Climatic conditions have a major effect on population distribution, agriculture, and industrial development in Asia.
Western Japan has harsh winters due to Siberian winds
The central and eastern portions of Honshu have mild winters without much or any snow.
Where weather is milder, the population is usually larger – all major Japanese cities are on the East Coast.
Japan is a rugged, mountainous group of islands.
Mt. Fuji reaches 12,500 feet into the sky
The distance from coast to coast is less than 200 miles anywhere in the islands
Almost 80 percent of the land surface is mountainous
20 percent of the land is arable (good for farming)
Japan is called the “ Land of the Rising Sun .”
Japan is a part of the “ Ring of Fire ” which is a great chain of volcanoes lying along the west coast of the Americas and then curving down the eastern shores of Asia
There are about 3,400 islands in Japan
The main ones are called Hokkaido , Honshu , Kyushu , and Shikoku
It ranges from a subarctic climate in the north, to a tropical climate in the south.
Most of China’s population is concentrated in the east and southeast, where the climate is milder.
Probably the most important geographic fact has been its isolation (separation).
High mountains ( Himalayan ) and wide deserts ( Gobi ) isolated this area from other parts of Asia.
These natural and protective barriers allowed the Chinese to develop their culture without constant interruption from the outside.
China also enjoyed conditions favorable for the development of a great culture as they had wide plains, fertile soil, great rivers, and coastal harbors.
Geography explains why Chinese civilization turned out to be unique (one of a kind)
Chinese civilization began on the banks of one of its major rivers; the Yellow river (Huang He)
It was develop there because of the rich soil called loess .
The other river that Chinese civilization developed around was the Chang ( Yangtze )
While the rivers serve as a source of life, it also brings death and destruction.
The rivers often overflow their banks, flooding large areas of the surrounding countryside.
Because of these floods, the Chinese people call the Yellow river “ China’s sorrow .”
Mekong River is one of the longest rivers in Southern & Eastern Asia.
It stretches almost 2,700 miles long, runs through western China, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, before emptying in the South China Sea.
The Taklimakan Desert in northwest China is a vast region of sand desert sitting in a depression between two high, rugged mountain ranges.
The desert is hemmed in to the north by the snow-covered Tien Shan Mountain range and to the south by the rugged Kunlun Mountains.
Desertification and shifting sand dunes are a major concern for the farmers and grazers who live at the desert's edge.
Is a vast stretch of land roughly 1,000 miles long between 300 to 600 miles wide.
The desert lies between the Altai and Hangayn mountains and stretches across parts of Mongolia and China.
Much of the desert is made up of bare rock, rather than sand.
Winters are harsh, January average low -40 degrees Fahrenheit & July average high 113 degrees Fahrenheit.
Severe dryness limits vegetation; few plants and shrubs that grow.
Few people live in the desert, those that do, tend to live as nomadic herders.
Overall Effects of Geography – INDIA
In general, geography affects where people live, what they do there, and how they move around.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain offers an example to demonstrate this.
This large plain area lies between the Himalayan mountain ranges and the Deccan Plateau, within India.
Much of this area benefits from the three large rivers of South Asia: the Ganges , the Indus , and the Brahmaputra .
These rivers have their sources in the Himalayas.
These rivers and their many tributaries carry silt from the mountains that fertilizes farmlands on the plains.
These rivers also provide a reliable source of irrigation.
As a result of its steady sources of water, its fertile soil, and its long growing season, the Indo-Gangetic Plain is densely populated.
In mountainous areas, travel is much more difficult.
Mountain passes are important in these areas because they allow people to travel through or over mountains.
The Khyber Pass has been used for centuries, and has been the way that invading armies took over South Asia from the northwest.
Presently, the Khyber Pass connects Afghanistan to Pakistan.
India has a high population density.
It has 898 people per square mile compared to 354 for China and 79 for the US.
Southeast Asia Geography
countries include Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Philippines, Singpore
500 million people
has neither cultural or political unity
there are many races, religions and customs
it is an area of islands and peninsulas
Indo-Chinese Peninsula, Malay Peninsula, islands of Indonesia and Philippians
archipelagoes (a group of islands)
along some of the seacoasts are lowlands that are densely populated
The Great Lake
Tonle Sap in Cambodia is the only major lake in SE Asia
END SEC. 1
It is the oldest religion
Around 1500 BC, Aryan people migrated to the Indus Valley, where Pakistan is today (Hindu means Indus)
Hinduism does not have any founder or any prophets.
