Ch 6 Nomenclature

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Ch 6 Nomenclature

  1. 1. Nomenclature PO 4 3- phosphate ion C 2 H 3 O 2 - acetate ion HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic Acid Chemistry and Pre-AP Chemistry Ch 6 SAVE PAPER AND INK!!! When you print out the notes on PowerPoint, print "Handouts" instead of "Slides" in the print setup. Also, turn off the backgrounds (Tools>Options>Print>UNcheck "Background Printing")!
  2. 2. Forms of Chemical Bonds <ul><li>There are 2 forms bonding atoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic —(binary) complete transfer of 1 or more electrons from one atom to another (one loses, the other gains) </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent —(molecular) some valence electrons shared between atoms </li></ul>
  3. 3. Common Names <ul><li>A lot of chemicals have common names as well as the proper IUPAC name. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals that should always be named by common name and never named by the IUPAC method are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O water, not dihydrogen monoxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NH 3 ammonia, not nitrogen trihydride </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. COMPOUNDS FORMED FROM IONS <ul><li>Na + + Cl - --> NaCl </li></ul>CATION + ANION ---> COMPOUND A neutral compound requires equal number of + and - charges.
  5. 5. Predicting Charges on Monatomic Ions KNOW THESE !!!! +1 +2 -3 -2 -1 0 Cd +2
  6. 6. Properties of Ionic Compounds Forming NaCl from Na and Cl 2 <ul><li>A metal atom can transfer an electron to a nonmetal. </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting cation and anion are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces . </li></ul>
  7. 7. IONIC COMPOUNDS ammonium chloride, NH 4 Cl NH 4 + Cl -
  8. 8. Some Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Mg 2+ + N -3 ----> </li></ul><ul><li>Mg 3 N 2 </li></ul><ul><li>magnesium nitride </li></ul><ul><li>Sn 4+ + O 2- ----> </li></ul><ul><li>SnO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Tin (IV) oxide </li></ul>calcium fluoride Ca 2+ + 2 F - ---> CaF 2
  9. 9. Formulas of Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Formulas of ionic compounds are determined from the charges on the ions </li></ul><ul><li>atoms ions </li></ul><ul><li>    – </li></ul><ul><li>Na  +  F :  Na + : F :  NaF </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>sodium + fluorine sodium fluoride formula </li></ul><ul><li>Charge balance: 1+ 1- = 0 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Monatomic Ions
  11. 11. Writing a Formula <ul><li>Write the formula for the ionic compound that will form between Ba 2+ and Cl  . </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Balance charge with + and – ions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Write the positive ion of metal first, and the </li></ul><ul><li>negative ion Ba 2+ Cl  Cl  </li></ul><ul><li>3. Write the number of ions needed as </li></ul><ul><li>subscripts BaCl 2 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Learning Check <ul><li>Write the correct formula for the compounds containing the following ions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Na + , S 2- </li></ul><ul><li> a) NaS b) Na 2 S c) NaS 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Al 3+ , Cl - </li></ul><ul><li> a) AlCl 3 b) AlCl c) Al 3 Cl </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mg 2+ , N 3- </li></ul><ul><li> a) MgN b) Mg 2 N 3 c) Mg 3 N 2 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Solution <ul><li>1. Na + , S 2- </li></ul><ul><li> b) Na 2 S </li></ul><ul><li>2. Al 3+ , Cl - </li></ul><ul><li> a) AlCl 3 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mg 2+ , N 3- </li></ul><ul><li>c) Mg 3 N 2 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Naming Compounds <ul><li>1. Cation first, then anion </li></ul><ul><li>2. Monatomic cation = name of the element </li></ul><ul><li>Ca 2+ = calcium ion </li></ul><ul><li>3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide </li></ul><ul><li>Cl  = chlor ide </li></ul><ul><li>CaCl 2 = calcium chlor ide </li></ul>Binary Ionic Compounds:
  15. 15. Naming Binary Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NaCl </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ZnI 2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Al 2 O 3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>sodium chloride zinc iodide aluminum oxide
