KETAN THUMMAR    2nd BSc.Nursing             RN:40
 Hepatitis   is an inflamation of the  liver. This inflammation may be  caused by viruses,toxins or  chemicals. There a...
   It is the most common blood-borne    infection.   The most common of type of hepatitis    are:   Hepatitis A virus [...
 Other  agents which may cause  hepatitis; Rubella virus,varicella virus,retro  viruses,yellow fever virus,adeno  viruse...
 Hepatitis   A Hepatitis   B Hepatitis   C Hepatitis   D Hepatitis   E Hepatitis   F Hepatitis   G
OCCURENCEPoor sanitation
fall
Early winter
 INCUBATION      PERIOD:  It   is about 30 days.
RISK FACTORS/HIGH RISK GROUPS        Close personal contact
Handling faces contaminated wastes
Poor sanitation
Peaple who work with animals from HAV                        endemic areas
Peaple who eat raw or steamed                     shell fish
 Infected feces,fecal oral  route,may be airborne if  copious secretion,shellfishes  from contaminated water. No carrier...
 Mortality low Rarely causes fulminating  hepatic failure
 Anti HAV-IgM Positive in acute  hepatitis IgG positive after infection
 Hygiene Immune   globulin(possive) Inactivated hepatitis A  vaccine-havrix & vaqta(active) Adult1st dose 1ml IM    ...
 Hepatocytes undergo pathologic changes     induced by the body’s immune response to                     the virus.      ...
   The endoplamic reticulamis the first        cellular organelle to undergo change        and liver functions thats depe...
OCCURRENCE:World-wide,especiallyin drug addicts,homosexuals,people exposed to blood and blood product.Occurs all year.
6 weeks to 6 months;mean12-14 weeks
Risk factors /high risk groupsHealth workers in contact with body secretions
Hemodialysis and post   transfusion clients
Blood and blood products
Homosexually active males
Drug abusers
 Heterosexual  transmission Contact with blood and body  fluids Carrier state
 More serious May be fatal
 HBsAg HBV-DNA Anti-HBc-IgM HbeAg Anti-HBsAg
 Hygiene Avoidance   of risks HBIG(Passive) Recombinant hepatitis B  vaccine(active) Hepatitis B vaccine(passive) 3 ...
 The HBV is a DNA virus that has an  inner core and a surface envelope. The body forms antibodies to the viral  antigens...
   IV drug use accounts for 60% of HCV    transmission.   The risk ralated to injecting drug use is that    shared drug ...
OCCURRENCE: Post-transfusion Those  working around blood and  blood products. IV drug users Occurs all yearINCUBATIO...
 Similar to that  for hepatitis B IV drug use Intranasal  cocaine use Body piercing Multiple sex  partners
TRANSMISSION       SEVERITY Contact  with     Canlead to  blood and body    chronic  fluids.                    hepati...
Anti-HCV Or anti-HDV   HCV RNA
Anti-HCV interferon          alfa-2b in combinationHygiene   with ribavirin(Rebetol)
 Itis also known as delta hepatitis. Hepatitis D is transmitted only  through blood contact and thus  seen most commonly...
 Hepatitis D virus  requires the helper  function of HBV for its  replication and  expression. Hepatitis D virus can  ei...
OCCURRENCE             INCUBATION   Hepatitis D virus     PERIOD AND    causes hepatitis      RISK    only in          ...
 Co infect with hepatitis B Close personal contact Carrier state
 Similar to  hepatitis B More severe if  occurs with  chronic hepatitis  B Increased risk of  hepatocellular  carcinoma.
HDAg-possitive(anti-                       HDV RNA serumHDV)
HEPATITIS BHYGIENE          VACCINE(ACTIVE)
 This form of hepatitis primarily affect  young adults. It has a short incubation and there is  no evidence that it beco...
OCCURRENCE               INCUBATION   Parts of              PERIOD    Asia,Africa,India,    14-60    Maxico,Philipines...
 RISK              TRANSMISSION FACTORS/HIG          Fecal-oral                       route,food-or H RISK             ...
 Illness self-  limiting Mortality rate  in pregnant  women 10%-  20%
 DIAGNOSTIC    PROPHYLAXIS  TESTS          AND ACTIVE Anti-HEV                 OR PASSIVE                 IMMUNITY     ...
   Hepatits f seems to be    similar to hepatitis A    and E in its mode of    transmission.   There is no serologic    ...
   Hepatitis G is spread through contact with    blood,blood product, and body fluids.   Most clients are asymptomatic, ...
   Hepatitis G virus    does not alter    the severity of    hepatitis C, nor    is it associated    with acute or    chr...
 Associated  with  chronic viremia  lasting 10  years. Rarely causes  frank hepatitis.
 Health care workers in  hemodialysis. IV drug users. Hemodialysis clients. Chronic hepatitis B or C clients.