By 1200 BC, the earliest sacred books of Hinduism appeared. They are called the Vedas and include the story of the Aryans.
By 4 th c. BC, Hinduism had spread through all of India.
As it spread, Vedic Hinduism mixed with local religious practices.
Hindu’s worship many forms of one God called Brahman
During the 6 th century BC, groups of people had different ideas from the traditional Vedic thinkers.
These groups included Janis and Buddhists , two sects of Hinduism.
A sect is a smaller group of people that have differing beliefs from the larger group.
Another group of people, called Upanishad thinkers, had different ideas from the traditional Vedic thinkers.
Almost all of the Upanishads are dialogues between a teacher and student.
They question the nature of both the individual soul, called atman , and the collective soul, called Brahman .
All these deities are but Manifest forms (attributes and functions) of the impersonal Brahman
The 3 most important Hindu gods are:
Brahma - known as the Creator.
Vishnu - Known as the Preserver
Shiva (Siva)- known as the Destroyer.
Brahma Vishnu Shiva
Puja : worship either at temple or shrine at home
Arti : worship that takes place in front of statues of the gods – offerings given
Ahimsa : all life is sacred – so many are vegetarian
Cows are especially sacred – give freely of themselves (work, milk)
Holy Place – river Ganges (used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals) – city of Varanasi
Festivals – Holi, Diwali
Hindu festival of lights “row of lights” lasting five days.
In at least one region, the “row of lights” are lit on the new-moon night to welcome Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth (In the Indian culture, wealth is not viewed as a corruptive power. Instead, a wealthy person is considered to have been rewarded for good deeds of a past life).
homes are thoroughly cleaned, windows are opened candles and lamps are lit to welcome Lakshmi. Gifts are exchanged and festive meals are prepared during Diwali. Celebration means as much to Hindus as Christmas does to Christians .
During King Asoka’s rule in the 3 rd century BC, Buddhism gained more followers in India.
The number of Hindu followers lessened.
Starting at 320 AD, Hinduism became popular once again.
As the popularity of Hinduism increased, it also absorbed beliefs and practices of both Buddhism and Jainism.
Beginning as early as the 7 th century AD, Islam became established in India.
It later spread throughout much of the country, and is the second most practiced religion in India today.
As Indian merchants moved to SE Asia, the Hindu religion spread to new areas. Local chiefs converted to Hinduism and the religion took hold in their region.
In the late 1800s, many Hindus left India and went to places like East Africa, islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and islands of the Caribbean.
Again, as they traveled, their religious ideas moved with them.
Hinduism has a long history, and it has spread to various parts of the world.
It is still the major religion of India.
Roughly 80% of the Indian population practices Hinduism.
believe in reincarnation - "to be made flesh again", is a doctrine that some essential part of a living being survives death to be reborn in a new body.
Karma - Through the law of karma, the effects of all deeds actively create past, present, and future experiences, thus making one responsible for one's own life, and the pain and joy it brings to him/her and others.
if a person does what he or she is suppose to do, his or her soul will be rewarded in the next life
dharma is a set of rules that must be followed by all living things of they wish to work their way up the reincarnation ladder
The Caste System
began 3,000 years ago
when Aryans took over India they thought of themselves a superior and the conquered Indians as subordinate so started the class system
untouchable (AKA dalits) is the lowest class that deals with sweeping the streets, handling dead people and animals, and tending to pigs that feed on the village garbage; they must live away from the others and are not permitted to use the village wells
it divides the population into hereditary (passed from one generation to the next) social groups
Ashrama: Four Stages of Life The guru, who renounces all possessions and wanders from place to place begging for food The hermit, or retiree who withdraws from society to pursue ascetic and yogic practices The householder, who supports his family and the priests and fulfills duties to the gods and ancestors 1-20 Years Old The student, who is devoted and obedient to his teacher
collection of hymns, sacred prayers, chants, and epic poems about heroic deeds.
are a large body of texts originating in Ancient India& they form the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism
a collection of rituals and ceremonies written about 2,500 years ago
The Upanishads speak of a universal spirit (Brahman) and an individual soul, (Atman) and at times assert the identity of both. Brahman is the ultimate, both transcendent and immanent, the absolute infinite existence, the sum total of all that ever is, was, or shall be.
longest poem in the world with about 200,000 lines (5,000 pages)
It’s a discussion of human goals, attempting to explain the relationship of the individual to society and the world and the workings of karma.
