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3What Grid Computing isWhat Grid Computing is Allows sharing and coordinated use of diverse resources in dynamic,distributed “virtual organizations”. Grid computing is a service for sharing computer power and datastorage capacity over the Internet.
Web– Uniform naming access to documents Grid- Uniform, high performance access to computational resourcesColleges/R&DLabsSoftwareCatalogshttp://http://Web vs. GRID
Why Grids?Why Grids?• Large-scale science and engineering are done through the interaction ofpeople, heterogeneous computing resources, information systems, andinstruments, all of which are geographically and organizationallydispersed.• The overall motivation for “Grids” is to facilitate the interactions ofthese resources in order to support large-scale science and Engineering.• Highly User friendly and mature web tech: No training needed• Provide access via “The grid “ to remote resources of millions of Pc’sfrom any where to any body.
11Grid ArchitectureGrid Architecture Fabric layer: Provides the resources to which shared access is controlledby Grid protocols The resources normally include physical and logical entities. . Connectivity layer: Defines the core communication and authenticationprotocols required for grid-specific network functions. These protocols enable the exchange of data between fabric layerresources. Resource layer: Defines protocols for secure negotiations, initiation,monitoring control operation on individual resources. Information & Management protocols
12 Collective Layer : The collective services layer deals with the schedulingservices, data replications services, and monitoring services. These services are not associated with any one specific resource but focuson interactions across resources Application Layer: These are user applications that operate within VOenvironment. which includes applications in science, engineering, business, finance and more,as well as portals and development toolkits to support the applications. This isthe layer that grid users "see" and interact with
How Does Grid Work.- If there is a scope for parallelism ,it can also decomposeYour work into convenient execution units based on the availableresources You Submit Your WorkAnd The Grid-Find convenient places to your data-Deals with Authentication to the different sites that you will beusing-Organizes efficient access to data for running your job-migration, replication-Run your jobs, monitor progress, recover from problems, tellsyou when work is complete
Key ComponentsKey Components• Broker– Monitoring and Discovery Service (MDS)It provides information about available resources on the grid and working status of theseresources
18Key ComponentsKey Components• SchedulerIf jobs were to become lost due to system or network outages, scheduler wouldautomatically resubmit the job elsewhere.
Key ComponentsKey Components• Data management– Grid Access to Secondary Storage (GASS)It is responsible for moving files and data to various nodes within the grid
20Key ComponentsKey ComponentsJob and resource management– Grid Resource Allocation Manager (GRAM)Providing the services to launch a job on a particular resource checking the job’s status, retrievethe results when the job is complete
21Globus Toolkit 4Globus Toolkit 4• The Globus® Toolkit is an open source software toolkit usedfor building grids. provided by the Globus Alliance.• Globus Toolkit 4 provides components in the following fivecategories:– Common runtime components– Security– Data management– Information services– Execution management
22Globus Toolkit 4Globus Toolkit 4
Globus ToolkitGlobus Toolkit• Common Runtime:The Common Runtime components provide a set offundamental libraries and tools which are needed to build bothWS and non-WS services.• Information services:The Information Services, more commonly referred to as theMonitoring and Discovery Services (MDS), includes a set ofcomponents to discover and monitor resources in a virtualorganization.• Execution managementExecution Management components deal with the initiation,monitoring, management, scheduling and coordination ofexecutable programs, usually called jobs, in a Grid. 23
Globus ToolkitGlobus Toolkit• SecurityUsing the Security components, based on the Grid SecurityInfrastructure (GSI), we can make sure that ourcommunications are secure.• Data managementThese components will allow us to manage large setsof data in our virtual organization.Modules in this section enable distributed data in the grid tolocate , move (GridFTP,RFT) and to manage (OGSA).24
25Applications• The Southern California Earthquake Center uses Globussoftware to visualize earthquake simulation data.
26Applications• Scientists in the Earth System Grid (ESG) are producing, archiving, andproviding access to climate data that advances our understanding of globalclimate change. ESG uses Globus software for security, data movement,and system monitoring.
27Applications• Computational scientists at Brown University are using theGlobus Toolkit and MPICH-G2 to simulate the flow of bloodthrough human arteries.
28Grid ProjectsGrid ProjectsInternational Grid Projects• Open Middleware Infrastructure Institute Europe (OMII-Europe) - May 2006 -> May2008• Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) - March 2004 -> March 2006• Enabling Grids for E-sciencE II (EGEE II) - April 2006 -> April 2008• BREIN — September 2007 → August 2009• Data TAG - January 2001 -> January 2003• European Data Grid (EDG) - March 2001 -> March 2004• Baltic Grid - November 2005 -> April 2008National Grid Projects• D-Grid (German)• GARUDA (Indian)• grid computing project at VECC (Calcutta, India)• China Grid Project• INFN Grid (Italian)• Knowledge Grid Malaysia• NAREGI Project• Singapore National Grid Project• Thai National Grid Project• BELNET Grid, Belgium
GARUDAGARUDA Ended on March 2008, accomplished its deliverables by connecting 17cities across 45 academic and research institutes country wide along withthe required softwares for managing grid computing applications.29 GARUDA is Indias first national grid initiative bringing together academic,scientific and research communities for developing their data and computeintensive applications with guaranteed QoS. The Department of Information Technology (DIT), Government of India,has funded Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) todeploy the nation-wide computational grid “GARUDA” spanning across 17cities and 45 institutions with an aim to bring Distributed/Grid networkedinfrastructure to academic labs, research labs and industries in India
Some current Grids indevelopment anddeploymentEuropean Data Grid The European Data Grid is a European Union funded projectwhich aims to create a huge Grid system for computation anddata-sharing. It is aimed at projects in high energy physics,biology and medical image processing, and astronomy.The National Fusion Collaboratory• The National Fusion Collaboratory project exists to helpresearch magnetic fusion. Magnetic fusion experimentsoperate on pulses of plasmas which are producedapproximately every 15 minutes. The data generated fromeach measurement must be analysed within the 15 minutes sothat changes can be made to the set up in time for the nextpulse30
31ReferenceReference• “The Anatomy of the Grid(Enabling Scalable Virtual Organizations)”---by Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman, Steven Tuecke• “Physiology of the Grid (An Open Grid Services Architecture forDistributed Systems Integration )”---by Ian Foster, Carl Kesselman, Jeffrey M. Nick, Steven Tuecke• “Grid Computing:Past,Present, and Future”--- by Elias Kourpas, June2006• “Introduction to Grid Computing” ---IBM Redbook,2005• IBM Grid Computing:www-03.ibm.com/grid/index.shtml• Globus website: www.globus.org