Japan - Effects of Climate
Climatic conditions have a major effect on population
distribution, agriculture, and industrial development in
Western Japan has harsh winters due to Siberian winds
The central and eastern portions of Honshu have mild
winters without much or any snow.
Where weather is milder, the population is usually
larger – all major Japanese cities are on the East Coast.
• Japan is a rugged, mountainous
group of islands.
•Mt. Fuji reaches 12,500 feet into
•The distance from coast to coast
is less than 200 miles anywhere
in the islands
•Almost 80 percent of the land
surface is mountainous
•20 percent of the land is arable
(good for farming)
• Japan is called the “Land of the Rising Sun.”
•Japan is a part of the “Ring of Fire” which
is a great chain of volcanoes lying along the
west coast of the Americas and then curving
down the eastern shores of Asia
•There are about
3,400 islands in Japan
•The main ones are
Honshu, Kyushu, and
It ranges from a subarctic climate in the north, to a tropical
climate in the south.
Most of China’s population is concentrated in the east and
southeast, where the climate is milder.
Probably the most important geographic fact has been its
High mountains (Himalayan) and wide deserts (Gobi) isolated
this area from other parts of Asia.
These natural and protective barriers allowed the Chinese to
develop their culture without constant interruption from the
• China also enjoyed conditions favorable for the development of a
great culture as they had wide plains, fertile soil, great rivers, and
• Geography explains why Chinese civilization turned out to be
unique (one of a kind)
•Chinese civilization began on the banks of one of its
major rivers; the Yellow river (Huang He)
•It was develop there because of the rich soil called loess.
•The other river that Chinese civilization developed
around was the Chang (Yangtze)
•While the rivers serve as a source of life, it also brings
death and destruction.
•The rivers often overflow their banks, flooding large
areas of the surrounding countryside.
•Because of these floods, the Chinese people call the
Yellow river “China’s sorrow.”
Mekong River is one of the
longest rivers in Southern
& Eastern Asia.
It stretches almost 2,700
miles long, runs through
western China, Cambodia,
Laos, Thailand and
Vietnam, before emptying
in the South China Sea.
The Taklimakan Desert in
northwest China is a vast region
of sand desert sitting in a
depression between two high,
rugged mountain ranges.
The desert is hemmed in to the
north by the snow-covered Tien
Shan Mountain range and to the
south by the rugged Kunlun
Desertification and shifting sand
dunes are a major concern for the
farmers and grazers who live at
the desert's edge.
Is a vast stretch of land roughly 1,000
miles long between 300 to 600 miles
The desert lies between the Altai and
Hangayn mountains and stretches
across parts of Mongolia and China.
Much of the desert is made up of bare
rock, rather than sand.
Winters are harsh, January average
low -40 degrees Fahrenheit & July
average high 113 degrees Fahrenheit.
Severe dryness limits vegetation; few
plants and shrubs that grow.
Few people live in the desert, those
that do, tend to live as nomadic
Overall Effects of Geography – INDIAIn general, geography affects
where people live, what they do
there, and how they move around.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain offers an
example to demonstrate this.
This large plain area lies between
the Himalayan mountain ranges
and the Deccan Plateau, within
Much of this area benefits from
the three large rivers of South
Asia: the Ganges, the Indus, and
These rivers have their sources in
These rivers and their many
tributaries carry silt from the
mountains that fertilizes
farmlands on the plains.
These rivers also provide a reliable source of irrigation.
As a result of its steady sources of water, its fertile soil, and its
long growing season, the Indo-Gangetic Plain is densely
In mountainous areas, travel is much more difficult.
Mountain passes are important in these areas because they allow
people to travel through or over mountains.
The Khyber Pass has been used for centuries, and has been the
way that invading armies took over South Asia from the
Presently, the Khyber Pass connects Afghanistan to Pakistan.
• India has a high population
• It has 898 people per square
mile compared to 354 for
China and 79 for the US.
•500 million people
•has neither cultural or
•there are many races,
religions and customs
•it is an area of islands and peninsulas
•Indo-Chinese Peninsula, Malay Peninsula,
islands of Indonesia and Philippians
•archipelagoes (a group of islands)
•along some of the seacoasts
are lowlands that are densely
•The Great Lake
•Tonle Sap in Cambodia is the
only major lake in SE Asia
•END SEC. 1
It is the oldest religion
Around 1500 BC, Aryan
people migrated to the
Indus Valley, where
Pakistan is today (Hindu means Indus)
Hinduism does not have any founder or any prophets.