   TRANSMISSION   Percutaneous   SEVERITY   Does not appear to cause liver    disease.   DIAGNOSTIC TESTS   Anti-HGV...
JAUNDICE   ABDOMINAL PAIN
   Lethargy   Irritability   Myalgia   Arthralgia   Nausea   Vomitting   Diarrhea or    constipation   Fever   Fl...
 Darker  urine(the  color of tea  or mahogany) Clay-colored  stool drowsiness
 REDUCE   FATIGUE: Rest Maintain nutritional and fluid balance: High calorie,low-fat,high-carbohydrate diet  more easi...
 Glucocorticoids: It may reduce serum aminotransferase &  bilirubin level. Bile acid sequestentrants: Questran Colest...
   Bed rest   High calorie, low fat, high carbohydrate diet.   Avoid alcohol   Vit. K supplements   Relieve nausea & ...
 Avoid  hepatotoxins Promote nutrition Client teaching Promote rest Prevent infection and reinfection
Inflammation of liver by ketan thummar
Inflammation of liver by ketan thummar
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Inflammation of liver by ketan thummar

  1. 1. KETAN THUMMAR 2nd BSc.Nursing RN:40
  2. 2.  Hepatitis is an inflamation of the liver. This inflammation may be caused by viruses,toxins or chemicals. There are several types of hepatitis such as viral,toxic,chronic and alcoholic.
  3. 3.  It is the most common blood-borne infection. The most common of type of hepatitis are: Hepatitis A virus [HAV] Hepatitis B virus [HBV] Hepatitis C virus [HCV] Hepatitis D virus [Delta agent] Hepatitis E virus
  4. 4.  Other agents which may cause hepatitis; Rubella virus,varicella virus,retro viruses,yellow fever virus,adeno viruses and marbug virus. Epstein-barr virus,cytomegalo virus,herpes simplex are other possible causes of viral hepatitis.
  5. 5.  Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis F Hepatitis G
  6. 6. OCCURENCEPoor sanitation
  7. 7. fall
  8. 8. Early winter
  9. 9.  INCUBATION PERIOD:  It is about 30 days.
  10. 10. RISK FACTORS/HIGH RISK GROUPS Close personal contact
  11. 11. Handling faces contaminated wastes
  12. 12. Poor sanitation
  13. 13. Peaple who work with animals from HAV endemic areas
  14. 14. Peaple who eat raw or steamed shell fish
  15. 15.  Infected feces,fecal oral route,may be airborne if copious secretion,shellfishes from contaminated water. No carrier state
  16. 16.  Mortality low Rarely causes fulminating hepatic failure
  17. 17.  Anti HAV-IgM Positive in acute hepatitis IgG positive after infection
  18. 18.  Hygiene Immune globulin(possive) Inactivated hepatitis A vaccine-havrix & vaqta(active) Adult1st dose 1ml IM 2nd dose 1ml IM after 6 to 12 months.
  19. 19.  Hepatocytes undergo pathologic changes induced by the body’s immune response to the virus. Inflammation of the liver with areas of necrosis occurs,and the resultant damage leads to impairment of function. The degree of functional impairment depends on the amount of hepatocellular damage.
  20. 20.  The endoplamic reticulamis the first cellular organelle to undergo change and liver functions thats depends on these processes are alters. Kuffer cells increase In both size and number. Vascular and ductular tissues undergo inflammatory changes.
  21. 21. OCCURRENCE:World-wide,especiallyin drug addicts,homosexuals,people exposed to blood and blood product.Occurs all year.
  22. 22. 6 weeks to 6 months;mean12-14 weeks
  23. 23. Risk factors /high risk groupsHealth workers in contact with body secretions
  24. 24. Hemodialysis and post transfusion clients
  25. 25. Blood and blood products
  26. 26. Homosexually active males
  27. 27. Drug abusers
  28. 28.  Heterosexual transmission Contact with blood and body fluids Carrier state
  29. 29.  More serious May be fatal
  30. 30.  HBsAg HBV-DNA Anti-HBc-IgM HbeAg Anti-HBsAg
  31. 31.  Hygiene Avoidance of risks HBIG(Passive) Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine(active) Hepatitis B vaccine(passive) 3 IM injection(deltoid) 0,1,6 months
  32. 32.  The HBV is a DNA virus that has an inner core and a surface envelope. The body forms antibodies to the viral antigens HBsAg. The presence of resolving infection blood denotes:1. A previous or resolving infection with hepatitisB2. A Continuing,chronic infection,3. Immunization with immunoglobulin or HBV vaccine.
  33. 33.  IV drug use accounts for 60% of HCV transmission. The risk ralated to injecting drug use is that shared drug paraphenalia used to prepare or inject the drug may have contaminated with HCV infection. Tattooing and body piercing tools contaminated with small amount of blood may also contribute to HCV infection. The tattoo artist or piercer must use good health practices such as hand-washing,sterized or disposable tattoing needles,disposable gloves.
