0
Bone Growth & Development
General Features
Long Bone

Longer than they are wide
Consists of diaphysis
(central shaft) & Epiphysis
(two ends)
Epiphysial plate – fo...
Short Bone

Approx. as broad as they
are long
Examples: wrist & ankle
bones
Flat Bones

 Have a relatively thin,
flattened shape
Examples: certain skull
bones, ribs, scapulae, and
sternum
Irregular Bones

 Bones not included in the
previous categories
Vertebrae and facial
bones
Histological Structure
Cells
Osteocyte – mature bone cell, enclosed in
lacuna
Osteoblast – bone-forming cell; secretes
collagen fibers and calciu...
O S T EB B LA
O
ST
A
G
O

C
O S T E O C LA
ST
R
A
Compact Bone
Mostly solid
matrix cells
Spongy Bone
Consists of a
lacy network
of bone wit
many small,
marrow filled
spaces
Marrow
Yellow marrow – fat
Red marrow – blood
forming cells
Matrix
 A bonding of
multiple fibers and
chemicals of different
materials
 Primarily collagen
fibers and crystallin
e sa...
Matrix
The crystalline salts deposited in the matrix
of bone are composed principally
of calcium and phosphate, which are
...
Growth &
Development
Pre-natal Ossification
1. Intramembranous
2. Endochondral
Bone develops from
Bone develops from
fibrous membrane
hyaline c...
Nutrition
Hormonal
secretions
Physical
exercise

Factors
for bone
development
Nutrition
Calcium
Makes up 2% of body weight
99% Stored in bones
A narrow range of 9-11 mg Ca/100 ml
blood maintained at all time...
Calcium
1% Constant supply of Ca2+ in the blood
stream needed for:
◦Transmission of nerve impulses
◦Muscle contraction
◦B...
Phosphorus
A major mineral in the body's bone crystal,
phosphorus is found in dairy products and
meat.
Magnesium
Primarily found in bone crystals,
magnesium improves bone strength.
Older adults are more likely to be deficie...
Vitamin K
Necessary for bone formation and
mineralization, blood clotting, and may
assist in channelling calcium directly...
Vitamin C
Collagen is the main protein in bone, and
Vitamin C is necessary for collagen
synthesis.
Vitamin C is present ...
Vitamin A
Necessary for cells to differentiate
normally and for normal skeletal growth,
and also is extremely important f...
Vitamin D
Vitamin D is necessary for the proper
absorption of calcium in the small intestine.
Physical exercise
Physical exercise
◦Pull of gravity & muscles
◦Activates osteoblasts
◦If not active, activates
osteoclasts - atrophy
Exposure to sunlight
Exposure to sunlight
Exposure of skin to the
ultraviolet portion of sunlight is
favorable to bone
development, because the...
Hormones
Hormones
Pituitary Gland
Thyroid gland
Parathyroid glands
Ovaries and testes
Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)
From: Pituitary gland Other fx
 stimulates bone and
Stimulates activity in muscle growth
th...
Parathyroid Hormone

From: Parathyroid glands
Parathyroid Hormone
Low blood calcium
Releases PTH
Stimulates osteoclasts
to break down
bone tissue, and as a
result, calc...
Calcitonin

From: Thyroid gland
Calcitonin
Blood calcium level is
excessively high
Releases calcitonin
Inhibits osteoclast
activity allowing
osteoblasts t...
Sex Hormones
↑ - Hinders osteoclast
production
↓ - Increased cytokines,
Increast osteoclast
Sex Hormones
Aging
Hypogonadism
-Diminished functional
activity of the gonads
-Hypoandrogenism &
Hypoestrogenism
Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN
Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN
Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN
Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN
Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN
Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN
Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN

768

Published on

Bone Growth & Development

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
768
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
65
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Embryonic skeleton:fashioned from fibrous membranes or cartilage to accommodate mitosis.
  • Radiograoh of an 18-week old fetus, showing intramembranous ossification occurs at centers of ossification in the flat bones of the skull. Endochondral ossification has formed bones in the diaphysis of long bones. The epiphyses are still cartilage at this stage of development.
  • Of all the minerals in the body, there is more calcium than any other. It makes up somewhere around 2% of our total adult body weight, stored mostly in our bones and teeth. Bone is made up of a crystalline mineral compound embedded within a living protein matrix. This crystalline mineral compound, called hydroxyapatite, is formed principally from calcium and phosphorus. It is essential for healthy bone development and bone maintenance, and gives our bones both strength and rigidity. 
  • Vitamin A is available in liver, eggs, butter, green leafy vegetables and carrots. The animal source supplements (retinols) may cause toxicity but plant sources (B carotene) do not. Daily intake of retinols should be less than 10,000 IU.
  • In the absence of this vitamin, calcium is poorly absorbed, the bone matrix is deficient in calcium, and the bones are likely to be deformed or very weak.Vitamin D is also essential for bone health. We get most of our vitamin D from the action of sunlight on our skin but it is also found in oily fish, fish oils such as cod liver oil, meat (particularly liver), eggs and dairy products.Our bodies contain a precursor of vitamin D which is converted into active vitamin D when we are exposed to sunlight.Vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium from foods, which helps to provide more calcium for building bones.
  • Transcript of "Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN"