By 1200 BC, the earliest sacred books of Hinduism
appeared. They are called the Vedas and include the
story of the Aryans.
c. BC, Hinduism had spread through all of India.
As it spread, Vedic Hinduism mixed with local religious
Hindu’s worship many forms of one God called
During the 6th
century BC, groups of people had
different ideas from the traditional Vedic thinkers.
These groups included Janis and Buddhists, two
sects of Hinduism.
A sect is a smaller group of people that have
differing beliefs from the larger group.
Another group of people, called Upanishad thinkers, had
different ideas from the traditional Vedic thinkers.
Almost all of the Upanishads are dialogues between a
teacher and student.
They question the nature of both the individual soul, called
atman, and the collective soul, called Brahman.
All these deities are but
Manifest forms (attributes
and functions) of the
The 3 most important Hindu gods
Brahma - known as the Creator.
Vishnu - Known as the Preserver
Shiva (Siva)- known as the Destroyer.
Brahma Vishnu Shiva
Puja: worship either at temple or shrine at
Arti: worship that takes place in front of
statues of the gods – offerings given
Ahimsa: all life is sacred – so many are
Cows are especially sacred – give freely of themselves
Holy Place – river Ganges (used for spiritual
cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals) – city
Festivals – Holi, Diwali
DiwaliHindu festival of lights “row of lights” lasting
In at least one region, the “row of lights” are lit
on the new-moon night to welcome Lakshmi,
the goddess of wealth (In the Indian culture,
wealth is not viewed as a corruptive power.
Instead, a wealthy person is considered to have
been rewarded for good deeds of a past life).
homes are thoroughly cleaned, windows are
opened candles and lamps are lit to welcome
Lakshmi. Gifts are exchanged and festive meals
are prepared during Diwali. Celebration means
as much to Hindus as Christmas does to
During King Asoka’s rule in the 3rd
century BC, Buddhism gained more
followers in India.
The number of Hindu followers lessened.
Starting at 320 AD, Hinduism became
popular once again.
As the popularity of Hinduism increased, it also
absorbed beliefs and practices of both Buddhism and
Beginning as early as the 7th
century AD, Islam
became established in India.
It later spread throughout much
of the country, and is the second
most practiced religion in
As Indian merchants moved to SE Asia, the Hindu religion
spread to new areas. Local chiefs converted to Hinduism and
the religion took hold in their region.
In the late 1800s, many Hindus left India and went to places
like East Africa, islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and
islands of the Caribbean.
Again, as they traveled, their religious ideas moved with
Hinduism has a long history, and it has spread to various
parts of the world.
It is still the major religion of India.
Roughly 80% of the Indian population practices
•believe in reincarnation - "to be made flesh
again", is a doctrine that some essential
part of a living being survives death to be reborn
in a new body.
•Karma - Through the law of karma, the effects
of all deeds actively create past, present,
and future experiences, thus making
one responsible for one's own life, and
the pain and joy it brings to him/her
•if a person does what he or she is suppose to do, his or her soul
will be rewarded in the next life
•dharma is a set of rules that must be followed by all living
things of they wish to work their way up the reincarnation ladder
•began 3,000 years ago
•when Aryans took over India they thought of
themselves a superior and the conquered Indians as
subordinate so started the class system
•untouchable (AKA dalits) is the lowest class that deals
with sweeping the streets, handling dead people and
animals, and tending to pigs that feed on the village
garbage; they must live away from the others and are not
permitted to use the village wells
•it divides the population into hereditary (passed from
•1) Brahmin (priest), 2) Kshatriya (soldiers), 3) Vaisya
(merchants & farmers), 4) Sudras (laborers),
•you belong to same caste all your life; jobs are passed
down from father to son
•according to the rule of karma, if one is an untouchable,
one has no one to blame but one’s self so instead of
complaining, that person had better do a good job to
move up the ladder
•moksha is the final resting place
Ashrama: Four Stages of Life
The guru, whoThe guru, who
renounces allrenounces all
possessions andpossessions and
wanders from placewanders from place
to place begging forto place begging for
The hermit, or retiree who withdrawsThe hermit, or retiree who withdraws
from society to pursue ascetic andfrom society to pursue ascetic and
yogic practicesyogic practices
The householder, who supports hisThe householder, who supports his
family and the priests and fulfills dutiesfamily and the priests and fulfills duties
to the gods and ancestorsto the gods and ancestors
1-20 Years Old1-20 Years Old
The student, who is devoted and obedientThe student, who is devoted and obedient
to his teacherto his teacher
•collection of hymns, sacred prayers, chants, and epic poems about heroic deeds.