  34. 34. OCCURRENCE: Post-transfusion Those working around blood and blood products. IV drug users Occurs all yearINCUBATION PERIOD: 6-7 weeks
  35. 35.  Similar to that for hepatitis B IV drug use Intranasal cocaine use Body piercing Multiple sex partners
  36. 36. TRANSMISSION  SEVERITY Contact with  Canlead to blood and body chronic fluids. hepatitis. Source of infection uncertain in many clients. Carrier state.
  37. 37. Anti-HCV Or anti-HDV HCV RNA
  38. 38. Anti-HCV interferon alfa-2b in combinationHygiene with ribavirin(Rebetol)
  39. 39.  Itis also known as delta hepatitis. Hepatitis D is transmitted only through blood contact and thus seen most commonly in clients exposed to blood and blood products,such as IV drug users and people with hemophilia.
  40. 40.  Hepatitis D virus requires the helper function of HBV for its replication and expression. Hepatitis D virus can either infect a person stimultaneously with HBV(co-infection) or infect a person already infected with HBV(superinfection)
  41. 41. OCCURRENCE INCUBATION Hepatitis D virus PERIOD AND causes hepatitis RISK only in FACTORS/HIGH association with RISK GROUPS hepatitis B virus  Same as for and only in presence of hepatitis B HBsAg
  42. 42.  Co infect with hepatitis B Close personal contact Carrier state
  43. 43.  Similar to hepatitis B More severe if occurs with chronic hepatitis B Increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  44. 44. HDAg-possitive(anti- HDV RNA serumHDV)
  45. 45. HEPATITIS BHYGIENE VACCINE(ACTIVE)
  46. 46.  This form of hepatitis primarily affect young adults. It has a short incubation and there is no evidence that it becomes chronic. The hepatitis E virus alters hepatocellular function in almost the other types of hepatitis viruses. It causes necrosis and liver cell damage.
  47. 47. OCCURRENCE  INCUBATION Parts of PERIOD Asia,Africa,India,  14-60 Maxico,Philipines days;mean 40 where there is days poor sanitation.
  48. 48.  RISK  TRANSMISSION FACTORS/HIG  Fecal-oral route,food-or H RISK water-borne. GROUPS  No carrier state Travelling or living in areas where incidence is high.
  49. 49.  Illness self- limiting Mortality rate in pregnant women 10%- 20%
  50. 50.  DIAGNOSTIC  PROPHYLAXIS TESTS AND ACTIVE Anti-HEV OR PASSIVE IMMUNITY  Hygiene  Sanitation  No immunity
  51. 51.  Hepatits f seems to be similar to hepatitis A and E in its mode of transmission. There is no serologic test for hepatitis F, and diagnosis is by electron microscopic identification of the virus.
  52. 52.  Hepatitis G is spread through contact with blood,blood product, and body fluids. Most clients are asymptomatic, and chronic infection develops in 90% to 100% of infected individuals. Hepatitis G virus, like HCV,is a blood borne RNA virus. Current data indicate that a large portion of client infected with hepatitis G are also infected with HCV.
  53. 53.  Hepatitis G virus does not alter the severity of hepatitis C, nor is it associated with acute or chronic liver injury,although the latter finding requires continused study.
  54. 54.  Associated with chronic viremia lasting 10 years. Rarely causes frank hepatitis.
  55. 55.  Health care workers in hemodialysis. IV drug users. Hemodialysis clients. Chronic hepatitis B or C clients.
  56. 56.  TRANSMISSION Percutaneous SEVERITY Does not appear to cause liver disease. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS Anti-HGV PROPHYLAXIS Hygiene
  57. 57. JAUNDICE ABDOMINAL PAIN
  58. 58.  Lethargy Irritability Myalgia Arthralgia Nausea Vomitting Diarrhea or constipation Fever Flu like manifestation Fatigue Malaise pruritis
  59. 59.  Darker urine(the color of tea or mahogany) Clay-colored stool drowsiness
  60. 60.  REDUCE FATIGUE: Rest Maintain nutritional and fluid balance: High calorie,low-fat,high-carbohydrate diet more easily digested & more palatable Reduce effects of hepatitis: Antiviral Antiemetics Parenteral vit K Antihistamines
  61. 61.  Glucocorticoids: It may reduce serum aminotransferase & bilirubin level. Bile acid sequestentrants: Questran Colestid Vaccines: HAV HBV HVC Medication to avoid: Chlorpromazian, aspirin, acetaminophane
  62. 62.  Bed rest High calorie, low fat, high carbohydrate diet. Avoid alcohol Vit. K supplements Relieve nausea & vomitting Psychological support Client teaching Administer medications Promote rest
  63. 63.  Avoid hepatotoxins Promote nutrition Client teaching Promote rest Prevent infection and reinfection

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