Indian soap opera written in 400 BC
It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king.
Teachings of Buddhism
began in India by Siddhartha Gautama born 567 BC
was a prince who did not life the difference of rich-poor
he left the palace for 6 years to wander the earth but did not find wisdom
so he sat under a tree for 49 days until he became enlightened (Buddha means “enlightened one”
it is more a way of life than a religion, has no gods, no belief in a soul or a main god
4 noble truths 1. existence is suffering, 2. suffering comes from desire, 3. cure for suffering is extinction of desire, 4.for no desire must have right views, effort, mindfulness, intentions, speech, conduct, livelihood, concentration
key ideas ; 1. self-salvation is a person’s most immediate responsibility, 2. nirvana is the goal of all Buddhist. Nirvana is a state of extinction or release from the Wheel of Rebirth (reincarnation),
worship at a Pagoda
The Eightfold Path
Right View – know the truth
Right Intention – resist self-centeredness
Right Speech – refrain from unkind, negative speech
Right Action – respect all life
Right Livelihood – work for the good of others
Right Effort – exert oneself in freeing the mind of evil (egocentric thought)
Right Awareness – elevate one’s thoughts beyond the haze of emotion and mood
8) Right Meditation – practice the discipline of meditation
Live by this moral code:
Do not take the life of anything living
Do not take anything not freely given
Abstain from sexual misconduct and sensual overindulgence
Refrain from untrue speech
Do not lose mindfulness
training the mind to empty it all of thoughts. When this happens what is important comes clear
The Spread of Buddhism
During the beginning of the Common Era (AD), it was easy for Buddhism to spread, as followers traveled the common trade routes of the time such as the Silk Road .
The Silk Road connected Asia to Europe.
After Xuanzang’s Buddhist studies in India, he brought more than 600 copies of sutras back to China with him.
A sutra is a Buddhist text.
Once Buddhism took hold in China it then spread to the Korean peninsula during 4 th to 6 th centuries.
From Korea, Buddhism moved to Japan.
As a result of trade that occurred via Sri Lanka, Buddhism reached SE Asia, especially the countries of Malaysia, Indonesia, present-day Cambodia, and southern Vietnam.
Buddhist ideas reached northern Vietnam mostly from China.
Since Buddhism spread over a wide area during many centuries, it is practiced differently in many parts of the world.
Buddhism, like many other religions, continues to have many sects, with the two major ones being Mahayana and Theravada .
do not have Gods and do not pray
do not believe in violence “ ahimsa ”
don’t fight back and don’t farm since it is killing plants or animals
it was not that big of a religion
Jainism is one of the oldest religions that originated in India.
Jains believe that every soul is divine and has the potential to achieve God-consciousness.
Jains have an ancient tradition of scholarship and have the highest degree of literacy in India.
they were a religion founded by Guru Nanak (1469 - 1539) as a mix of Islam (monotheism) and Hinduism (reincarnation)
after Nanak died, his work was carried out by gurus (teachers)
the Golden Temple is their main shrine; they are militaristic and men never cut their hair or beard
There is only One God.
The soul goes through cycles of births and deaths before it reaches the human form.
Sikhism condemns blind rituals such as fasting, visiting places of pilgrimage, superstitions, worship of the dead, idol worship etc.
Sikhism preaches that people of different races, religions, or sex are all equal in the eyes of God.
Chinese Philosophy & Religions The philosophies of Confucianism and Daoism originated between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC during a period of civil war and great unrest. Confucianism and Daoism are considered philosophies and not religions because they were not concerned with God or life after death. They were mainly concerned with ways of improving society and achieving a better life on earth.
Confucius was born in 551 BC and died in 479 BC.
The philosophy that is known as Confucianism come mainly from the speeches and writings of Confucius.
