Electrolytes and Hypertension Chapter 6
Water  <ul><li>Is a vital nutrient crucial to every bodily function and second only to oxygen in importance to the body. <...
Functions of Water <ul><li>Provides a suitable medium for chemical reactions in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a so...
Water Requirement 20-30 19-51 Adults 41-55 11-18 Adolescents 60-80 1-10 Children 120-100 Birth – 1 Infants Water (ml/kg bo...
What is hypertension? <ul><li>High blood pressure (HBP) or hypertension means high pressure (tension) in the arteries.  </...
Primary Hypertension <ul><li>About 90–95% of cases are termed &quot;primary hypertension&quot;, which refers to high blood...
Secondary Hypertension <ul><li>The remaining 5–10% of cases ( Secondary hypertension ) are caused by other conditions that...
Hypertension and Electrolytes <ul><li>One component of the blood, known as electrolytes, can be changed by differing elect...
Electrolyte Function <ul><li>Two of the most prominent electrolytes in the blood are  sodium  and  potassium .  </li></ul>...
Sodium and Hypertension <ul><li>When you eat too much sodium, the amount of sodium in your blood rises.  </li></ul><ul><li...
Potassium and Hypertension <ul><li>Some studies have suggested that having low potassium levels can cause an increase in b...
What are the symptoms of hypertension? <ul><li>Uncomplicated high blood pressure usually occurs without any symptoms (sile...
<ul><li>Some people with uncomplicated hypertension, however, may experience symptoms such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><...
What causes hypertension? <ul><li>Two forms of high blood pressure have been described: essential (or primary) hypertensio...
What are the causes of primary hypertension? <ul><li>Genetic factors  are thought to play a prominent role in the developm...
What are the causes of secondary high blood pressure? <ul><li>This means that the hypertension in these individuals is sec...
Renal (kidney) hypertension <ul><li>Diseases of the kidneys can cause secondary hypertension.  </li></ul><ul><li>This type...
Other Types of Hypertension
White coat high blood pressure <ul><li> A single elevated blood pressure reading in the doctor's office can be misleading ...
Borderline high blood pressure <ul><li>Borderline hypertension is defined as mildly elevated blood pressure higher than 14...
Classification Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure mmHg kPa mmHg kPa Normal 90–119 12–15.9 60–79 8.0–10.5 Prehypertension...
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Chap6 water and electrolytes.ppt; hypertension

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Chap6 water and electrolytes.ppt; hypertension

