Contrast linkers

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An overview of contrast linkers at intermediate level.
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Contrast linkers

  1. 1. Contrast Linkers
  2. 2. Contrast Linkers  When we want to introduce contrast in English, we use the following words:  In spite of/Despite (the fact that)  Although/Even though/Though  However/Nevertheless  Whereas
  3. 3. When & How In spite of/Despite  Followed by a noun phrase or pronoun (that/this/what, etc.) or a verb in the ‘ing’ form  Despite their money, they can’t buy happiness. (noun phrase)  Despite what I said last night, I still love you. (pronoun)  In spite of having so much money, they can’t buy happiness. (verb in the ‘ing’ form)
  4. 4. When & How Although/Even though/Though  Followed by a clause/complete sentence with subject + verb  Although she sang beautifully, she didn’t win the contest.  I am going out tonight, even though I am tired.
  5. 5. When & How Though  Though is often used at the end of a sentence.  The house isn’t very nice. I like the garden though.
  6. 6. Compare although & in spite of/despite  Although the traffic was bad, I arrived on time.  In spite of the traffic, I arrived on time.  I couldn’t sleep although I was very tired.  I couldn’t sleep despite being very tired.
  7. 7. Complete with the correct connector 1.________ it was raining, I didn’t use my umbrella. (although, despite) 2. I’d like to talk to you _______ I know you’re busy. (although, in spite of) 3. _______ her efforts, she failed the exam. (despite, although) 4. _______we were having difficulties, we felt optimistic. (although, in spite of) 5. We didn’t win the game ______ all our hard work. (although, in spite of)
  8. 8. Complete with the correct connector 1. Although it was raining, I didn’t use my umbrella. (although, despite) 2. I’d like to talk to you although I know you’re busy. (although, in spite of) 3. Despite her efforts, she failed the exam. (despite, although) 4. Although we were having difficulties, we felt optimistic. (although, in spite of) 5. We didn’t win the game in spite of all our hard work. (although, in spite of)
  9. 9. When & How However/Nevertheless  We can express a contrast by using the adverbs however/nevertheless with two sentences.  They are always followed by a comma  She was feeling very ill. However, she went to school.  You need some help with your homework. Nevertheless, no one can help you and you have to do it yourself.
  10. 10. When & How Whereas/While  Introduce a contrast between two ideas.  The original movie was quite interesting, whereas the remake was really boring.  Whereas you have lots of time to do your homework, I have very little time indeed.
  11. 11. Connectors are usually written in specific places in a sentence:  At the beginning of a sentence: however, nevertheless  Either at the beginning or in the middle: despite, in spite of, although, even though, whereas, while  Only in the middle of a sentence: but  In the middle or at the end of a sentence: though
  12. 12. Complete the sentences 1. _______ Andrew was warned of the risks, he decided to travel alone to South America. (although, whereas) 2. Maria did not get a promotion ________ her qualifications. (however, despite) 3. Zambia is a land-locked country, _________ Kenya has a coastline. (however, whereas) 4. The city has a 50 kph limit. ____________, people are often caught speeding. (however, whereas) 5. He is quiet and shy, ______ his sister is lively and talkative. (although, whereas)
  13. 13. Complete the sentences 1. Although Andrew was warned of the risks, he decided to travel alone to South America. (although, whereas) 2. Maria did not get a promotion despite her qualifications. (however, despite) 3. Zambia is a land-locked country, whereas Kenya has a coastline. (however, whereas) 4. The city has a 50 kph limit. However, people are often caught speeding. (however, whereas) 5. He is quiet and shy, whereas his sister is lively and talkative. (although, whereas)
  14. 14. The End

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