•are a large body of texts originating in Ancient India& they form the oldest layer of
Sanskrit literature and the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism
•a collection of rituals and ceremonies written about 2,500 years ago
•The Upanishads speak of a universal spirit (Brahman) and an individual soul, (Atman)
and at times assert the identity of both. Brahman is the ultimate, both transcendent and
immanent, the absolute infinite existence, the sum total of all that ever is, was, or shall be.
• longest poem in the world with about 200,000 lines (5,000 pages)
•It’s a discussion of human goals, attempting to explain the relationship of the individual
to society and the world and the workings of karma.
•Indian soap opera written in 400 BC
•It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal servant,
the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king.
•began in India by Siddhartha Gautama born 567 BC
•was a prince who did not life the difference of rich-
•he left the palace for 6 years to wander the earth but
did not find wisdom
•so he sat under a tree for 49 days until he
became enlightened (Buddha means
•it is more a way of life than a religion,
has no gods, no belief in a soul or a main
•4 noble truths 1. existence is suffering, 2. suffering comes
from desire, 3. cure for suffering is extinction of desire,
4.for no desire must have right views, effort, mindfulness,
intentions, speech, conduct, livelihood, concentration
•key ideas; 1. self-salvation is a person’s most immediate
responsibility, 2. nirvana is the goal of all Buddhist.
Nirvana is a state of extinction or release from the Wheel
of Rebirth (reincarnation),
•worship at a Pagoda
2. The Eightfold Path
1) Right View – know the truth
2) Right Intention – resist self-centeredness
3) Right Speech – refrain from unkind, negative speech
4) Right Action – respect all life
5) Right Livelihood – work for the good of others
6) Right Effort – exert oneself in freeing the mind of evil (egocentric
7) Right Awareness – elevate one’s thoughts beyond the haze of emotion
8) Right Meditation – practice the discipline of meditation
Everyday practices1. Live by this moral code:
Do not take the life of anything living
Do not take anything not freely given
Abstain from sexual misconduct and sensual
Refrain from untrue speech
Do not lose mindfulness
training the mind to empty it all of thoughts. When this
happens what is important comes clear
The Spread of Buddhism
During the beginning of the Common Era (AD), it was easy
for Buddhism to spread, as followers traveled the common
trade routes of the time such as the Silk Road.
The Silk Road connected Asia
After Xuanzang’s Buddhist studies in India, he brought
more than 600 copies of sutras back to China with him.
A sutra is a Buddhist text.
Once Buddhism took hold
in China it then spread to
the Korean peninsula
Buddhism moved to
As a result of trade that occurred via Sri Lanka, Buddhism reached
SE Asia, especially the countries of Malaysia, Indonesia, present-
day Cambodia, and southern Vietnam.
Buddhist ideas reached northern Vietnam mostly from China.
Since Buddhism spread over a wide area during many centuries, it
is practiced differently in many parts of the world.
Buddhism, like many other religions, continues to have many
sects, with the two major ones being Mahayana and
•do not have Gods and do not pray
•do not believe in violence “ahimsa”
•don’t fight back and don’t farm since it is killing plants or animals
•it was not that big of a religion
•Jainism is one of the oldest religions that originated in India.
•Jains believe that every soul is divine and has the potential to
•Jains have an ancient tradition of scholarship and have the highest
degree of literacy in India.
•they were a religion founded by Guru
Nanak (1469 - 1539) as a mix of Islam
(monotheism) and Hinduism
•after Nanak died, his work was
carried out by gurus (teachers)
•the Golden Temple is their main shrine; they are
militaristic and men never cut their hair or beard
•There is only One God.
•The soul goes through cycles of births and deaths before it reaches
the human form.
•Sikhism condemns blind rituals such as fasting, visiting places of
pilgrimage, superstitions, worship of the dead, idol worship etc.
•Sikhism preaches that people of different races, religions, or sex
are all equal in the eyes of God.
The philosophies of Confucianism and Daoism originated
between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC during a
period of civil war and great unrest.
Confucianism and Daoism are considered philosophies
and not religions because they were not concerned with
God or life after death.
