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Ketelaar Archives, memories, and identities Zadar summerschool 2013 Document Transcript

  • 1. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 1 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Archives, Memories, and Identities Eric Ketelaar 1 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 • Introducing ourselves • Course goals and objectives • Schedule • Assignments 2
  • 2. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 2 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Archives, Memories, and Identities 1. Introduction 2. Memories 3. Identities 4. Archives 5. Archival policies and practices 3 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 4 Let us not begin at the beginning, nor even at the archive. But rather at the word ‘archive’. Jacques Derrida, Archive Fever (1995), p. 1
  • 3. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 3 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Archives (or records ) also means ‘information created, received, and maintained as evidence and/or as an asset by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business or for its purposes, regardless of medium, form or format.’ (ISO 30300, 2011, 3.1.7) Archives (or records ) Information created, received, and maintained as evidence and/or as an asset by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business or for its purposes, regardless of medium, form or format. (ISO 30300, 2011, 3.1.7) 5 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013
  • 4. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 4 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 7 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Archivists’ adoption of the term memory has been largely uncritical. Archivists are urged to reconsider their working concept of memory. (Brien Brothman 2001) 8
  • 5. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 5 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Whether conscious of it or not, archivists are major players in the business of identity politics. (Schwartz and Cook, 2002) 9 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 10
  • 6. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 6 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Archives, Memories, and Identities Memories 1. Social frameworks of memory 2. Individual memory 3. Collective memory 11 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Maurice Halbwachs Les cadres sociaux de la mémoire (1925) La topographie légendaire des évangiles en Terre Sainte: Etude de mémoire collective (1941) La mémoire collective (1950; 1997) 12
  • 7. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 7 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Maurice Halbwachs The social frameworks of memory. The legendary topography… (transl. Lewis Coser 1992 abstracts) The collective memory (transl. Mary Douglas 1980) 13 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 No memory is possible outside frameworks used by people living in society to determine and retrieve their recollections. We can remember only on condition of retrieving from the frameworks of collective memory the position of past events that interest us. (Maurice Halbwachs) 14
  • 8. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 8 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Individual memory 15 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 individual family 16
  • 9. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 9 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Individual’s memories spread into an extended network of meanings that bring together the personal with the familial, the cultural, the economic, the social, and the historical. In all memory texts, personal and collective remembering emerge again and again as continuous with one another…All memory texts…constantly call to mind the collective nature of the activity of remembering. (Annette Kuhn) 17 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Collective memory 18
  • 10. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 10 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 individual family collective memories national 19 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Jeffrey K. Olick Collective memory: the two cultures (1999) individualistic x collectivistic 20
  • 11. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 11 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 James Fentress and Chris Wickham Social Memory (Oxford 1992) Barbara Misztal Theories of Social Remembering (Maidenhead 2003) 21 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Collective Memories  Constructed  Mediated  Vietnam War  Holocaust 22
  • 12. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 12 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 23 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 • Media shape our memories • Media shaped by memories • Mutual shaping of memory and media 24
  • 13. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 13 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Texts / Records determine social spaces, both as products of the social world of authors and as textual agents at work in that world, with which they entertain often complex and contestatory relations. (Gabrielle M. Spiegel, 1990). 25 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 To study the social formation of memory is to study those acts of transfer that make remembering in common possible. (Paul Connerton, How societies remember, 1989) 26
  • 14. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 14 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 “texts” in any form • written • oral • physical • bodily 27 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 28
  • 15. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 15 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Collective memory a group's representation of its past in terms of shared origins, values, and experiences. Collective memory is distinct from individual memory because of the emphasis on common representations of past events or experiences, some of which occurred long before the lifetime of any living person. (Hedstrom 2010, 165-166). the socially organized or mediated representation of the past created via socially produced artifacts, and held in common by a group. (Schudson 1995, 348). 29 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Archives, Memories, and Identities Identities 1. Identification 2. Collective identity 30
  • 16. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 16 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 We are nothing in an absolute sense. We are only what we have been – more exactly, what we remember we were. We are memories personified. (Franco Ferrarotti 1994) The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Both ‘collective memory’ and ‘collective identity’ are rather the effects of intersubjective practices of signification, neither given nor fixed but constantly re-created within the framework of marginally contestable rules for discourse. (Boyarin, 1994, 23)
  • 17. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 17 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 “Identity” • identification and categorization • self-understanding and social location • commonality, connectedness, groupness (Brubaker and Cooper 2000)) The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Identities always involve others. (Lyon, 2009, 12)
  • 18. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 18 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Collective identity The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 What we are faced with – what we are living – is the constitution of both group ‘membership’ and individual‘ identity’ out of a dynamically chosen selection of memories, and the constant reshaping, reinvention, and reinforcement of those memories as members contest and create the boundaries and links among themselves. (Boyarin, 1994, 26)
  • 19. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 19 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 38
  • 20. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 20 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Founding trauma (Dominick LaCapra 2004) The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Archives, Memories, and Identities Archives 1. Touchstones of memory 2. Canon and archive 3. Inscription and spaciality 4. Appropriation 5. Archives and other memory texts
  • 21. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 21 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Records, along with stories, artifacts, songs, rituals, traditions, and myriad other non-documentary touchstones, are used to shape memories into narratives and to transform information and recollection from the individual to the collective. (Laura Millar 2006) The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Further understanding of the role of archives in collective memory formation depends on placing archival documents in relation to an array of other memory devices and singling out the unique contribution of archives to this process. (Margaret Hedstrom 2010)
  • 22. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 22 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 43 functional storage memory canon archive Cultural memory Aleida Assmann 2010 2006 1999 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 44 Inscription Spatiality