Confucianism is an ethical system rather than a religion ( Ethics deals with human behavior and conduct)
Confucius was mainly concerned with how human begins behaved toward each other and paid little attention to such matters as sin, salvation, and the soul.
He developed a system of government, society, and justice which we call Confucianism.
Confucius was revered as a sage or wise person.
His sayings are collected in a book called the Analects.
The Five Basic Relationships
Confucius hoped that if people knew what was expected of them they would behave correctly.
The relationships are 1)ruler and subjects; 2) father and son; 3) elder brother and younger brother; 4) husband and wife; 5) friend and friend.
The right to rule belong to superiors over subordinates; that is, to older people over younger people, to men over women.
Family life was seen as a training ground for life in society.
The family is responsible for educating the child to be a good member of society.
Confucius emphasized the importance of education, the aim of which is to turn people into good family members, responsible members of society, and good subjects of the emperor.
It was the duty of the ruler and his officials to set a good example for the people.
The Chinese believed that a dynasty ruled as long as it held the “ Mandate of Heaven ”, that is, the right to rule.
If the people of China suffered, they were sure that Heaven had taken away its protection of the Emperor, so they rebelled.
When the rebellion was successful, the Mandate of Heaven was given to the leader of the rebellion so he became the emperor of a new dynasty.
F. Daoism (The Way)
The philosophy of Daoism (AKA Taoism)stated that people should live naturally.
Society does not allow people to live naturally as society forces humans to live according to rules which are not natural.
This results in suffering and problems.
To escape from this unhappiness, people must free themselves from all the rules that are forced upon them by society; they must find the Dao, or “Way” of the universe.
The Taoist believed that society corrupted people and separated them from their true nature.
Shintoism as a religion developed only in Japan
Shinto means “the way of the gods”
Shintoism is based on the worship of nature and good spirits called kami.
This religion has no bible or no formal prayer book
It is based on the feelings of human beings toward the world around them
The kami (nature spirits) live in shrines, animals, birds, plants, mountains, waterfalls, storms, and in most natural things.
The Four Affirmations of Shinto
Tradition and the family: The family is seen as the main force for traditions to be preserved. Main celebrations relate to birth and marriage.
Love of nature: Nature is sacred; to be in contact with nature is to be close to the Gods. Natural objects are worshipped as sacred spirits
Physical cleanliness: Followers of Shinto take baths, wash their hands, and rinse out their mouth often. Shinto stresses purifying that which is unclean, such as dirt, wounds, and disease. Touching the dead is considered unclean.
Matsuri: The worship given to the kami and the ancestral spirits.
Torii Gate When entering a shrine, one passes through a Torii The Torii marks the separation between the finite world and the infinite world of the Gods.
SE Asia Religion
The main idea of Zen is to find self-understanding, called satori or enlightenment
believers in Zen feel that prayer and religious worship are a waste of time
Personal character and discipline are important
Meditation (thinking) is the main form of worship
The goal of Zen is to bring the person to satori - to help people go from thinking to knowing.
END SECTION 2
The Asian Family
The Asian people have always considered the family to be the most important part of society.
The individual thought of himself as a member of the family.
If the individual was successful, the prestige of the family was increased but if the individual was a failure, that brought shame on the whole family.
Arranging marriages was the responsibility of the parents.
The bride and groom had little to say about the choice of their mate or marriage arrangement.
In most cases the bride had not seen her husband before.
The most difficult adjustment was to her mother-in-law as the mother-in-law was responsible for training and discipline her daughter-in-law.
Women in Traditional Asia
Women were never considered equal to men.
When there was famine, girls were often sold by their parents who regarded them as just another mouth to feed.
Girls sometimes as young as six were often betrothed (promised marriage).
If the girl’s parents experienced bad times, she would be sent to work in the house of her future husband.
Young brides were often mistreated by their mother-in-laws.
If a woman's husband died, she was not allowed to remarry.
Since after World War II, women gained equal rights with men.
Women can now seek divorce and own property.
There are little forced marriages
Hindi is major native language, English major business language, 13 recognized language, but over 200 other languages
Sanskrit is the ancient, holy language; 3,000 years old, used by upper & educated class
different language has divided India into many small states
following words come from Indian languages: bungalow, khaki, loot, pajamas, punch, thug
China is made up of many different peoples.