    1. 1. Bone Growth & Development
    2. 2. General Features
    3. 3. Long Bone Longer than they are wide Consists of diaphysis (central shaft) & Epiphysis (two ends) Epiphysial plate – for growing bones Epiphysial line – when growth stops
    4. 4. Short Bone Approx. as broad as they are long Examples: wrist & ankle bones
    5. 5. Flat Bones  Have a relatively thin, flattened shape Examples: certain skull bones, ribs, scapulae, and sternum
    6. 6. Irregular Bones  Bones not included in the previous categories Vertebrae and facial bones
    7. 7. Histological Structure
    8. 8. Cells Osteocyte – mature bone cell, enclosed in lacuna Osteoblast – bone-forming cell; secretes collagen fibers and calcium salts of bone tissue Osteoclast – bone-destroying cell; breaks down ECM to release calcium into the bloodstream
    9. 9. O S T EB B LA O ST A G O C O S T E O C LA ST R A
    10. 10. Compact Bone Mostly solid matrix cells Spongy Bone Consists of a lacy network of bone wit many small, marrow filled spaces
    11. 11. Marrow Yellow marrow – fat Red marrow – blood forming cells
    12. 12. Matrix  A bonding of multiple fibers and chemicals of different materials  Primarily collagen fibers and crystallin e salts
    13. 13. Matrix The crystalline salts deposited in the matrix of bone are composed principally of calcium and phosphate, which are combined to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Calcium (Ca), phosphate (PO4), and hydroxide (OH) Ca10[PO4]6[0H]2
    14. 14. Growth & Development
    15. 15. Pre-natal Ossification 1. Intramembranous 2. Endochondral Bone develops from Bone develops from fibrous membrane hyaline cartilage Forms bones of skull and Forms all bones below clavicle (all flat bones) base of skull Begins at 8 weeks of Begins 2nd month of development development
    16. 16. Nutrition Hormonal secretions Physical exercise Factors for bone development
    17. 17. Nutrition
    18. 18. Calcium Makes up 2% of body weight 99% Stored in bones A narrow range of 9-11 mg Ca/100 ml blood maintained at all times. Bone remodeling - key in maintaining proper blood calcium levels
    19. 19. Calcium 1% Constant supply of Ca2+ in the blood stream needed for: ◦Transmission of nerve impulses ◦Muscle contraction ◦Blood coagulation ◦Cell division
    20. 20. Phosphorus A major mineral in the body's bone crystal, phosphorus is found in dairy products and meat.
    21. 21. Magnesium Primarily found in bone crystals, magnesium improves bone strength. Older adults are more likely to be deficient in magnesium. Calcium supplements that contain magnesium can help.
    22. 22. Vitamin K Necessary for bone formation and mineralization, blood clotting, and may assist in channelling calcium directly to the bone rather than the blood vessels.
    23. 23. Vitamin C Collagen is the main protein in bone, and Vitamin C is necessary for collagen synthesis. Vitamin C is present in citrus fruits and tomatoes and in many vegetables.
    24. 24. Vitamin A Necessary for cells to differentiate normally and for normal skeletal growth, and also is extremely important for eye health. Too little vitamin A is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Too much vitamin A can cause bone loss and increase the risk of hip fracture.
    25. 25. Vitamin D Vitamin D is necessary for the proper absorption of calcium in the small intestine.
    26. 26. Physical exercise
    27. 27. Physical exercise ◦Pull of gravity & muscles ◦Activates osteoblasts ◦If not active, activates osteoclasts - atrophy
    28. 28. Exposure to sunlight
    29. 29. Exposure to sunlight Exposure of skin to the ultraviolet portion of sunlight is favorable to bone development, because the skin can produce vitamin D when it is exposed to such radiation.
    30. 30. Hormones
    31. 31. Hormones Pituitary Gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Ovaries and testes
    32. 32. Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) From: Pituitary gland Other fx  stimulates bone and Stimulates activity in muscle growth the epiphyseal platesmaintains the normal rate of protein synthesis in all body Main regulator of cells height speeds the release of fats as an energy source for growth
    33. 33. Parathyroid Hormone From: Parathyroid glands
    34. 34. Parathyroid Hormone Low blood calcium Releases PTH Stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone tissue, and as a result, calcium salts are released into the blood.
    35. 35. Calcitonin From: Thyroid gland
    36. 36. Calcitonin Blood calcium level is excessively high Releases calcitonin Inhibits osteoclast activity allowing osteoblasts to form bone tissue. The excessive calcium is stored in matrix.
    37. 37. Sex Hormones ↑ - Hinders osteoclast production ↓ - Increased cytokines, Increast osteoclast
    38. 38. Sex Hormones Aging Hypogonadism -Diminished functional activity of the gonads -Hypoandrogenism & Hypoestrogenism
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×