Balkan Conflict and Football // Hooliganism in Football


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My final presentations for my Masters Degree examinations. The first subject is on the role football (soccer) played in the build up of the Balkan Wars, and how it clicks into the subject of "identity" in the region.
The second subject is on different elements often overlooked in the study of violence in crowd sports, particularly in football. What triggers certain people to become violent before, during and after a match? Are there any social or political reasons behind the phenomenon? What makes hooliganism so prevalent in European and South American football, but a topic rarely discussed in American sports -NHL,NFL, NBA, MLB, MLS?
Lastly, a brief explanation of what was the main focus of my Master Thesis (which has been modified somewhat lately), on the subject of nationalism in German football.

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Balkan Conflict and Football // Hooliganism in Football

  1. 1. Final oral examinations Daniel Cadena Jordan Matrikulationsnummer: 01/786688 IS3, Universität Konstanz June, 2012
  2. 2. Index of the presentations I. Football was used as an escape valve for political tensions in pre-war Yugoslavia II. Alcohol isn’t the main trigger for violence in football III. Overview: Patriotism, national identity and self- perception of German society: From ‘das Wunder von Bern’ to a modern and globalised Nationalelf
  3. 3. Football was a political escape valve in pre-war Yugoslavia Daniel Cadena Jordan June, 2012 IS3 -201128.06.2012 3
  4. 4. Index I. Context: pre-war Yugoslavia (1980-1990) II. Where does football come in? III. The game that ‘kicked off’ the Balkan Conflict IV. Hooligans and Genocide V. Consequences of the War in Yugoslav football VI. Conclusions VII. References
  5. 5. Context • Constitution of 1974 • Ethno-religious tensions – Right to secede; lack of – Croats, catholics mechanism – Serbs, orthodox – Redefinition of internal – Bosnians, muslims borders • The death of Tito: the beginning of the end – Tito and Yugoslav People’s Army the two actors that held Yugoslavia together – Resurfacing of nationalisms – Questioning the need for a Yugoslav State
  6. 6. Context Economical tensions – Disparity in production within the different nations
  7. 7. Where does football fit in? • Recent success: – Partook in the 1990 World Cup – Red Star Belgrade wins UEFA Champions Cup • Teams were associated with different identities: – Partizan was Yugoslav – Red Star was Serbian
  8. 8. Boiling Point May 13th, 1990: Dynamo Zagreb hosted Red Star Belgrade. “The symbolic beginning of the Yugoslav Conflict”
  9. 9. Hooligans turned paramilitaries Željko Ražnatović , a.k.a. “Arkan” •Son of high-ranked officer of Yugoslav intelligentsia. •Wanted criminal that took over Red Star’s ultras. •Founded the Serbian Voluntary Army (Arkan’s Tigers). •Heavy recruitment among Red Star supporters.
  10. 10. Hooligans turned paramilitaries Battle of Vukovar: •Serbian Voluntary Army squared off against Croatian National Guard. •Indirectly, clash between Red Star Belgrade and Dinamo Zagreb fans. •Ended up being one of the many massacres in Balkan Wars.
  11. 11. Consequences of the War199319921991
  12. 12. Consequences of the War End of Yugoslavia Globalization Economic Crisis UEFA/FIFA/UN ban Int’l Market Dynamic Mass Emmigration Lack of State Funds (1992) Collapse in Quality Collapse in Attendance Rates
  13. 13. Conclusions I. Identity –political and ethnical- was deeply imbeded in football clubs. II. Football presented the opportunity for fans to vent ethnic problems. III. The distinction between ‘hooligans’ and paramilitaries is blurry. IV. Post-war Yugoslavian football paid costly.
