INSIGHT INTO REALITY
Saraswati Buddhist Group June 2013
WHY STUDY EMPTINESS?
Small scope
Middle scope
Great scope

Tantra
“I CAN CHANGE, I CAN CHANGE”
1)

Afflictions are based on wrong views

2)

Antidotes can be developed limitlessly

3)

All...
BRIEF PRESENTATION OF THE
TATHAGATA ESSENCE
Vs27: Because a perfect Buddha’s body is pervasive,
Because suchness is withou...
How to train in special insight, the
essence of wisdom
a) Prerequisites for special
insight
b) Divisions of special insigh...
SOURCE OF THE TRADITION
SOURCE OF THE TRADITION
Shakyamuni Buddha

Nagarjuna
Disciple: Aryadeva

Buddhapalita
Bhavivaveka (SSM)
Refuted C
Said ext...
HOW TO DELINEATE THE VIEW
How to delineate the view
a) Identifying afflictive ignorance
b) Showing it is the root of revolving in
cyclic existence
c...
IDENTIFYING AFFLICTIVE IGNORANCE
Identify anger = able to apply an antidote
Identify pride = able to apply an antidote
Don...
IGNORANCE

WISDOM
IGNORANCE
A consciousness apprehending a self of
1)

Person

2)

Phenomena

How? To conceive that things exist inherently
CHANDRAKIRTI’S COMMENTARY

“Those which exist only when the conceptuality
[apprehending them] exists and do not exist
when...
EXISTING AS
ITS OWN
REALITY

IMPUTED BY
CONCEPTUALITY
LAMA TSONGKHAPA
“the object of negation – is to conceive [that
objects] are not posited through the force of
beginningless...
CONCEIVED OBJECT OF
IGNORANCE
“inherent existence” “self”

OBSERVED OBJECT OF
IGNORANCE
“self” “mere I” “mind basis of all...
CONCEIVED OBJECT OF
IGNORANCE
“inherent existence” “self”

Non-existence of that in person = ?
Non-existence of that in ph...
SELF OF
PERSON

GRASPING AT A
SELF OF PERSON
How to delineate the view
a) Identifying afflictive ignorance
b) Showing it is the root of revolving in
cyclic existence
c...
EYE, EAR, NOSE, TONGUE
“abide in dependence on the body sense
power”

ATTACHMENT, ANGER, PRIDE etc.
“operate in dependence...
IGNORANCE HOLDS THE OBJECT
TO BE ESTABLISHED BY WAY OF ITS
OWN CHARACTER
If apprehension

If apprehension

If apprehension...
How to delineate the view
a) Identifying afflictive ignorance
b) Showing it is the root of revolving in
cyclic existence
c...
REMOVING
A THORN

REALISING THE
NON-EXISTENCE
OF THE OBJECT
AS IT IS
APPREHENDED
Overcome
ignorance

LIBERATION

Overcome
unrealistic
thinking

Overcome
afflictions

Powerless rebirth
overcome

Actions
m...
HOW TO GENERATE THE VIEW
How to generate the view
a) The order of realisation
b) Actual generation of the two views
a) Selflessness of persons
b) S...
NAGARJUNA
“As long as the aggregates are apprehended
[as inherently established],
So long thereby does the apprehension of...
ENTERING INTO THE VIEW
APPREHENSION
OF A VIEW OF
SELF OF
PHENOMENA

VIEW OF A
SELFLESSNESS OF
PERSON

APPREHENSION
OF A VI...
How to generate the view
a) The order of realisation
b) Actual generation of the two views
a) Selflessness of persons
b) S...
THE FOUR ESSENTIALS

Reason of inherently one or different
1)

Ascertaining the object of negation

2)

Establishing the p...
•

“I didn’t do that!”

•

“I really made a mess of things”

•

Getting angry at your body or mind

•

Something wonderful...
SELF-INSTITUTING
CONCRETE
NEITHER MIND NOR BODY
SOLID
THE FOUR ESSENTIALS

Reason of inherently one or different
1)

Ascertaining the object of negation

2)

Establishing the p...
LAMA TSONGKHAPA
“…the decision that if a person is inherently
established, it must be established as either one
entity wit...
THE FOUR ESSENTIALS

Reason of inherently one or different
1)

Ascertaining the object of negation

2)

Establishing the p...
Self and the aggregates become synonyms
 Assumer and discarder of the aggregates becomes unfeasible.
 “my body” “my leg”...
Many aggregates = many selves
 Or then if the self is one, then the mind and body (plural) would
become one.
Self would have production and disintegration
 Present moments couldn’t depend on former moments. Past lives
would be imp...
THE FOUR ESSENTIALS