  1. 1. Electrolytes and Hypertension Chapter 6
  2. 2. Water <ul><li>Is a vital nutrient crucial to every bodily function and second only to oxygen in importance to the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The body’s major source of water is drinking water and beverages. </li></ul><ul><li>Under normal condition, this should be six to eight glasses per day for an adult. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also ingested in solid foods such as raw fruits and vegetables, cooked meat, eggs and even bread. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Functions of Water <ul><li>Provides a suitable medium for chemical reactions in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a solvent and as a vehicle to transport inorganic nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to the structure of tissues such as whole blood, muscle and bone. </li></ul><ul><li>For thermal regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a lubricant in digestion and other body processes </li></ul><ul><li>Plays an active role in the hydrolysis of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>It helps maintain electrolyte balance </li></ul>
  4. 4. Water Requirement 20-30 19-51 Adults 41-55 11-18 Adolescents 60-80 1-10 Children 120-100 Birth – 1 Infants Water (ml/kg body weight) Age
  5. 5. What is hypertension? <ul><li>High blood pressure (HBP) or hypertension means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal blood pressure is below 120/80; blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/89 is called &quot;pre-hypertension&quot;, and a blood pressure of 140/90 or above is considered high. </li></ul><ul><li> It is classified as either primary (essential) or secondary .  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Primary Hypertension <ul><li>About 90–95% of cases are termed &quot;primary hypertension&quot;, which refers to high blood pressure for which no medical cause can be found. </li></ul>Secondary Hypertension ->
  7. 7. Secondary Hypertension <ul><li>The remaining 5–10% of cases ( Secondary hypertension ) are caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart, or endocrine system. </li></ul>← Primary Hypertension
  8. 8. Hypertension and Electrolytes <ul><li>One component of the blood, known as electrolytes, can be changed by differing electrolyte levels in the  diet . </li></ul><ul><li>People who consume unhealthy quantities of electrolytes can develop  high blood pressure  or hypertension, which can increase their risk of developing heart disease and atherosclerosis. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Electrolyte Function <ul><li>Two of the most prominent electrolytes in the blood are sodium and  potassium . </li></ul><ul><li>These two electrolytes are needed in the right amounts for cells to function properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Both are electrically charged so they can be used by other cells to store or release energy </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of sodium, potassium and other electrolytes in the body is controlled in part by the kidneys. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sodium and Hypertension <ul><li>When you eat too much sodium, the amount of sodium in your blood rises. </li></ul><ul><li>To compensate for this increased sodium concentration, your kidneys will retain more water to help dilute out the sodium. This can increase the volume of the blood, which can result in high blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, you should aim to consume less than 2,300 mg of sodium each day </li></ul>Potassium and Hypertension ->
  11. 11. Potassium and Hypertension <ul><li>Some studies have suggested that having low potassium levels can cause an increase in blood pressure, the University of Maryland Medical Center reports. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not clear why potassium levels could affect blood pressure in this way, or if people can lower their blood pressure by increasing their potassium intake. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking enough potassium each day can improve your health in a variety of other ways, even if it doesn't lower your blood pressure. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What are the symptoms of hypertension? <ul><li>Uncomplicated high blood pressure usually occurs without any symptoms (silently) and so hypertension has been labeled &quot;the silent killer. </li></ul><ul><li>The disease can progress to finally develop any one or more of the several potentially fatal complications of hypertension such as heart attacks or strokes. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncomplicated hypertension may be present and remain unnoticed for many years, or even decades.  </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Some people with uncomplicated hypertension, however, may experience symptoms such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>headache   </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dizziness   </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>shortness of breath </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blurred vision </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What causes hypertension? <ul><li>Two forms of high blood pressure have been described: essential (or primary) hypertension and secondary hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential hypertension is a far more common condition and accounts for 95% of hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several factors whose combined effects produce hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>In secondary hypertension, which accounts for 5% of hypertension, the high blood pressure is secondary to (caused by) a specific abnormality in one of the organs or systems of the body. </li></ul>
  15. 15. What are the causes of primary hypertension? <ul><li>Genetic factors are thought to play a prominent role in the development of essential hypertension. However, the  genes  for hypertension have not yet been identified </li></ul><ul><li>  Salt intake may be a particularly important factor in relation to essential hypertension in several situations </li></ul>
  16. 16. What are the causes of secondary high blood pressure? <ul><li>This means that the hypertension in these individuals is secondary to (caused by) a specific disorder of a particular organ or blood vessel, such as the kidney, adrenal gland, or aortic artery. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Renal (kidney) hypertension <ul><li>Diseases of the kidneys can cause secondary hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of secondary hypertension is called  renal hypertension  because it is caused by a problem in the kidneys. One important cause of renal hypertension is narrowing (stenosis) of the artery that supplies blood to the kidneys (renal artery). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Other Types of Hypertension
  19. 19. White coat high blood pressure <ul><li> A single elevated blood pressure reading in the doctor's office can be misleading because the elevation may be only temporary. It may be caused by a patient's  anxiety related to the  stress  of the examination and fear that something will be wrong with his or her health. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Borderline high blood pressure <ul><li>Borderline hypertension is defined as mildly elevated blood pressure higher than 140/90 mm Hg at some times, and lower than that at other times. </li></ul><ul><li>As in the case of white coat hypertension, patients with borderline hypertension need to have their blood pressure taken on several occasions and their end-organ damage assessed in order to establish whether their hypertension is significant. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Classification Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure mmHg kPa mmHg kPa Normal 90–119 12–15.9 60–79 8.0–10.5 Prehypertension 120–139 16.0–18.5 80–89 10.7–11.9 Stage 1 140–159 18.7–21.2 90–99 12.0–13.2 Stage 2 ≥ 160 ≥ 21.3 ≥ 100 ≥ 13.3 Isolated systolichypertension ≥ 140 ≥ 18.7 <90 <12.0 Source : American Heart Association (2003). [5]
  22. 22. Thank you!

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