They were mainly concerned with ways
of improving society and
achieving a better life on earth.
•Confucius was born in 551 BC and died in 479 BC.
•The philosophy that is known as Confucianism come mainly
from the speeches and writings of Confucius.
•Confucianism is an ethical system rather than a religion
(Ethics deals with human behavior and conduct)
•Confucius was mainly concerned with how human begins
behaved toward each other and paid little attention to
such matters as sin, salvation, and the soul.
•He developed a system of government, society, and justice
which we call Confucianism.
•Confucius was revered as a sage or wise person.
•His sayings are collected in a book called the Analects.
•Confucius hoped that if people knew what was expected of
them they would behave correctly.
•The relationships are 1)ruler and subjects; 2) father and son;
3) elder brother and younger brother; 4) husband and
wife; 5) friend and friend.
•The right to rule belong to superiors over subordinates; that is, to
older people over younger people, to men over women.
•Family life was seen as a training ground for life in society.
•The family is responsible for educating the child to be a good
member of society.
•Confucius emphasized the importance of education, the aim
of which is to turn people into good family members,
responsible members of society, and good subjects of
•It was the duty of the ruler and his officials to set a good
example for the people.
•The Chinese believed that a dynasty ruled as long as it
held the “Mandate of Heaven”, that is, the right to rule.
•If the people of China suffered, they were
sure that Heaven had taken away
its protection of the Emperor, so
•When the rebellion was successful, the
Mandate of Heaven was given to the leader of
the rebellion so he became the
emperor of a new dynasty.
•The philosophy of Daoism (AKA Taoism)stated that people should
•Society does not allow people to live naturally as society forces
humans to live according to rules which are not natural.
•This results in suffering and problems.
•To escape from this unhappiness, people must free
themselves from all the rules that are forced upon
them by society; they must find the Dao, or “Way” of
•The Taoist believed that society corrupted people
and separated them from their true nature.
•Shintoism as a religion developed only in Japan
•Shinto means “the way of the gods”
•Shintoism is based on the worship of nature
and good spirits called kami.
•This religion has no bible or no
formal prayer book
•It is based on the feelings of
human beings toward the
world around them
•The kami (nature spirits) live in shrines, animals, birds,
plants, mountains, waterfalls, storms, and in most natural
The Four Affirmations of Shinto
1.Tradition and the family: The family is seen as the main
force for traditions to be preserved. Main celebrations relate
to birth and marriage.
2.Love of nature: Nature is sacred; to be in contact with
nature is to be close to the Gods. Natural objects are
worshipped as sacred spirits
3.Physical cleanliness: Followers of Shinto take baths, wash
their hands, and rinse out their mouth often. Shinto stresses
purifying that which is unclean, such as dirt, wounds, and
disease. Touching the dead is considered unclean.
4.Matsuri: The worship given to the kami and the ancestral
When entering a shrine, one passes through a
The Torii marks the separation between the
finite world and the infinite world of the Gods.
•The main idea of Zen is to find self-
understanding, called satori or enlightenment
•believers in Zen feel that prayer and religious
worship are a waste of time
•Personal character and discipline are important
•Meditation (thinking) is the main form of
•The goal of Zen is to bring the person to satori -
to help people go from thinking to knowing.
•END SECTION 2
•The Asian people have always considered the family to be the most
important part of society.
•The individual thought of himself as a member of the family.
•If the individual was successful, the prestige of the family was
increased but if the individual was a failure, that brought shame on
the whole family.
•Arranging marriages was the responsibility of the parents.
•The bride and groom had little to say about the choice of their
mate or marriage arrangement.
•In most cases the bride had not seen her husband before.
•The most difficult adjustment was to her mother-in-law as the
mother-in-law was responsible for training and discipline her
•Women were never considered equal to men.
•When there was famine, girls were often sold by their parents
who regarded them as just another mouth to feed.
•Girls sometimes as young as six were often betrothed (promised
•If the girl’s parents experienced bad times, she would be sent to
work in the house of her future husband.
•Young brides were often mistreated by their mother-in-laws.
•If a woman's husband died, she was not allowed to remarry.
•Since after World War II, women gained equal rights with men.
•Women can now seek divorce and own property.