  16. 16. Learning Check <ul><li>Complete the names of the following binary compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>Na 3 N sodium ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>KBr potassium ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Al 2 O 3 aluminum ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>MgS _________________________ </li></ul>
  17. 17. Solution <ul><li>Complete the names of the following binary compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>Na 3 N </li></ul><ul><li>KBr </li></ul><ul><li>Al 2 O 3 </li></ul><ul><li>MgS </li></ul>sodium nitride potassium bromide aluminum oxide magnesium sulfide
  18. 19. Transition Metals <ul><li>Elements that can have more than one possible charge MUST have a Roman Numeral to indicate the charge on the individual ion. </li></ul><ul><li>1+ or 2+ 2+ or 3+ </li></ul><ul><li>Cu + , Cu 2+ Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ </li></ul><ul><li>copper(I) ion iron(II) ion </li></ul><ul><li>copper (II) ion iron(III) ion </li></ul>
  19. 20. Names of Variable Ions <ul><li>These elements REQUIRE Roman Numerals because they can have more than one possible charge: </li></ul><ul><li>anything except Group 1A, 2A, Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al </li></ul><ul><li>(You should already know the charges on these!) </li></ul><ul><li>Or another way to say it is: Transition metals and the metals in groups 4A and 5A (except Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al) require a Roman Numeral. </li></ul><ul><li>FeCl 3 (Fe 3+ ) iron (III) chloride </li></ul><ul><li>CuCl (Cu + ) copper (I) chloride </li></ul><ul><li>SnF 4 (Sn 4+ ) tin (IV) fluoride </li></ul><ul><li>PbCl 2 (Pb 2+ ) lead (II) chloride </li></ul><ul><li>Fe 2 S 3 (Fe 3+ ) iron (III) sulfide </li></ul>
  20. 21. Examples of Older Names of Cations formed from Transition Metals (you do not have to memorize these)
  21. 22. Learning Check <ul><li>Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions: </li></ul><ul><li>FeBr 2 iron (_____) bromide </li></ul><ul><li>CuCl copper (_____) chloride </li></ul><ul><li>SnO 2 ___(_____ ) ______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Fe 2 O 3 ________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Hg 2 S ________________________ </li></ul>
  22. 23. Solution <ul><li>Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions: </li></ul><ul><li>iron ( II ) bromide </li></ul><ul><li>copper ( I ) chloride </li></ul><ul><li>tin (IV) oxide </li></ul><ul><li>iron (III) oxide </li></ul><ul><li>mercury (I) sulfide </li></ul>FeBr 2 CuCl SnO 2 Hg 2 S Fe 2 O 3
  23. 24. <ul><li>NO 3 - </li></ul><ul><li>nitrate ion </li></ul><ul><li>NO 2 - </li></ul><ul><li>nitrite ion </li></ul>Polyatomic Ions
  24. 25. <ul><li>You can make additional polyatomic ions by adding a H + to the ion! </li></ul><ul><li>CO 3 -2 is carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>HCO 3 – is hydrogen carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 PO 4 – is dihydrogen phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>HSO 4 – is hydrogen sulfate </li></ul>Polyatomic Ions
  25. 26. Ternary Ionic Nomenclature <ul><li>Writing Formulas </li></ul><ul><li>Write each ion, cation first. Don’t show charges in the final formula. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall charge must equal zero . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If charges cancel, just write symbols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not, use subscripts to balance charges. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use parentheses to show more than one of a particular polyatomic ion . </li></ul><ul><li>Use Roman numerals indicate the ion’s charge when needed (stock system) </li></ul>
  26. 27. Ternary Ionic Nomenclature <ul><li>Sodium Sulfate </li></ul><ul><li>Na + and SO 4 -2 </li></ul><ul><li>Na 2 SO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Iron (III) hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Fe +3 and OH - </li></ul><ul><li>Fe(OH) 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonium carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>NH 4 + and CO 3 –2 </li></ul><ul><li>(NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 </li></ul>
