH are collectively called gonadotropic hormones - in females: stimluates ovulation and conversion of ovulated ovarian follicle into a corpus luteum. -in males: sometimes called interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH); stimulates secretion of male sex hormones from interstitial cells in the testes
  4. 4. 6. Prolactin (PRL) - stimulation of milk production by mammary glands after birth of baby - regulation of male reproductive system by gonadotropins -help regulate water and electrolyte balance*Pituitary dwarfism – inadequate growth hormone duringchildhood - pituitary cachexia (Simmonds’ disease) foradultsGigantism-oversecretion of growth hormone
  5. 5.  Stores and releases 2 hormones:1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or arginine vasopressin [AVP]) -promotes retention of water by the kidneys - “pressor effect” – vasoconstriction in experimental animals2. Oxytocin -females: stimulates contraction of uterus during labor; contraction of mammary glands -males: rise in oxytocin secretion at time of ejaculation
  6. 6.  produced in neuron cell bodies of supraoptic nuclei and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus Hormones produced are transported along axons of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract to the posterior pituitary (stored and later released) Release of ADH and oxytocin is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes injection of oxytocin to pregnant women to induce labor; severe pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia.
  7. 7.  “master gland” Secretes hormones that regulate other endocrine glandsHormone & Target Organ:Prolactin mammary glandGH bone, muscle, adipose tissueTSHThyroidACTHadrenal cortexFSH & LHovary and testis
  8. 8.  Produced by neurons in the hypothalamus; transported to axon endings in the basal portion of the hypothalamus (median eminence) Deliver blood to second capillary bed in the anterior pituitary (link between the median eminence and anterior pituitary form a portal system) Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system – vascular link between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
  9. 9. HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONE EFFECT ON ANTERIOR PITUITARYCorticotropin-releasing hormone Stimulates the secretion of(CRH) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Stimulates the secretion of follicle-(GnRH) stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) Inhibits prolactin secretionSomatostatin Inhibits secretion of growth hormoneThyrotropin-releasing hormone Stimulates secretion of thyroid-(TRH) stimulating hormone (TSH)Growth hormone-releasing Stimulates growth hormonehormone (GHRH) secretion
  10. 10. HypothalamusThyrotropin-releasting hormone (TRH) Anterior pituitary Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Thyroid Thyroxine

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