Reason of inherently one or different
1)

Ascertaining the object of negation

2)

Establishing the p...
It would not have the characteristics of
impermanent phenomena
 Therefore the self would be permanent
If it is not the body and mind, it would have to
be observed as something else
CONCLUSION

There is no inherent self one with the
aggregates
There is no inherent self different from the
aggregates

“A ...
CONCLUSION

In addition, there can be no inherently existing
“mine”

Potter doesn’t exist
The pot made by that potter can’...
APPEARANCE

REALITY
LAMA TSONGKHAPA

“Because all actions, agents and objects are
feasible, this is not an annihilatory emptiness.”
LAMA TSONGKHAPA
“Also, because phenomena, which from the
primordial start have been empty in this way,
are just being know...
LAMA TSONGKHAPA

“Furthermore, since all objects of knowledge
are asserted this way, it is not a partial
emptiness.”
LAMA TSONGKHAPA

“It is not that the meaning of the profound
[emptiness] is not suitable to be the object of
any awareness...
DEPENDENTARISINGS

LACKING
INHERENT
EXISTENCE
How to generate the view
a) The order of realisation
b) Actual generation of the two views
a) Selflessness of persons
b) S...
PHENOMENA
•

Five aggregates

•

Six elements

•

Six sense powers
PHENOMENA

REASON OF INHERENTLY ONE OR DIFFERENT

•

Physical
•

•

Directional parts, etc.

Mental
•

Temporal parts
QUESTIONS OF ANAVATAPTA KING OF
NAGAS SUTRA
“Those which are produced from [causes and]
conditions are not produced;

They...
DEPENDENT

INDEPENDENT
RELYING ON
CAUSES &
CONDITIONS

ABLE TO SET
ITSELF UP UNDER
ITS OWN POWER
NIHILISM
Object of
negation not
delineated
and gone too
far

SUPERIMPOSITION
Object of
negation not
delineated
and not gon...
SYLLOGISM
THESIS

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

five aggregates

lack inherent
existence

REASON
because they
are a
dependent
arisin...
SYLLOGISM
THESIS

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

five aggregates

lack inherent
existence

REMOVES EXTREME OF REIFICATION

REASON
bec...
REASON OF DEPENDENT-ARISING
REFUTES APPREHENSIONS OF…
•

Oneness & difference

•

Four extreme types of production

•

Ext...
INHERENT
EXISTENCE

MERE EXISTENCE
ABSENCE OF
EXISTENCE BY
WAY OF ITS
OWN
CHARACTER

NON-EXISTENCE
LOWER SCHOOLS
IF IT EXISTS

IF IT IS NOT
INHERENTLY
EXISTENT

MUST BE
INHERENTLY
EXISTENT

MUST BE
NON-EXISTENT
How to generate the view
a) The order of realisation
b) Actual generation of the two views
a) Selflessness of persons
b) S...
THE TWO TRUTHS
a) The basis on which the two truths are divided
b) The number of divisions
c) The meaning of dividing them...
OBSCURATIONAL TRUTH
a) Meanings of kun-dzob and den-pa
b) Definition
c) Divisions
ULTIMATE TRUTH
a) Meanings of dön-dam and den-pa
b) Definition
c) Divisions
OBSCURATIONAL

TRUTH

Truth for a
consciousness
apprehending
true existence

ULTIMATE

TRUTH

True means
non-deceptive
How to train in special insight, the
essence of wisdom
a) Prerequisites for special
insight
b) Divisions of special insigh...
THE THREE WISDOMS

HH Dalai Lama, Kalachakra, Washington DC 2011

WISDOM THROUGH LISTENING
Simply listening to words or re...
THE THREE WISDOMS

LRCM 1, chapter 6

“Proper attention is based upon prior study. Sublime
wisdom, which takes reality as ...
HOW TO CULTIVATE SPECIAL INSIGHT
a) Special insight is cultivated in dependence on CA
b) Hinayana or Mahayana?
c) How to c...
THE MEASURE OF HAVING ESTABLISHED
SPECIAL INSIGHT

MP

PP

BPP

BMP
THE FIVE PATHS
Path of
accumulation

Path of
Preparation
•First Special
Insight
observing
emptiness:
conceptual

Path of S...
CHANDRAKIRTI

“I offer homage to loving concern viewing
transmigrators as empty of inherent existence,
though they appear ...
CREDITS
MUSIC
"open the source" "through the night" "Looking for a way out"
by Paolo Pavan
http://www.jamendo.com/en/track...
Insight into reality: how things exist according to the Buddha.
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Insight into reality: how things exist according to the Buddha.