  27. 28. Learning Check <ul><li>1. aluminum nitrate </li></ul><ul><li> a) AlNO 3 b) Al(NO) 3 c) Al(NO 3 ) 3 </li></ul><ul><li>2. copper(II) nitrate </li></ul><ul><li> a) CuNO 3 b) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 c) Cu 2 (NO 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Iron (III) hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li> a) FeOH b) Fe 3 OH c) Fe(OH) 3 </li></ul><ul><li>4. Tin(IV) hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li> a) Sn(OH) 4 b) Sn(OH) 2 c) Sn 4 (OH) </li></ul>
  28. 29. Solution <ul><li>1. aluminum nitrate </li></ul><ul><li> c) Al(NO 3 ) 3 </li></ul><ul><li>2. copper(II) nitrate </li></ul><ul><li> b) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Iron (III) hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li> c) Fe(OH) 3 </li></ul><ul><li>4. Tin(IV) hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li> a) Sn(OH) 4 </li></ul>
  29. 30. Naming Ternary Compounds <ul><li>Contains at least 3 elements </li></ul><ul><li>There MUST be at least one polyatomic ion </li></ul><ul><li>(it helps to circle the ions) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Na NO 3 Sodium nitrate </li></ul><ul><li>K 2 SO 4 Potassium sulfate </li></ul><ul><li>Al (HCO 3 ) 3 Aluminum bicarbonate </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum hydrogen carbonate </li></ul>
  30. 31. Learning Check <ul><li>Match each set with the correct name: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Na 2 CO 3 a) magnesium sulfite </li></ul><ul><li>MgSO 3 b) magnesium sulfate </li></ul><ul><li>MgSO 4 c) sodium carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 a) calcium carbonate </li></ul><ul><li> CaCO 3 b) calcium phosphate </li></ul><ul><li> Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 c) calcium bicarbonate </li></ul>
  31. 32. Solution <ul><li>1. Na 2 CO 3 MgSO 3 MgSO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 </li></ul><ul><li> CaCO 3 </li></ul><ul><li> Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 </li></ul><ul><li>c) sodium carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>magnesium sulfite </li></ul><ul><li>magnesium sulfate </li></ul><ul><li>calcium bicarbonate </li></ul><ul><li>calcium carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>b) calcium phosphate </li></ul>
  32. 33. Mixed Practice! <ul><li>Name the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Na 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>CaCO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>PbS 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Sn 3 N 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Cu 3 PO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>HgF 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>Lead (IV) sulfide </li></ul><ul><li>Tin (II) nitride </li></ul><ul><li>Copper (I) phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury (II) fluoride </li></ul>
  33. 34. Mixed Up… The Other Way <ul><li>Write the formula: </li></ul><ul><li>Copper (II) chlorate </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium nitride </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium bromide </li></ul><ul><li>Barium fluoride </li></ul><ul><li>Cesium hydroxide </li></ul>Cu(ClO 3 ) 2 Ca 3 N 2 Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 KBr BaF 2 CsOH
  34. 35. Naming Molecular Compounds CH 4 methane BCl 3 boron trichloride CO 2 Carbon dioxide All are formed from two or more nonmetals. Ionic compounds generally involve a metal and nonmetal (NaCl)
  35. 36. Molecular (Covalent) Nomenclature for two non metals <ul><li>Prefix System (binary compounds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Less electronegative atom comes first. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Add prefixes to indicate # of atoms. Omit mono- prefix on the FIRST element. Mono- is OPTIONAL on the SECOND element (in this class, it’s NOT optional!). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Change the ending of the second element to -ide . </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>PREFIX </li></ul><ul><li>mono- </li></ul><ul><li>di- </li></ul><ul><li>tri- </li></ul><ul><li>tetra- </li></ul><ul><li>penta- </li></ul><ul><li>hexa- </li></ul><ul><li>hepta- </li></ul><ul><li>octa- </li></ul><ul><li>nona- </li></ul><ul><li>deca- </li></ul><ul><li>NUMBER </li></ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul><ul><li>5 </li></ul><ul><li>6 </li></ul><ul><li>7 </li></ul><ul><li>8 </li></ul><ul><li>9 </li></ul><ul><li>10 </li></ul>Molecular Nomenclature Prefixes