  14. 14. References • Mills, R. (2009). "It all ended in an unsporting way: Serbian Football and the Disintegration of Yugoslavia, 1989-2006." International Journal of the History of Sport 26(9): 30. • Kraft, E. (2001). "Evaluating Regional Policy in Yugoslavia 1966-1990." Salisbury State University: 22. • Bruno Dallago, M. U. (1998). "The Distributuve Consequences of Nationalism: The Case of Former Yugoslavia." Europe-Asia Studies 50(1): 19. • Dragovic-Soso, J. (2004). "Rethinking Yugoslavia: Serbian Intellectuals and the National Question in Historical Perspective." Contemporary European History 13(2): 14. • Miroslavjevic, B. (2002). "Relations Between the State and Religious Communities in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia." Brigham Young University Law Review: 29. • Bennett, C. (1995). Yugoslavias Bloody Collapse. London, C. Hurst & Co. • Ramet, P. (1984). Nationalism and Federalism in Yugoslavia, 1963-1983. Indiana, Indiana University Press. • Rusinow, D. (1988). Yugoslavia: A Fractured Federalism. Lanham, Maryland, USA, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars • Wilson, J. (2006). Behind the Curtain: Travels in Eastern European Football. London, U.K., Orion Books Ltd. • Suljagic, E. (2010). Ethnic Cleansing; Politics, Policy, Violence. Serb Ethnic Cleansing Campaign in former Yugoslavia. Hamburg, Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitik an der Universität Hamburg. • Rusinow, D. (2008). Yugoslavia: Oblique insights and observations. Pittsburgh, U.S.A., University of Pittsburgh Press. • Images courtesy of Google Images and Wikipedia.
  15. 15. Alcohol isn’t the main trigger of violence in football Daniel Cadena Jordan June, 2012 IS3- 2011
  16. 16. Index • Forms of violence • Explaining: – Fanatism – Violence and crowd dynamics – Violence and socio-political-economical context • The big picture: USA vs. Europe – Unconsidered factors that do have an impact
  17. 17. Forms of violence • Random violence: – Directed at athletes, coaches, referees. – Chanting, missile throwing, pyrotechniques. • Clashes: – Between groups of fans – Against police – Pitch invasions – Clashes outside stadia
  18. 18. Explaining: Fanatism • Instinct Theory (Lorenz, 1996): – Games right context to express self-destructive energy. • Frustration-aggression theory (Wann, Carlson, Schrander, 1999) – Aggression can be traced back to frustration. • Hooligan-addiction theory (Brown, 1991)
  19. 19. Explaining: Fanatism Frustration-Aggression Theory Origins and determinants of violence around soccer games (Schwind & Baumann, 1990) • Four categories: – Social/society related (Unemployment, alienation, etc.) – Sport related (Identification with team) – Event related (Annonymity, de-individualisation, alcohol) – Media related (War idioms, desensibilisation of violence)
  20. 20. Violence and crowd dynamics • Emergent norm theory (Asch, 1951) – People modify their judgement to be more consistent with others in the group. • Contagion theory (Milgram & Toch, 1969) – Individuals become unwittingly infected with emotion. • Convergence theory (Ward, 2002) – Selection process occurs; violence doens’t evolve from heterogeneous people. • Collective mind theory (Durkheim, 1893; Le Bon, 1895) – Different levels of rationality existing within the individual and society.