About 94% of the people are know as Han Chinese
The other 6% of China is made up of 55 different groups.
Most of the minorities live in the sparsely populated western China.
The minority peoples differ from the Han Chinese in language, religion, race, custom, and history.
Some minorities (like Tibet) want independence, but China will probably never loosen its control over the regions because they have most of China’s natural resources.
Korea is called “ The Land of the Morning Calm ”
It is a peninsula nation that extends off the east coast of Asia between China and Japan
Only one-fifth of the land is suitable for farming.
The peninsula is divided into two countries, N. and S. Korea
Because of its location near China and Japan, invading armies swept through Korea many times.
The invaders settled down and intermarried with the local people.
Like Japan, Korea is homogeneous (one type) with 99.9 % of its people Korean
The Korean people were united into one cultural group hundreds of years ago.
Village Life SE Asia
many people live in village which is the center of life
house made of bamboo and wood; roofs are steep with palm leaves
well is the place for gossip
tool shed is for everyone
wat is the village temple
under the house is where the family water buffalo lives
sleep on mats; no electricity, no running water, bathe at river
major food is broiled meat served on thin bamboo skewers ( satay )
Japanese Diet and Cuisine
The diet and cuisine of the Japanese have been strongly influenced by geography and agriculture
Rice has always been the staple food in Japan
The scarcity of meat, together with the Buddhist taboo against the taking of animal life made the Japanese non-meat eaters, except for fish, for most of their history.
Much of the fish in Japan is eaten raw, wither in small slices called sashimi or as sushi which combines the fish with seaweed and rice
Another source of protein besides fish is soybean which is used to make tofu
Ikebana - It is the art of flower arrangement
Ikebana uses line, color, and rhythm to create floral designs
Bonsai - For centuries the Japanese have developed the art of dwarfing (making things small) trees.
This is the art of bonsai which are planted in pots, are used for ornaments in rooms or to decorate a garden
Noh Play : the backdrop is often a single pine tree
In Noh plays there are usually three roles - an old man, a woman, and a samurai
Noh plays are usually short and they are presented as a group of plays with performances as long as 6 hours.
The groups plays are about subjects such as: God plays, warrior-ghost plays, women plays, and demon plays.
Dancing and chanting accompany the action of the plays.
Masks and beautifully designed costumes are worn by the actor- dancers
Bunraku is a puppet play where the puppet s are nearly life-size and are very lifelik e .
They are controlled on the stage by a team of three puppeteers who are visible to the audience
The puppeteer’s performances depend upon long years of practice and teamwork
The most popular type of drama for the Japanese is Kabuki
All roles in Kabuki, both male and female were until recently played by men
Actors taking feminine roles were trained from childhood to walk, talk, and behave like women.
Haiku is the simplest form of poetry
It consists of one verse with 17 syllables, spaced over three lines in a 5-7-5 pattern
The Silk Road
The Silk Road began about the 5 th to the 4 th centuries BC.
Traders used this road to carry goods to and from Asia and Europe.
It included many branches, rather than just one direct route.
Many middlemen were involved in the trade occurring over the 4,000 mile route.
Traders would never travel the entire route with their goods.
Camel caravans were used to transport goods along the Silk Road.
It was the longest road on Earth.
The Silk Road started in Xi’an, in northwestern China & ended in Antioch on the Medditerrian Coast
The journey was difficult, dangerous, and long.
The Products and Ideas the Traveled the Road
People at each end of the Silk Road, as well as along the way, wanted to trade their goods with each other.
Crops from western Asia, such as grapes, figs, and walnuts went to China.
Glass from Europe and cotton cloth from India traveled to China.
The Chinese traded their prized silk with the rest of Asia and Europe.
Europeans also wanted spices because they not only added flavor to food, but they also helped preserve food.
Asians wanted wool, gold, and silver from the west.
As a result of its basic beliefs, Buddhism easily spread along the Silk Road.
Travelers as well as local people liked the Buddhist idea that thought their present life is dull of suffering, the cycle of birth, death, rebirth, and suffering can be broken by following Buddhist ideas and practices.
The Road’s Importance
Traders used the Silk Road until a safe sea route from Europe to Asia was possible.
A safer and faster water passage route connecting Eastern Europe to India and China had to be found.
