CONSULTATIONCONSULTATIONMOKGWANE S. E.MOKGWANE S. E.DOCTOR IN TRAININGDOCTOR IN TRAININGUWI, NASSAU CAMPUSUWI, NASSAU CAMPUS
PROTOCOLPROTOCOL• INTRODUCTION• MODELS OF CONSULTATION• SUMMARY• REFFERENCE
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION• Edgar H. Schein developed the concept ofprocess consultation and wrote a bookabout its in various client relationshipsafter 15 years of experience inorganization and managementdevelopment consulting.• He combines a research and teachinginterests in adult socialization and careerdevelopment with his applied interests inhelping organizations to be more effectivein accomplishing their tasks with andthrough people.• He a former Professor at the MIT SloanSchool of Management.
MODELS OF CONSULTATIONMODELS OF CONSULTATION THE EXPERT MODEL THE DOCTOR-PATIENT MODEL PROCESS CONSULTATION
THE EXPERT MODELTHE EXPERT MODELThe expert (or telling and selling) model of consultation assumes that theclient purchases from the consultant some information or expert servicethat she is unable to provide for herself. The buyer, usually an individual manager or representative of some groupin the organization, defines a need and concludes that the organizationhas neither the resources nor the time to fulfill that need. She will thenlook to a consultant to provide the information or the service. The client expects expert help and expects to pay for it but do not getinvolved in the process of consultation itself.
THE EXPERT MODELTHE EXPERT MODEL The extreme pure model is the television repairman or auto mechanic. Other examples: Purchase of a market research; The hiring of a consultant to develop a computer program for a given problem; The hiring of a lawyer to determine whether a given course of action will run into difficulty ornot. The essence of the message from the client to the consultant is “here is the problem, bringme back an answer and tell me how much it will cost.” Psychologically, the essence of this relationship is that the client gives away the problemtemporarily to the helper, which permits the client to relax, secure in the knowledge that anexpert has taken it on and will come up with a solution. This model is, almost by definition, totally content oriented.
THE EXPERT MODEL-THE EXPERT MODEL-ASSUMPTIONSASSUMPTIONS Whether or not the manager has correctly diagnosed his own needs Whether or not he has correctly communicated those needs to the consultant Whether or not he has accurately assessed the capabilities of the consultant toprovide the information or the service Whether or not he has thought through the consequences of having theconsultant gather such information or the consequences of implementing thechanges that the information implies or that may be recommended by theconsultant Whether or not there is an external reality than can be objectively studied andreduced to knowledge that will be of use to the client
THE EXPERT MODELTHE EXPERT MODEL The frequent dissatisfaction with consultants and the low rate of implementationof their recommendations can easily be explained when one considers how manyof the above assumptions have to be met for the purchase model to workeffectively. It should also be noted that in this model the client gives away power. The consultant is commissioned or empowered to seek out and provide relevantinformation or expertise on behalf of the client; but once the assignment has beengiven, the client becomes dependent on what the consultant comes up with. Much of the resistance to the consultant at the later stages may result from thisinitial dependency and the discomfort it may arouse consciously in the client.
THE EXPERT MODEL-NOTICETHE EXPERT MODEL-NOTICE This model of consultation is appropriate when clients have;I. Diagnosed their needs correctly;II. Correctly identified consultant capabilities;III. Done a good job of communicating what the problem they are actually trying tosolve;IV. Thought through the consequences of the help they have sought. This model is “client intensive” in that it puts a tremendous load on the client todo things correctly if the problem is to be solved. If the problems are complex and difficult to diagnose, it is highly likely that thismodel will not prove helpful.
THE DOCTOR-PATIENT MODELTHE DOCTOR-PATIENT MODEL The core of this model is that the client experiences some symptoms thatsomething is wrong but does not have a clue as to how to go about figuring outwhat is wrong or how to fix it. The diagnostic process itself is delegated completely to the consultant along withobligation to come up with a remedy. The client becomes totally dependent upon the consultant until such a time as theconsultant makes a prescription, unless the consultant engages the client inbecoming more active on his or her own behalf. A manager may detect symptoms of ill health, such as dropping sales, highnumbers of customer complaints, or quality problems, but may not know how tomake a diagnosis of what is causing the problems.
THE DOCTOR-PATIENT MODEL:THE DOCTOR-PATIENT MODEL:ASSUMPTIONSASSUMPTIONS That the client has correctly interpreted the symptoms and the sick “area.” That the client can trust the diagnostic information that is provided by theconsultant. That the “sick” person or group will reveal the correct information necessary toarrive at a diagnosis and cure, i.e., will trust the doctor enough to “level” with himor her. That the client has thought the consequences, i.e., is willing to accept andimplement whatever prescription is given. The patient/client will be able to remain healthy after he doctor/ consultantleaves.
THE DOCTOR-PATIENT MODEL:THE DOCTOR-PATIENT MODEL:NOTICENOTICE This model puts even more power into the hands of the consultant in thatshe diagnoses, prescribes, and administers the cure. The client not only abdicates responsibility for making his own diagnosisand thereby makes himself even more dependent on the consultant, butassumes, in addition, that an outside consultant can come into thesituation, identify problems, and remedy them. This model is of obvious appeal to consultants because it empowers themand endows them with X-ray vision.
