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Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN
 

Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN

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Bone Growth & Development

Bone Growth & Development

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  • Embryonic skeleton:fashioned from fibrous membranes or cartilage to accommodate mitosis.
  • Radiograoh of an 18-week old fetus, showing intramembranous ossification occurs at centers of ossification in the flat bones of the skull. Endochondral ossification has formed bones in the diaphysis of long bones. The epiphyses are still cartilage at this stage of development.
  • Of all the minerals in the body, there is more calcium than any other. It makes up somewhere around 2% of our total adult body weight, stored mostly in our bones and teeth. Bone is made up of a crystalline mineral compound embedded within a living protein matrix. This crystalline mineral compound, called hydroxyapatite, is formed principally from calcium and phosphorus. It is essential for healthy bone development and bone maintenance, and gives our bones both strength and rigidity. 
  • Vitamin A is available in liver, eggs, butter, green leafy vegetables and carrots. The animal source supplements (retinols) may cause toxicity but plant sources (B carotene) do not. Daily intake of retinols should be less than 10,000 IU.
  • In the absence of this vitamin, calcium is poorly absorbed, the bone matrix is deficient in calcium, and the bones are likely to be deformed or very weak.Vitamin D is also essential for bone health. We get most of our vitamin D from the action of sunlight on our skin but it is also found in oily fish, fish oils such as cod liver oil, meat (particularly liver), eggs and dairy products.Our bodies contain a precursor of vitamin D which is converted into active vitamin D when we are exposed to sunlight.Vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium from foods, which helps to provide more calcium for building bones.

Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN Bone Growth & Development by Kerstin Karen Vicente, RN Presentation Transcript

  • Bone Growth & Development
  • General Features
  • Long Bone Longer than they are wide Consists of diaphysis (central shaft) & Epiphysis (two ends) Epiphysial plate – for growing bones Epiphysial line – when growth stops
  • Short Bone Approx. as broad as they are long Examples: wrist & ankle bones
  • Flat Bones  Have a relatively thin, flattened shape Examples: certain skull bones, ribs, scapulae, and sternum
  • Irregular Bones  Bones not included in the previous categories Vertebrae and facial bones
  • Histological Structure
  • Cells Osteocyte – mature bone cell, enclosed in lacuna Osteoblast – bone-forming cell; secretes collagen fibers and calcium salts of bone tissue Osteoclast – bone-destroying cell; breaks down ECM to release calcium into the bloodstream
  • O S T EB B LA O ST A G O C O S T E O C LA ST R A
  • Compact Bone Mostly solid matrix cells Spongy Bone Consists of a lacy network of bone wit many small, marrow filled spaces
  • Marrow Yellow marrow – fat Red marrow – blood forming cells
  • Matrix  A bonding of multiple fibers and chemicals of different materials  Primarily collagen fibers and crystallin e salts
  • Matrix The crystalline salts deposited in the matrix of bone are composed principally of calcium and phosphate, which are combined to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Calcium (Ca), phosphate (PO4), and hydroxide (OH) Ca10[PO4]6[0H]2
  • Growth & Development
  • Pre-natal Ossification 1. Intramembranous 2. Endochondral Bone develops from Bone develops from fibrous membrane hyaline cartilage Forms bones of skull and Forms all bones below clavicle (all flat bones) base of skull Begins at 8 weeks of Begins 2nd month of development development
  • Nutrition Hormonal secretions Physical exercise Factors for bone development
  • Nutrition
  • Calcium Makes up 2% of body weight 99% Stored in bones A narrow range of 9-11 mg Ca/100 ml blood maintained at all times. Bone remodeling - key in maintaining proper blood calcium levels
  • Calcium 1% Constant supply of Ca2+ in the blood stream needed for: ◦Transmission of nerve impulses ◦Muscle contraction ◦Blood coagulation ◦Cell division
  • Phosphorus A major mineral in the body's bone crystal, phosphorus is found in dairy products and meat.
  • Magnesium Primarily found in bone crystals, magnesium improves bone strength. Older adults are more likely to be deficient in magnesium. Calcium supplements that contain magnesium can help.
  • Vitamin K Necessary for bone formation and mineralization, blood clotting, and may assist in channelling calcium directly to the bone rather than the blood vessels.
  • Vitamin C Collagen is the main protein in bone, and Vitamin C is necessary for collagen synthesis. Vitamin C is present in citrus fruits and tomatoes and in many vegetables.
  • Vitamin A Necessary for cells to differentiate normally and for normal skeletal growth, and also is extremely important for eye health. Too little vitamin A is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Too much vitamin A can cause bone loss and increase the risk of hip fracture.
  • Vitamin D Vitamin D is necessary for the proper absorption of calcium in the small intestine.
  • Physical exercise
  • Physical exercise ◦Pull of gravity & muscles ◦Activates osteoblasts ◦If not active, activates osteoclasts - atrophy
  • Exposure to sunlight
  • Exposure to sunlight Exposure of skin to the ultraviolet portion of sunlight is favorable to bone development, because the skin can produce vitamin D when it is exposed to such radiation.
  • Hormones
  • Hormones Pituitary Gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Ovaries and testes
  • Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) From: Pituitary gland Other fx  stimulates bone and Stimulates activity in muscle growth the epiphyseal platesmaintains the normal rate of protein synthesis in all body Main regulator of cells height speeds the release of fats as an energy source for growth
  • Parathyroid Hormone From: Parathyroid glands
  • Parathyroid Hormone Low blood calcium Releases PTH Stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone tissue, and as a result, calcium salts are released into the blood.
  • Calcitonin From: Thyroid gland
  • Calcitonin Blood calcium level is excessively high Releases calcitonin Inhibits osteoclast activity allowing osteoblasts to form bone tissue. The excessive calcium is stored in matrix.
  • Sex Hormones ↑ - Hinders osteoclast production ↓ - Increased cytokines, Increast osteoclast
  • Sex Hormones Aging Hypogonadism -Diminished functional activity of the gonads -Hypoandrogenism & Hypoestrogenism