•Hindi is major native language,
English major business language, 13
recognized language, but over
200 other languages
•Sanskrit is the ancient, holy language;
3,000 years old, used by upper & educated class
•different language has divided India into many small
•following words come from Indian languages: bungalow,
khaki, loot, pajamas, punch, thug
•China is made up of many different peoples.
•About 94% of the people are know as Han Chinese
•The other 6% of China is made up of 55 different groups.
•Most of the minorities live in the sparsely populated western
•The minority peoples differ from the Han Chinese in language,
religion, race, custom, and history.
•Some minorities (like Tibet)
want independence, but China will
probably never loosen its control
over the regions because they have
most of China’s natural resources.
•Korea is called “The Land of the Morning Calm”
•It is a peninsula nation that extends off the east coast of Asia
between China and Japan
•Only one-fifth of the land is suitable for farming.
•The peninsula is divided into two countries, N. and S. Korea
•Because of its location near China and Japan, invading armies
swept through Korea many times.
•The invaders settled down and intermarried with the local people.
•Like Japan, Korea is homogeneous (one type) with 99.9 % of its
•The Korean people were united into one cultural group hundreds
of years ago.
•many people live in village which is the center of life
•house made of bamboo and wood; roofs are steep with palm
•well is the place for gossip
•tool shed is for everyone
•wat is the village temple
•under the house is where the family water buffalo lives
•sleep on mats; no electricity, no running water, bathe at river
•major food is broiled meat served on thin bamboo skewers (satay)
•The diet and cuisine of the Japanese have been strongly
influenced by geography and agriculture
•Rice has always been the staple food in Japan
•The scarcity of meat, together with the Buddhist taboo
against the taking of animal life made the Japanese non-
meat eaters, except for fish, for most of their history.
•Much of the fish in Japan is eaten raw, wither in small
slices called sashimi or as sushi which combines the fish
with seaweed and rice
•Another source of protein besides fish is soybean which
is used to make tofu
Ikebana - It is the art of flower arrangement
•Ikebana uses line, color, and rhythm to create
Bonsai - For centuries the Japanese have
developed the art of dwarfing (making things small) trees.
•This is the art of bonsai which are planted in pots, are used for
ornaments in rooms or to decorate a garden
•Noh Play: the backdrop is often a single pine tree
•In Noh plays there are usually three roles - an old man, a woman,
and a samurai
•Noh plays are usually short and they are presented as a
group of plays with performances as long as 6 hours.
•The groups plays are about subjects such as: God plays, warrior-
ghost plays, women plays, and demon plays.
•Dancing and chanting accompany the
action of the plays.
•Masks and beautifully designed
costumes are worn by the actor- dancers
•Bunraku is a puppet play where the puppets
are nearly life-size and are very lifelike.
•They are controlled on the stage by a team
of three puppeteers who are visible
to the audience
•The puppeteer’s performances depend upon
long years of practice and teamwork
•The most popular type of drama for the Japanese
•All roles in Kabuki, both male and female were until
recently played by men
•Actors taking feminine roles were trained from
childhood to walk, talk, and behave like women.
•Haiku is the simplest form of poetry
•It consists of one verse with 17
syllables, spaced over three lines in a 5-
The Silk RoadThe Silk Road began about the 5th
to the 4th
Traders used this road to carry goods
to and from Asia and Europe.
It included many branches, rather
than just one direct route.
Many middlemen were involved in the trade occurring over the
4,000 mile route.
Traders would never travel the entire route with their goods.
Camel caravans were used to transport goods along the Silk
It was the longest road on Earth.
The Silk Road started in Xi’an, in northwestern China & ended in
Antioch on the Medditerrian Coast
The journey was difficult, dangerous, and long.
The Products and Ideas the Traveled the Road
People at each end of the Silk Road, as well as along the way,
wanted to trade their goods with each other.
Crops from western Asia, such as grapes, figs,
and walnuts went to China.
Glass from Europe and cotton cloth from India traveled to China.
The Chinese traded their prized silk with the rest of Asia and
Europeans also wanted spices because they not only added flavor
to food, but they also helped preserve food.
Asians wanted wool, gold, and silver from the west.
As a result of its basic beliefs, Buddhism easily spread along the
Travelers as well as local people liked the Buddhist idea that
thought their present life is dull of suffering, the cycle of birth,
death, rebirth, and suffering can be broken by following Buddhist
ideas and practices.
The Road’s Importance
Traders used the Silk Road until a safe sea route from
Europe to Asia was possible.
A safer and faster water passage route connecting Eastern
Europe to India and China had to be found.