  21. 21. Violence and crowd dynamics • Value-added theory (Smelser, 1963) – Six determinant prerequisites necessary for violence to occur: a) Structural conduciveness (fans from different teams in a same place) b) Structural strain (Rival fans seated close enough to taunt) c) Growth and spread of generalized belief (visiting team is playing better) d) Precipitating factor (controversial decision by the referee) e) Mobilization (A group of leaders emerges willing to fight) f) Operation of social control (Prevention and intervention by officers)
  22. 22. Violence and socio-political-economical context “The soccer weekend, against the background of the hooligan’s everyday life, can be seen as adventure holidays for the socially disadvantaged, the less financially privileged, whether in form of active participation or in form of enjoyment while consuming the spectacle” Gunter Pilz, 1996 • “Lack of adventure” •Sociodemographic • Social stress differences •Contradiction in • Racism youth’s social role: •More responsabilities, less opportunities
  23. 23. The big picture: USA vs. Europe Unconsidered factors that do have an impact: • Geography and the “away game culture” – Proximity breeds rivalry • Football dominance vs. multi-discipline culture – Emotional investment in sports • Local football clubs vs. franchises – Socioeconomical-political differences in club identities
  24. 24. Geography & the “away culture”United States: 9.83 million sq. km Germany: 357.021 sq. km Montana: 380.838 sq. km
  25. 25. Geography & the “away culture”
  26. 26. Geography & the “away culture”
  27. 27. Football dominance vs. multi-discipline culture • Footballing cultures invest all sport emotion in one club. • American sports culture offers several “big” teams. Diversity: City Soccer Baseball A. Football Basketball Hockey New York Boston Chicago S. Francisco Bay Area
  28. 28. Local football clubs vs. franchises • European clubs represent communities, cities, identities. • American teams franchises; no real attachment to locality. – Teams change cities • Brooklynn Dodgers Los Angeles • New York Giants San Francisco • Boston BravesMilwaukee Braves Atlanta Braves
  29. 29. Conclusions • Alcohol enhances aggression, doesn’t create it. • Psychological, social, and contexual factors define the plausibility of violence. • Current methods to fight violence and hooliganism don’t address the real issues that causes it.
  30. 30. References • Brown, R. (1991). Gaming, gambling, and other addictive play. Amsterdam, Swets Zeitlinger. • D. Wann, J. C., M. Shrander (1999). "The impact of team identification on the hostile and instrumental verbal aggression of sport spectators." Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 14: 7. • Dunning, E. (2000). "Towards a Sociological Understanding of Hooliganism as a World Phenomenon." European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 8: 21. • Ward, R. (2002). "Fan violence: Social problem or moral panic?" Aggression and Violent Behavior(7): 18. • Julian Roberts, C. B. (2000). "Spectator Violence in Sports: A North American Perspective." European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 8: 18. • Lorenz, K. (1966). On Aggression. New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. • Markovits, A. (2011). "Sports Fans Across Borders: America from Mars, Europe from Venus." Harvard International Review(Summer 2011). • Pilz, G. (1996). "Social Factors Influencing Sport and Violence: On the "Problem" of Football Hooliganism in Germany." International Review for Sociology of Sport 31(1): 17. • Robert Washington, D. K. (2001). "Sport and Society." Annual Review of Sociology 2001(27): 35. • Schwind, B. (1990). Ursachen, Prävention und Kontrolle von Gewalt. Berlin, 4 Bde. • Tiffany Donahue, D. W. (2009). "Perceptions of the Appropriateness of Sport Fan Physical and Verbal Aggression: Potential Influences of Team Identification and Fan Dysfunction." North American Journal of Psychology 11(3): 9. • Images and logos taken from Google Images and Wikipedia.
  31. 31. Overview: Patriotism, nationalidentity and self-perception of German society:From ‘das Wunder von Bern’ to a modern and globalised Nationalmannschaft
  32. 32. Index • Why Germany? – German football, a constant change of roles – German society and its self-perception – Patriotism in modern Germany • Methodology of research
  33. 33. A constant change of roles • Das Wunder von Bern: Amateur World Champions • The 1970’s: The Golden Era • 1990: Reunified and Champions • Late 1990’s: Post-reunification crisis • The new Germany: youth, elegance, globalisation
  34. 34. German society & self-perception • The past in the present: Living with the War • Great achievements, downplayed importance • The “Multi-Kulti” modern reality • Integration through sport
  35. 35. Patriotism in modern Germany • Political context – The ghost of the past – Ecclectic mix in German society • Celebration of the Nationalmannschaft • Does support of the German football team translate into patriotism?
  36. 36. Methodology • Hermeneutic • Documentary research • Qualitative • Interviews • Descriptive • Audiovisual material
  37. 37. Thank you for your attention Questions and comments are gladly welcome