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The root of all problems according to the Buddha is a fundamental mis-apprehension of how things actually exist. This is a brief overview of the Special Insight chapter of Tibetan Master Lama Tsongkhapa's "lamrim dring".

This talk was give at the Sawarswati Buddhist Group, in 2013.

See more:
www.joyous-effort.com/special-insight

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  • 2) e.g.., if one hears something different from the Buddha, one won’t get confused but will try to understand the definitive meaning and therefore understand the interpretive meanings. 3) Without having to go through much analysis.
  • Study with someone what you intend to practice and come to know it second-hand.Next, use scripture and reasoning to properly reflect on the meaning of what you have studied, coming to know it firsthand.Once you have no doubts, then repeatedly familiarise with it. “Repeated familiarisation [is] mediation.”This we do up till the 10th bhumi. This is the path!Read third para, pg. 110.
  • Insight into reality: how things exist according to the Buddha.

    1. 1. INSIGHT INTO REALITY Saraswati Buddhist Group June 2013
    2. 2. WHY STUDY EMPTINESS? Small scope Middle scope Great scope Tantra
    3. 3. “I CAN CHANGE, I CAN CHANGE” 1) Afflictions are based on wrong views 2) Antidotes can be developed limitlessly 3) All beings possess buddha nature
    4. 4. BRIEF PRESENTATION OF THE TATHAGATA ESSENCE Vs27: Because a perfect Buddha’s body is pervasive, Because suchness is without differentiation, And because a [Buddha] lineage exists, all embodied Are always in possession of a Buddha essence.
    5. 5. How to train in special insight, the essence of wisdom a) Prerequisites for special insight b) Divisions of special insight c) How to cultivate special insight d) The measure of having established special insight How calm abiding and special insight unite
    6. 6. SOURCE OF THE TRADITION
    7. 7. SOURCE OF THE TRADITION Shakyamuni Buddha Nagarjuna Disciple: Aryadeva Buddhapalita Bhavivaveka (SSM) Refuted C Said external objects exist in conventional terms Shantarakshita (YSM) Said external objects do not exist in conventional terms + mind ultimately without IE [but conventionally it is IE] Chandrakirti commenting on… Said external objects exist conventionally but not like other systems Atisha AUTONOMISTS - CONSEQUENTIALISTS Terms used by Tibetan scholars in later dissemination of Buddhism in Tibet MIDDLE WAY DIVIDED BY: • Asserting external objects (SSM & PM) • Not asserting external objects (YSM) or • How the view is ascertained (SM & PM) Kadampa Masters Je Tsongkhapa
    8. 8. HOW TO DELINEATE THE VIEW
    9. 9. How to delineate the view a) Identifying afflictive ignorance b) Showing it is the root of revolving in cyclic existence c) Showing that one wishing to abandon the apprehension of a self should seek the view of selflessness
    10. 10. IDENTIFYING AFFLICTIVE IGNORANCE Identify anger = able to apply an antidote Identify pride = able to apply an antidote Don’t identify ignorance = not able to apply an antidote
    11. 11. IGNORANCE WISDOM
    12. 12. IGNORANCE A consciousness apprehending a self of 1) Person 2) Phenomena How? To conceive that things exist inherently
    13. 13. CHANDRAKIRTI’S COMMENTARY “Those which exist only when the conceptuality [apprehending them] exists and do not exist when conceptuality does not are without question definite as not established by way of their own nature, like a snake imputed to a coiled rope.”
    14. 14. EXISTING AS ITS OWN REALITY IMPUTED BY CONCEPTUALITY
    15. 15. LAMA TSONGKHAPA “the object of negation – is to conceive [that objects] are not posited through the force of beginningless conceptuality but are established objectively by way of their own entity”
    16. 16. CONCEIVED OBJECT OF IGNORANCE “inherent existence” “self” OBSERVED OBJECT OF IGNORANCE “self” “mere I” “mind basis of all”
    17. 17. CONCEIVED OBJECT OF IGNORANCE “inherent existence” “self” Non-existence of that in person = ? Non-existence of that in phenomena = ?
    18. 18. SELF OF PERSON GRASPING AT A SELF OF PERSON
    19. 19. How to delineate the view a) Identifying afflictive ignorance b) Showing it is the root of revolving in cyclic existence c) Showing that one wishing to abandon the apprehension of a self should seek the view of selflessness
    20. 20. EYE, EAR, NOSE, TONGUE “abide in dependence on the body sense power” ATTACHMENT, ANGER, PRIDE etc. “operate in dependence on innate ignorance”
    21. 21. IGNORANCE HOLDS THE OBJECT TO BE ESTABLISHED BY WAY OF ITS OWN CHARACTER If apprehension If apprehension If apprehension agreeable disagreeable neither ANGER CONTINUATION OF SAME IGNORANCE DESIRE