THE DOCTOR-PATIENT MODEL:THE DOCTOR-PATIENT MODEL:NOTICENOTICE Providing expert diagnoses and prescribing remedial courses of actionjustify the high fees that consultants can command and make very visibleand concrete the nature of the help that they claim to provide. In this model the report, the presentation of findings, and therecommendations take on special importance in identifying what theconsultant does. For many consultants this is the essence of what they do, and they feelthat they have not done their job until they have made a thoroughanalysis and diagnosis leading to a specific written recommendation.
PROCESS CONSULTATIONPROCESS CONSULTATIONProcess Consultation (PC) is the creation of a relationship with the client thatpermits the client to perceive, understand and act on the process eventsthat occur in the client’s internal and external environment in order toimprove the situation as defined by the client.*Edgar H. Schien. Process Consultation Revisited – Building the Helping Relationship.1999, Addison-Wesley Publishing, Inc.
PROCESS CONSULTATION- FOCUSPROCESS CONSULTATION- FOCUS• The focus of PC is to build a relationship with your client and help them figure out whatto do:1. Build a Relationship Permit the consultant and client to deal with reality Remove the consultants areas of ignorance Acknowledge the consultant’s behavior as being always an intervention All of the above in the service of giving the client(s) insight into what is going onaround them.2. Help the client figure out what they should do about the situation Clients must be helped to remain proactive Clients must own the problems (“monkey always remains on the client’s back,” ) Clients know the true complexity of their situation and they know what will work in theculture where they live
PROCESS CONSULTATION- KEYPROCESS CONSULTATION- KEYASSUMPTIOSASSUMPTIOS1. That the nature of the problem is such that the client not only needs helpin making an initial diagnosis but would benefit from participation in theprocess of making that diagnosis.2. That the client has the constructive intent and some problem solvingability.3. That the client is ultimately the only one who knows what form ofsolution or interpretation will work in his or he own situation.4. That if the client selects and implements his or her own solution, theclient’s problem- solving skills for future problems will increase.
PROCESS CONSULTATION-PROCESS CONSULTATION-PRINCIPLESPRINCIPLES1. Always try to be helpful2. Always stay in touch with the current reality3. Access your ignorance4. Everything you do is an intervention5. It is the client who owns the problem and solution6. Go with the flow7. Timing is crucial8. Be constructively opportunistic with confrontive interventions9. Everything is data: errors are inevitable – learn from them10.When in doubt, share the problem
PROCESS CONSULTATION-PROCESS CONSULTATION-INTERVENTIONINTERVENTIONThe above assumptions may not always hold; but when they do, it is essential toapproach the helping situation in the PC mode. Clients often do not know what is really wrong and need help in diagnosing whattheir problems actually are. But only they “own” the problem. Clients often do not know what kinds of help consultants can give to them; theyneed to be helped to know what kinds of help to seek. Clients are not experts onhelping theory and practice. Most clients have a constructive intent to improve things, but they often needhelp in identifying what to improve and how to improve it.
PROCESS CONSULTATION-PROCESS CONSULTATION-INTERVENTIONINTERVENTION Most organizations can be more effective than they are if their managersand employees learn to diagnose and manage their own strengths andweaknesses. No organizational form is perfect; hence every form oforganization will have some weaknesses for which compensatorymechanisms must be found. Only clients know what will ultimately work in their organizations.Consultants cannot, without exhaustive and time consuming study oractual participation in the client organization, learn enough about theculture of an organization to suggest reliable new courses of action.Therefore, unless remedies are worked out jointly with members of theorganization who do know what will and will not work in their culture,such remedies are likely either to be wrong or to be resisted because theycome from an outsider.
PROCESS CONSULTATION-PROCESS CONSULTATION-INTERVENTIONINTERVENTION Unless clients learn to see problems for themselves and think through their ownremedies, they will be less likely to implement the solution and less likely to learnhow to fix such problems should they recur. The process consultation mode canprovide alternatives, but decision making about such alternatives must remain inthe hands of the client because it is the client, not the consultant, who owns theproblem. The ultimate function of PC is to pass on the skills of how to diagnose andconstructively intervene so that clients are more able to continue on their own toimprove the organization. In a sense both the expert and doctor-patient (doctor)models are remedial models whereas the PC model is both a remedial and apreventive model. The saying “instead of giving people fish, teach them how tofish” fits this model well.
SUMMARYSUMMARY Each model has its own specific assumptions that need to be comprehended by the clientsbefore any consultation. The relevance of the process consultation that in all situations that involve personal, group,or organizational components, feelings, values, and cultural elements must be indentified. Any given consultant inevitably ends up using all three models at different times and withdifferent clients. It is upon the consultant, therefore, to obtain enough insight into his or her own behavior toknow which model he or she is using at any given time and to assess the appropriateness ofthat model to the situation. The ideal consultant would be flexible enough to move across the three models.
REFERENCEREFERENCEEdgar H. Schien. Process Consultation Revisited – Building the Helping Relationship.1999, Addison-Wesley Publishing, Inc.Schein, E. H. Process Consultation, Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 1969.