Then, instead of getting goods via and middlemen of
Central Asia, European traders could buy spices and other
goods from East Asia directly, and then sell them in
Once the sea-routes started in the 15th
century, the Silk Road fell into disuse.
The Chinese invented the method to
make silk cloth by 2700 BC.
China kept the method of silk
making a secret for centuries.
China made a vast amount of money
trading silk with Europe and the rest of
Paper and Block Printing
It is commonly accepted that Cai Lun
showed the Chinese emperor the
invention of paper in 105 AD.
In order to make their paper, the
Chinese used the fiber from bamboo.
About 850 AD the Chinese invented gunpowder.
They mixed saltpeter (potassium nitrate), sulfur, and
charcoal, which are natural resources found in China.
Gunpowder was used in firework displays.
The gunpowder was used in weapons of
warfare such as flaming arrows, grenades, and
Tea was first consumed around
Today, tea remains the most widely
drunk beverage in the world.
The Development of Tea
Crops of Early Indian Civilizations
The people of the ancient Indus River
valley civilization farmed and traded.
These farmers were the first people
to grow cotton and weave the
fiber into cotton cloth.
The merchants traded such goods as cotton cloth, grain, copper,
and ivory to other lands.
•The mathematicians of the Gupta dynasty, during the period from
320 to 550 AD, created the concept of zero and the numeral
system we use today.
•Then, Europeans learned about the concept of zero and the
numerals from Arabic traders in the Middle East.
•When Europeans started to use zero and the numerals, they
called them Arabic numerals. END SEC. 3
•most farmers use primitive farming methods; everything done by
hand; water buffalo is used as plow
•in mountains people clear away the forest to farm; when soil is no
good after a few years, they move on as rains wash the soil into the
•rains ruin the soil by leaching which is the
loss of minerals
•no roads to transport their products
•Pollution, maintaining wildlife, and protecting the natural
environment in the face of attempts to industrialize, are all
examples of environmental issues.
•Overpopulation (more people than an
area can comfortably support) presents
environmental problems for countries like India.
•More people means that more land is
used for faming, grazing, and development.
•leads to deforestation (destruction of forests)
•As the number of people increases, more forests areas have to be
destroyed to make room for homes, farms, cities, and businesses.
•Increased population means that more people
generally drive cars, work in factories, produce
products, and power the economy
•In India, air pollution has created a cloud
that stretches across much of South
Asia known as the “Asian Brown Cloud.”
•As the population grows, more people use
water supplies like the Ganges River.
•People along the Ganges often use this river as a sewer and deposit
•Today, China leads the world in its
pace and scale of economic
development and foreign investment
because of its large population, and the
economic opportunities those consumers and
•Their environmentally destructive factories however, produce
large amounts of pollution.
•More people live in China than any other nation (1.3 billion)
•The Chinese face the unique challenges and opportunities
associated with feeding, housing, and building key industries to
employ over a billion people.
•Because of lax environmental standards, however, the industries
growing in China are polluting at unsustainable levels.
•The oil based economy and the traffic and industrial pollution they
represent, make air and water pollution huge concerns.
•Japan’s main environmental problem
•While Japan has benefited from
economic development since
the end of WW II, progress has
presented environmental challenges.
•As a small series of islands, space on Japan is limited.
•Cities like Tokyo are incredibly crowded.
•Traffic, factories, and business produce large amounts of pollution
as they provide economic opportunities.
•Fortunately, because Japan is so highly developed, it can afford to
put in place new policies and technologies aimed at protecting the
environment that poorer nations cannot.
•Many governments are responding
to environmental problems.
•India has set aside areas to protect
endangered land and animals
•China now requires large plants and factories to install
pollution control devices
•The Chinese government also enforces bans forbidding
families to have more than one child.
•Japan’s newest laws environmental laws are some of the
toughest in the world.
•They raise air and water standards, restrict pollution,
encourage recycling and establish national parks.
•While each country has sought to protect the environment,
enforcing such rules often proves difficult.
•Many Asian populations live in underdeveloped regions.
•Large numbers of people live at levels of poverty few in the US
•The desire to produce wealth, modernize industries, and provide
basic human needs often outweigh any environmental concerns.
•Nations often extract natural resources regardless of the
environmental impact because they depend on these resources for
income and survival.
•Governments often experience conflict between what is best for
the environment and the immediate
needs of their people.