  • 23. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 23 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 46 ‘There is no archive without consignation in an external place which assures the possibility of memorization, of repetition, of reproduction, or of reimpression. Jacques Derrida, Archive Fever (1995), p. 11
  • 24. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 24 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Appropriation The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013
  • 25. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 25 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Commemorations The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Archives and other memory texts
  • 26. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 26 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 James O’Toole, ‘On the Idea of Uniqueness’ (1994) The uniqueness of an archival document 1. the physical document itself is unique, or 2. the information it contains is unique, or 3. the process which the record produced is unique, or 4. the uniqueness is derived from the way individual items have been assembled into files, that is the document in the context of other documents. The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013
  • 27. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 27 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 53 What is an archive? “the value of an archival document is not best understood as something innate to it, but by the significance invested in it by those who…have created, selected, shaped and used it as an archive.” (Andrew Flinn 2011, 151) The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 54 The Archive “as it is” (institutional, cultural, and curatorial) ontological “as archive” (symbolic, metaphoric, and discursive) epistemological
  • 28. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 28 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 If any collection can be an archive, we risk losing sight of an important distinction between carefully constructed and highly regulated collections that produce ‘official’ narratives about the past and shape people’s lives in the present and random collections of objects and documents that bring pleasure to the collector but have little or no impact on the larger order of things. (Kate Eichhorn, 2008)
  • 29. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 29 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Archives (or records ) also means ‘information created, received, and maintained as evidence and/or as an asset by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business or for its purposes, regardless of medium, form or format.’ (ISO 30300, 2011, 3.1.7) Archives (or records ) Information created, received, and maintained as evidence and/or as an asset by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business or for its purposes, regardless of medium, form or format. (ISO 30300, 2011, 3.1.7) 57 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Archival policies and practices 1. Remembrance 2. Social frameworks 3. Communities 4. Changing identities 5. Politics of memory Archives, Memories, and Identities
  • 30. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 30 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013
  • 31. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 31 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 “Identity” • identification and categorization • self-understanding and social location • commonality, connectedness, groupness (Brubaker and Cooper 2000)) The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 62
  • 32. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 32 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Charting the history of a particular collective memory as an extension of the event itself may be one way to augment, enhance, and contextualize the records, a way to fill in some of the undocumented and underdocumented spaces. (Bastian 2009, 119) The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 individual family social frameworks of archives national
  • 33. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 33 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 65 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 66
  • 34. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 34 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 67 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 68
  • 35. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 35 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 69 The emergence of Archives 2.0 is less about technological change than a broader epistemological shift which concerns the very nature of the archive, and particularly traditional archival practice which privileges the ‘original’ context of the archival object. In ‘Archives 2.0’ the archive is potentially less a physical space than an online platform that supports participation. In this potentially radical vision, users can contribute to the archive, engage with it, and play a central role in defining its meaning. (Joy Palmer 2009) The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 70
  • 36. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 36 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 A community of records the aggregate of records in all forms generated by multiple layers of actions and interactions between and among the people and institutions within a community. (Jeannette Bastian) 71 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 The records of a community become the products of a multi tiered process of creation that begins with the individual creator but can be fully realized only within the expanse of this creator’s entire society. (Jeannette Bastian) 72
  • 37. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 37 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 73 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 74 Independence “the active participation of a community in documenting and making accessible the history of their particular group and/or locality on their own terms.” Flinn, Stevens, and Shepherd, 2009, 75 “bodies substantially inspired,owned and controlled by the group or the community whose history they seek to represent.” Flinn, 2011, 150
  • 38. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 38 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 75 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 76
  • 39. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 39 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 77 functional storage memory canon archive Cultural memory The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 78
  • 40. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 40 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 79 Politics of memory: (a)the process by which accumulated, shared historical experience constraint today’s political action; (b)the contestation or coercion that occurs over the proper interpretation of that historical experience. (Charles Tilly 1994) The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 80 There is no political power without control of the archive, if not of memory. (Jacques Derrida)
  • 41. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 41 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Contestation • within the community • with outsiders 81 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 82
  • 42. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 42 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 83
  • 43. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 43 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 85 a living archive may help members of a community not only to come to grips with their own past but also to acknowledge that the past they share with neighbouring ethnic and political communities is not a monolithic truth, history, or memory, but allows, even requires, questioning and contestation. For this, the archive provides a space. (Ketelaar, 2009, 123-124) The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 86 The archivist cannot pretend to be outside the politics of memory: he or she is one of the actors who, in the words of Jacques Derrida, “must practice a politics of memory and, simultaneously, in the same movement, a critique of the politics of memory.”
  • 44. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 44 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 87 a larger social mission into archives and to align archives not only with the preservation of the past and production of history, but with the social causes of accountability, justice, identity formation, and reconciliation. (Hedstrom, 2010, 173) The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 88 Community enriching “our own identity as archivists, transformed to be relevant actors out in our society’s communities more than proficient professionals behind the walls of our own institutions.” (Terry Cook 2013)
  • 45. Archives, Memories, and Identities May 2013 Eric Ketelaar, Zadar Summerschool 45 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 Rather than conflating archives and collective memory, archivists could build a more compelling case for the social value of archives by enumerating and investigating the conditions and circumstances where archives are instrumental in forming, reviving, or transmitting a sense of shared experience. (Margaret Hedstrom 2010) 89 The iSchool@TorontoZadar Summerschool 2013 90 ketelaar@uva.nl