  37. 38. Molecular Nomenclature: Examples <ul><li>CCl 4 </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>SF 6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon tetrachloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dinitrogen monoxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sulfur hexafluoride </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. More Molecular Examples <ul><li>arsenic trichloride </li></ul><ul><li>dinitrogen pentoxide </li></ul><ul><li>tetraphosphorus decoxide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AsCl 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N 2 O 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P 4 O 10 </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Learning Check <ul><li>Fill in the blanks to complete the following names of covalent compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>CO carbon ______oxide </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 carbon _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>PCl 3 phosphorus _______chloride </li></ul><ul><li>CCl 4 carbon ________chloride </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 O _____nitrogen _____oxide </li></ul>
  40. 41. Solution <ul><li>CO carbon mon oxide </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 carbon di oxide </li></ul><ul><li>PCl 3 phosphorus tri chloride </li></ul><ul><li>CCl 4 carbon tetra chloride </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 O di nitrogen mon oxide </li></ul>
  41. 42. Learning Check <ul><li>1. P 2 O 5 a) phosphorus oxide </li></ul><ul><li>b) phosphorus pentoxide </li></ul><ul><li>c) diphosphorus pentoxide </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cl 2 O 7 a) dichlorine heptoxide </li></ul><ul><li>b) dichlorine oxide </li></ul><ul><li>c) chlorine heptoxide </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cl 2 a) chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>b) dichlorine </li></ul><ul><li>c) dichloride </li></ul>
  42. 43. Solution <ul><li>1. P 2 O 5 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cl 2 O 7 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cl 2 </li></ul>c) diphosphorus pentoxide a) dichlorine heptoxide a) chlorine
  43. 44. Overall strategy for naming chemical compounds.
  44. 45. A flow chart for naming binary compounds.
  45. 46. Mixed Review <ul><li>Name the following compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>1. CaO </li></ul><ul><li>a) calcium oxide b) calcium(I) oxide c) calcium (II) oxide </li></ul><ul><li>2. SnCl 4 </li></ul><ul><li>a) tin tetrachloride b) tin(II) chloride </li></ul><ul><li>c) tin(IV) chloride </li></ul><ul><li>3. N 2 O 3 </li></ul><ul><li>a) nitrogen oxide b) dinitrogen trioxide </li></ul><ul><li>c) nitrogen trioxide </li></ul>
  46. 47. Solution <ul><li>Name the following compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>1. CaO </li></ul><ul><li>2. SnCl 4 </li></ul><ul><li>3. N 2 O 3 </li></ul>a) calcium oxide c) tin(IV) chloride b) Dinitrogen trioxide
  47. 48. Mixed Practice <ul><li>Dinitrogen monoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium sulfide </li></ul><ul><li>Copper (II) nitrate </li></ul><ul><li>Dichlorine heptoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Chromium (III) sulfate </li></ul><ul><li>Iron (III) sulfite </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Barium carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine monochloride </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>K 2 S </li></ul><ul><li>Cu(NO 3 ) 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Cl 2 O 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Fe 2 (SO 3 ) 3 </li></ul><ul><li>CaO </li></ul><ul><li>BaCO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>ICl </li></ul>
  48. 49. Mixed Practice <ul><li>BaI 2 </li></ul><ul><li>P 4 S 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Ca(OH) 2 </li></ul><ul><li>FeCO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 </li></ul><ul><li>I 2 O 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Cu(ClO 4 ) 2 </li></ul><ul><li>CS 2 </li></ul><ul><li>B 2 Cl 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Barium iodide </li></ul><ul><li>Tetraphosphorus trisulfide </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Iron (II) carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium dichromate </li></ul><ul><li>Diiodine pentoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Copper (II) perchlorate </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon disulfide </li></ul><ul><li>Diboron tetrachloride </li></ul>
