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  1. 1. Independence Movements of Latin America
  2. 2. Were Latin American countries happy? <ul><li>Countries in Latin America wanted to be free from European rule! </li></ul><ul><li>So did the American colonies! </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America drew encouragement from two independence movements: the American Revolution (1770s) and the French Revolution (1789). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Haiti <ul><li>1 st independence movement </li></ul><ul><li>RULED BY FRANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Toussaint L’Ouverture, a former slave , lead the people in Night of Fire . </li></ul><ul><li>The Night of Fire- all white people’s property in Haiti was burned. </li></ul><ul><li>10 years of fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Only successful slave rebellion in the history of the world . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mexico <ul><li>Miguel Hidalgo , a priest, Mexico began the fight for freedom in 1810. </li></ul><ul><li>On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo rang the church bells and shouted “recover from the hated Spaniards the land stolen from your forefathers … Long live America, and death to the bad government!” </li></ul><ul><li>This cry came to be known as the “Cry of Dolores”. That is why Mexicans celebrate their independence day on September 16 th every year. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mexico <ul><li>Hidalgo’s revolution attracted 80,000 fighters , mostly mestizos and Native Americans, but they were defeated by the Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>Hidalgo was put on trial for treason and executed by firing squad !!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican rebels were so mad about Hidalgo that they fought even harder!!!! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mexico’s Miracle <ul><li>Everything changed when an important Spanish officer joined the Mexicans. His name was Agustin de Iturbide </li></ul><ul><li>With his help, Mexico declared its independence from Spain in 1821! It was 10 long years of struggle! </li></ul>
  7. 7. Brazil <ul><li>Portugal’s colony of Brazil became independent without fighting a war. </li></ul><ul><li>Dom Pedro, the son of the King of Portugal, wrote a letter to his dad and told him he was declaring Brazil independent. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1822 Brazil was FREE. </li></ul><ul><li>Dom Pedro was a HERO!!!! </li></ul>
  8. 9. Gran Colombia <ul><li>Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama </li></ul><ul><li>When they saw the Americans fight and win independence from the British they thought they could do the same. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1822 Spain was no longer as powerful worldwide as it once was. </li></ul>
  9. 10. S i m ó n Bol í var <ul><li>The people of Gran Colombia needed a leader to guide them in their pursuit of independence. </li></ul><ul><li>was that man! </li></ul><ul><li>From 1822 to 1825 Bol í var </li></ul><ul><li>liberated both the countries </li></ul><ul><li>Gran Colombia and Peru. </li></ul>
  10. 11. What problems did Latin America face in the 1800s? <ul><li>Poverty – people were extremely poor </li></ul><ul><li>Poor remained landless – they stayed and worked the land but could never make enough $$ to buy their own land </li></ul><ul><li>Border disputes – all these countries had to decide where their borders began and ended. Who owned the land? </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the Catholic church – is the church part of the government or not? What would the role of the Church be? </li></ul><ul><li>Political conflict – Type of government, role of church, etc. Frequent fights over issues like this. </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Cuban Revolution <ul><li>Problems in Central America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main Idea: In Central America, repressive governments, social conflict, and civil wars made progress difficult. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the wealth and power in Central America and the Caribbean in the 1900s was held by few people. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rebels were fighting for changes they thought would better the poor people of Latin American’s lives. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. The Cuban Revolution <ul><li>Before Castro </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuba gained its independence from Spain in 1898. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the 1900s Cuba’s wealth was controlled by American companies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of the main companies in Cuba was sugar companies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The other main company in Cuba was mining companies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The dictator of Cuba until 1959 was Fulgencio Battista. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fidel Castro led the revolution of 1959. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Castro’s Government </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Castro promised _ democracy _ but instead set up a _ communist _ state. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cubans who wanted to escape Castro’s rule fled to Florida. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Aid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One event that led the U.S. to stop aiding Castro was that he joined forces with the Soviet Union. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another event that led the U.S. to stop aiding Castro was that he began taking over U.S. owned businesses and property in Cuba. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Results: <ul><li>Cuba’s Relationship with the United States Declined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Embargo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An embargo is a ban on trade with another country. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. placed an embargo on Cuban goods in 1962. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result of the embargo, poor harvests, and bad government planning Cuba’s economy was poor . </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. What did Mexico do? <ul><li>In 1910 the peasants of Mexico had had enough. </li></ul><ul><li>They revolted against President Porfirio Diaz who was basically a dictator of Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>A Mexican named Medero was thrown in jail by Diaz and he lead an army against Diaz. </li></ul><ul><li>Emiliano Zapata led south Mexicans against Diaz. </li></ul><ul><li>Pancho Villa led troops in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1911 Diaz fled to France. </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in the constitution of 1917. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants finally got their own land! </li></ul>
  15. 16. Guerrillas in Mexico
  16. 17. Zapatista Army of National Liberation <ul><li>The Zapatistas are an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas , one of the poorest states in Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Chiapas is a land rich with oil, natural gas, and coffee, yet most of the resources go north to fuel other Mexican states. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Zapatista Army of National Liberation <ul><li>They are mostly supported by indigenous Mayas. Non-Spanish speaking farms. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the land is controlled by wealthy latifundistas and rancheros, who work with the Mexican government for personal gain. </li></ul><ul><li>The population density is also growing. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Zapatista Army of National Liberation <ul><li>They take their name from Emiliano Zapata, a proponent of the 1910 Mexican Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>They went public on January 1, 1994, the day NAFTA took affect. </li></ul><ul><li>The Zapatistas want to control their area of Mexico and all the resources found there. </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>“ You are in Zapatista rebel territory. Here the people give the orders and the government obeys.&quot; </li></ul>
  20. 22. Main Idea: <ul><li>The poor always want to have more money and power. </li></ul><ul><li>The rich never want to give up their riches and power. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to scarcity countries must decide how to use their limited resources to fill their unlimited desires. </li></ul>