Then, instead of getting goods via and middlemen of Central Asia, European traders could buy spices and other goods from East Asia directly, and then sell them in European markets.
Once the sea-routes started in the 15 th & 16 th century, the Silk Road fell into disuse.
The Chinese invented the method to make silk cloth by 2700 BC.
China kept the method of silk making a secret for centuries.
China made a vast amount of money trading silk with Europe and the rest of Asia.
Paper and Block Printing
It is commonly accepted that Cai Lun showed the Chinese emperor the invention of paper in 105 AD.
In order to make their paper, the Chinese used the fiber from bamboo.
About 850 AD the Chinese invented gunpowder.
They mixed saltpeter (potassium nitrate), sulfur, and charcoal, which are natural resources found in China.
Gunpowder was used in firework displays.
The gunpowder was used in weapons of warfare such as flaming arrows, grenades, and cannonballs.
Tea was first consumed around 2700 BC.
Today, tea remains the most widely drunk beverage in the world.
The Development of Tea
Crops of Early Indian Civilizations
The people of the ancient Indus River valley civilization farmed and traded.
These farmers were the first people to grow cotton and weave the fiber into cotton cloth.
The merchants traded such goods as cotton cloth, grain, copper, and ivory to other lands.
The mathematicians of the Gupta dynasty, during the period from 320 to 550 AD, created the concept of zero and the numeral system we use today.
Then, Europeans learned about the concept of zero and the numerals from Arabic traders in the Middle East.
When Europeans started to use zero and the numerals, they called them Arabic numerals. END SEC. 3
most farmers use primitive farming methods; everything done by hand; water buffalo is used as plow
in mountains people clear away the forest to farm; when soil is no good after a few years, they move on as rains wash the soil into the rivers
rains ruin the soil by leaching which is the loss of minerals
no roads to transport their products
Pollution, maintaining wildlife, and protecting the natural environment in the face of attempts to industrialize, are all examples of environmental issues.
Overpopulation (more people than an area can comfortably support) presents environmental problems for countries like India.
More people means that more land is used for faming, grazing, and development.
leads to deforestation (destruction of forests)
As the number of people increases, more forests areas have to be destroyed to make room for homes, farms, cities, and businesses.
Increased population means that more people generally drive cars, work in factories, produce products, and power the economy
In India, air pollution has created a cloud that stretches across much of South Asia known as the “ Asian Brown Cloud .”
As the population grows, more people use water supplies like the Ganges River.
People along the Ganges often use this river as a sewer and deposit for trash, as well as drinking, bathing, and religi ous rituals.
Today, China leads the world in its pace and scale of economic development and foreign investment because of its large population, and the economic opportunities those consumers and producers represent.
Their environmentally destructive factories however, produce large amounts of pollution.
More people live in China than any other nation (1.3 billion)
The Chinese face the unique challenges and opportunities associated with feeding, housing, and building key industries to employ over a billion people.
Because of lax environmental standards, however, the industries growing in China are polluting at unsustainable levels.
The oil based economy and the traffic and industrial pollution they represent, make air and water pollution huge concerns.
Japan’s main environmental problem is pollution
While Japan has benefited from economic development since the end of WW II, progress has presented environmental challenges.
As a small series of islands, space on Japan is limited.
Cities like Tokyo are incredibly crowded.
Traffic, factories, and business produce large amounts of pollution as they provide economic opportunities.
Fortunately, because Japan is so highly developed, it can afford to put in place new policies and technologies aimed at protecting the environment that poorer nations cannot.
Many governments are responding to environmental problems.
India has set aside areas to protect endangered land and animals
China now requires large plants and factories to install pollution control devices
The Chinese government also enforces bans forbidding families to have more than one child.
Japan’s newest laws environmental laws are some of the toughest in the world.
They raise air and water standards, restrict pollution, encourage recycling and establish national parks.
While each country has sought to protect the environment, enforcing such rules often proves difficult.
Many Asian populations live in underdeveloped regions.
Large numbers of people live at levels of poverty few in the US could imagine
The desire to produce wealth, modernize industries, and provide basic human needs often outweigh any environmental concerns.
Nations often extract natural resources regardless of the environmental impact because they depend on these resources for income and survival.
Governments often experience conflict between what is best for the environment and the immediate needs of their people.