    22. 22. How to delineate the view a) Identifying afflictive ignorance b) Showing it is the root of revolving in cyclic existence c) Showing that one wishing to abandon the apprehension of a self should seek the view of selflessness
    23. 23. REMOVING A THORN REALISING THE NON-EXISTENCE OF THE OBJECT AS IT IS APPREHENDED
    24. 24. Overcome ignorance LIBERATION Overcome unrealistic thinking Overcome afflictions Powerless rebirth overcome Actions motivated by afflictions are overcome “unerringly seek the view realising selflessness”
    25. 25. HOW TO GENERATE THE VIEW
    26. 26. How to generate the view a) The order of realisation b) Actual generation of the two views a) Selflessness of persons b) Selflessness of phenomena c) Presentation of the two truths
    27. 27. NAGARJUNA “As long as the aggregates are apprehended [as inherently established], So long thereby does the apprehension of “I” [as inherently established] exist.”
    28. 28. ENTERING INTO THE VIEW APPREHENSION OF A VIEW OF SELF OF PHENOMENA VIEW OF A SELFLESSNESS OF PERSON APPREHENSION OF A VIEW OF PERSON VIEW REALISING SELFLESSNESS OF PHENOMENA
    29. 29. How to generate the view a) The order of realisation b) Actual generation of the two views a) Selflessness of persons b) Selflessness of phenomena c) Presentation of the two truths
    30. 30. THE FOUR ESSENTIALS Reason of inherently one or different 1) Ascertaining the object of negation 2) Establishing the pervasion 3) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently one 4) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently different
    31. 31. • “I didn’t do that!” • “I really made a mess of things” • Getting angry at your body or mind • Something wonderful happened to you
    32. 32. SELF-INSTITUTING CONCRETE NEITHER MIND NOR BODY SOLID
    33. 33. THE FOUR ESSENTIALS Reason of inherently one or different 1) Ascertaining the object of negation 2) Establishing the pervasion 3) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently one 4) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently different
    34. 34. LAMA TSONGKHAPA “…the decision that if a person is inherently established, it must be established as either one entity with or a different entity from the aggregates and that there is no mode of establishment other than those two.”
    35. 35. THE FOUR ESSENTIALS Reason of inherently one or different 1) Ascertaining the object of negation 2) Establishing the pervasion 3) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently one 4) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently different
    36. 36. Self and the aggregates become synonyms  Assumer and discarder of the aggregates becomes unfeasible.  “my body” “my leg” “my mind” would be illogical  When the body ceases, the self would cease to exist
    37. 37. Many aggregates = many selves  Or then if the self is one, then the mind and body (plural) would become one.
    38. 38. Self would have production and disintegration  Present moments couldn’t depend on former moments. Past lives would be impossible.  Actions done would be wasted  One would meet with effects of actions not done by oneself
    39. 39. THE FOUR ESSENTIALS Reason of inherently one or different 1) Ascertaining the object of negation 2) Establishing the pervasion 3) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently one 4) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently different
    40. 40. It would not have the characteristics of impermanent phenomena  Therefore the self would be permanent
    41. 41. If it is not the body and mind, it would have to be observed as something else
    42. 42. CONCLUSION There is no inherent self one with the aggregates There is no inherent self different from the aggregates “A person does not in the least have inherent establishment.” Pg. 84
    43. 43. CONCLUSION In addition, there can be no inherently existing “mine” Potter doesn’t exist The pot made by that potter can’t exist
    44. 44. APPEARANCE REALITY
    45. 45. LAMA TSONGKHAPA “Because all actions, agents and objects are feasible, this is not an annihilatory emptiness.”
    46. 46. LAMA TSONGKHAPA “Also, because phenomena, which from the primordial start have been empty in this way, are just being known as empty, this is also not a mentally fabricated emptiness.”
    47. 47. LAMA TSONGKHAPA “Furthermore, since all objects of knowledge are asserted this way, it is not a partial emptiness.”
    48. 48. LAMA TSONGKHAPA “It is not that the meaning of the profound [emptiness] is not suitable to be the object of any awareness.”