  49. 50. Acid Nomenclature <ul><li>Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounds that form H + in water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulas usually begin with ‘H’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to be an acid instead of a gas, binary acids must be aqueous (dissolved in water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ternary acids are ALL aqueous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HCl (aq) – hydrochloric acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HNO 3 – nitric acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 SO 4 – sulfuric acid </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Acid Nomenclature Binary  Ternary An easy way to remember which goes with which… “ In the cafeteria, you ATE something IC ky”
  51. 52. Acid Nomenclature Flowchart
  52. 53. Acid Nomenclature <ul><li>HBr (aq) </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 CO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 SO 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 elements, - ide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 elements, -ate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 elements, -ite </li></ul></ul> hydro bromic acid  carbon ic acid  sulfur ous acid
  53. 54. Acid Nomenclature <ul><li>hydrofluoric acid </li></ul><ul><li>sulfuric acid </li></ul><ul><li>nitrous acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 elements, -ic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 elements, -ous </li></ul></ul> HF (aq)  H 2 SO 4  HNO 2  H + F-  H + SO 4 2-  H + NO 2 -
  54. 55. Name ‘Em! <ul><li>HI (aq) </li></ul><ul><li>HCl </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 SO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>HNO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>HIO 4 </li></ul>Hydroiodic acid Hydrogen chloride (not aq!) Sulfurous acid Nitric acid Periodic acid
  55. 56. Write the Formula! <ul><li>Hydrobromic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous acid </li></ul><ul><li>Carbonic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphoric acid </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrotelluric acid </li></ul>HBr (aq) HNO 2 H 2 CO 3 H 3 PO 4 H 2 Te (aq)
  56. 57. Nomenclature Summary Flowchart
  57. 58. Now You Should Be Able To… <ul><li>Identify common elements and compounds using scientific nomenclature. </li></ul><ul><li>Use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Common system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Stock system, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Prefix system, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• IUPAC nomenclature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• acid nomenclature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WITH: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• common monatomic ion, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• common polyatomic ions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AND: </li></ul><ul><li>Binary compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Ionic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Molecular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ternary compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Ionic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• Acids </li></ul></ul>
  58. 59. Now You Should Be Able To… <ul><li>Demonstrate (students performing) the </li></ul><ul><li>use of symbols, formulas, and equations </li></ul><ul><li>in describing interactions of matter such </li></ul><ul><li>as chemical and nuclear reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Write formulas and equations with: </li></ul><ul><li>• Words only </li></ul><ul><li>• Formula equations </li></ul><ul><li>• Symbols in equations like, aq, </li></ul><ul><li>s, l, g, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Empirical and molecular formulas </li></ul>
  59. 60. Now it’s Study Time DONE
  60. 61. Rainbow Matrix Game <ul><li>Link on Chemistry Geek.com on Chemistry I page </li></ul><ul><li>http://chemistrygeek.com/rainbow </li></ul><ul><li>Use [ ] to represent subscripts since you can’t enter subscripts into the computer </li></ul><ul><li>So H 2 O would be H[2]O </li></ul><ul><li>And Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 would be Al[2](SO[4])[3] </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Polyatomic Ions (you do not have to memorize these, but they are in the game!) </li></ul><ul><li>Borate = BO 3 -3 ; Silicate = SiO 4 -4 ; Manganate = MnO 4 -2 (permanganate is -1) </li></ul>

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