    49. 49. DEPENDENTARISINGS LACKING INHERENT EXISTENCE
    50. 50. How to generate the view a) The order of realisation b) Actual generation of the two views a) Selflessness of persons b) Selflessness of phenomena c) Presentation of the two truths
    51. 51. PHENOMENA • Five aggregates • Six elements • Six sense powers
    52. 52. PHENOMENA REASON OF INHERENTLY ONE OR DIFFERENT • Physical • • Directional parts, etc. Mental • Temporal parts
    53. 53. QUESTIONS OF ANAVATAPTA KING OF NAGAS SUTRA “Those which are produced from [causes and] conditions are not produced; They have no inherent nature of production. [Therefore] those which rely on [causes and] conditions are said [by the Conqueror] to be empty…”
    54. 54. DEPENDENT INDEPENDENT
    55. 55. RELYING ON CAUSES & CONDITIONS ABLE TO SET ITSELF UP UNDER ITS OWN POWER
    56. 56. NIHILISM Object of negation not delineated and gone too far SUPERIMPOSITION Object of negation not delineated and not gone far enough
    57. 57. SYLLOGISM THESIS SUBJECT PREDICATE five aggregates lack inherent existence REASON because they are a dependent arising
    58. 58. SYLLOGISM THESIS SUBJECT PREDICATE five aggregates lack inherent existence REMOVES EXTREME OF REIFICATION REASON because they are a dependent arising REMOVES EXTREME OF NIHILISM
    59. 59. REASON OF DEPENDENT-ARISING REFUTES APPREHENSIONS OF… • Oneness & difference • Four extreme types of production • Extremes of reification & nihilism
    60. 60. INHERENT EXISTENCE MERE EXISTENCE
    61. 61. ABSENCE OF EXISTENCE BY WAY OF ITS OWN CHARACTER NON-EXISTENCE
    62. 62. LOWER SCHOOLS IF IT EXISTS IF IT IS NOT INHERENTLY EXISTENT MUST BE INHERENTLY EXISTENT MUST BE NON-EXISTENT
    63. 63. How to generate the view a) The order of realisation b) Actual generation of the two views a) Selflessness of persons b) Selflessness of phenomena c) Presentation of the two truths
    64. 64. THE TWO TRUTHS a) The basis on which the two truths are divided b) The number of divisions c) The meaning of dividing them that way d) Explaining the meaning of the individual divisions a) Obscurational truth b) Ultimate truth
    65. 65. OBSCURATIONAL TRUTH a) Meanings of kun-dzob and den-pa b) Definition c) Divisions
    66. 66. ULTIMATE TRUTH a) Meanings of dön-dam and den-pa b) Definition c) Divisions
    67. 67. OBSCURATIONAL TRUTH Truth for a consciousness apprehending true existence ULTIMATE TRUTH True means non-deceptive
    68. 68. How to train in special insight, the essence of wisdom a) Prerequisites for special insight b) Divisions of special insight c) How to cultivate special insight d) The measure of having established special insight How calm abiding and special insight unite
    69. 69. THE THREE WISDOMS HH Dalai Lama, Kalachakra, Washington DC 2011 WISDOM THROUGH LISTENING Simply listening to words or reading words in a book. Not stable – can lead to doubt if meets with different views. WISDOM THROUGH REFLECTION Developed through ones own critical thinking, attaining certainly such that it won’t be shaken by other views. WISDOM THROUGH MEDITATION Developing the feeling found in the previous wisdom so that is becomes spontaneous.
    70. 70. THE THREE WISDOMS LRCM 1, chapter 6 “Proper attention is based upon prior study. Sublime wisdom, which takes reality as its object, arises from your cultivation of proper attention.” Maitreya – Ornament for the Mahayana Sutras  Listen / Study  Wisdom from listening / study (second-hand) Reflect Wisdom from reflection (firsthand) Meditate Wisdom from meditation (special insight) This is the path!
    71. 71. HOW TO CULTIVATE SPECIAL INSIGHT a) Special insight is cultivated in dependence on CA b) Hinayana or Mahayana? c) How to cultivate special insight
    72. 72. THE MEASURE OF HAVING ESTABLISHED SPECIAL INSIGHT MP PP BPP BMP
    73. 73. THE FIVE PATHS Path of accumulation Path of Preparation •First Special Insight observing emptiness: conceptual Path of Seeing •First Special Insight observing emptiness directly: non-conceptual (Arya being) Path of Meditation •8th ground – Arhat, Foe destroyer. Removed all ignorance and its seeds. Path of No More Learning •Buddha: abandoned appearance of inherent existence and the imprints of that appearance.
    74. 74. CHANDRAKIRTI “I offer homage to loving concern viewing transmigrators as empty of inherent existence, though they appear to exist inherently, like a reflection of the moon in water.”
    75. 75. CREDITS MUSIC "open the source" "through the night" "Looking for a way out" by Paolo Pavan http://www.jamendo.com/en/track/1033804/open-the-source Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported

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