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Programming Erlang


June 17, 2009


Ken Pratt
http://kenpratt.net/
Erlang philosophy
Simple language
Ultra-lightweight concurrency
No shared state (and no locks, no mutexes)
<3 asynchronous...
The language
Functional
Strong, dynamic typing
NO shared state(!!) (and no mutable variables)
Pattern matching on steroids...
Basic data types
Integers
Floats
Atoms
Tuples
Lists
Integers
 No maximum size (a growing integer will keep eating
 memory until you run out of RAM -- that’s a big
 number!)
Floating-point numbers
64-bit precision
Atoms
Non-numerical constants
Like Ruby symbols
“Natural” atoms: [a-z][a-zA-Z0-9_@]+
Otherwise, anything single-quoted is ...
Tuples
Fixed-length sets of elements
Used sort of like C/C++ structs, for passing structured
data around
Lists
 Variable-length collections of elements
 Usually homogenous, but can be heterogeneous (like
 Ruby)
 Library of list...
NOT Types
Booleans
Strings (oh dear!!)
Hashes
Classes & objects ;)
Booleans
Just a special case of atoms
Strings
 Just a list of integers in the range 0..255
 Double quotes are syntactic sugar
 Unicode support added March 2009 ...
Hash tables/dictionaries
 Property list
 Just a list of two-element tuples
 “proplists” library has common functionality
 ...
Classes & objects
Erlang is functional, and doesn’t have classes/objects
However, it has records, which are a “named tuple...
Functions
Named functions & anonymous functions (funs)
Differ by arity (convention is [func_name/arity])
myfun/1 and myfun...
Pattern matching
Pattern matching is awesome
“=” is NOT an assignment operator! It is a pattern
match operator
Unbound var...
Nested patterns
You can match nested structures
Matching list elements
 It’s easy to grab one or more elements from a list
Matching function clauses
Can have multiple named functions with the same arity,
using pattern matching on arguments
Matching + functions
Conditionals
 Supports case and if statements, but they are very
 different from other languages
 Both have pattern matchi...
Case statements
If statements
 Avoid them, as case is cleaner, even for true/false
Processes
Erlang processes are sort of like threads, but without
the headaches of shared state
Messages
Each process has a message queue
Easy to send messages around
Common convention is to send a tuple where first
ele...
Receiving messages
Use a receive block to pull a message off the queue
Usual pattern is a server “loop” that waits for mes...
Synchronous messages
Asynchronous by default
But easy to implement synchronous messages
Need to pass own pid along with me...
Actor model
Erlang is built around the Actor model
Think of a process like an object
It handles incoming messages (like ca...
Architecture




  = light-weight process with a built-in mailbox
Distributed architecture




   = light-weight process with a built-in mailbox
Networking patterns
Erlang has built-in functions for common network
operations, such as RPC
OTP (“Open Telecom Platform”)...
Where to start

    “Programming Erlang”
      by Joe Armstrong
      (creator of Erlang)


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Programming Erlang

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(Given to the Vancouver Erlang and Ruby/Rails Meetup groups on June 17, 2009.)

A follow-up to last month's "Intro to Erlang" (http://www.slideshare.net/kenpratt/intro-to-erlang), this talk will dive into the core components of the Erlang programming language, including processes, pattern matching, and message passing. Unlike the previous talk, it will be light on hype and loaded with code samples.

If you missed the previous talk, you might want to run through the slides quickly at http://www.slideshare... before coming to get a brief overview Erlang.

Speaker Bio:
Ken Pratt has been developing software for the web for over 10 years. He fell in love with Ruby four years ago, but is still passionate about learning other languages and platforms. He has developed scalable web services for Electronic Arts, built Rails-based web applications since pre-1.0, and been featured in interactive art installations.

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Transcript of "Programming Erlang"

  1. 1. Programming Erlang June 17, 2009 Ken Pratt http://kenpratt.net/
  2. 2. Erlang philosophy Simple language Ultra-lightweight concurrency No shared state (and no locks, no mutexes) <3 asynchronous message passing Processes should be able to run forever
  3. 3. The language Functional Strong, dynamic typing NO shared state(!!) (and no mutable variables) Pattern matching on steroids <3 tail recursion Compiled to bytecode, runs on VM
  4. 4. Basic data types Integers Floats Atoms Tuples Lists
  5. 5. Integers No maximum size (a growing integer will keep eating memory until you run out of RAM -- that’s a big number!)
  6. 6. Floating-point numbers 64-bit precision
  7. 7. Atoms Non-numerical constants Like Ruby symbols “Natural” atoms: [a-z][a-zA-Z0-9_@]+ Otherwise, anything single-quoted is an atom
  8. 8. Tuples Fixed-length sets of elements Used sort of like C/C++ structs, for passing structured data around
  9. 9. Lists Variable-length collections of elements Usually homogenous, but can be heterogeneous (like Ruby) Library of list operations (foreach, map, filter, sort, etc)
  10. 10. NOT Types Booleans Strings (oh dear!!) Hashes Classes & objects ;)
  11. 11. Booleans Just a special case of atoms
  12. 12. Strings Just a list of integers in the range 0..255 Double quotes are syntactic sugar Unicode support added March 2009 in Erlang R13A io:format and io_lib:format for printf-like formatting
  13. 13. Hash tables/dictionaries Property list Just a list of two-element tuples “proplists” library has common functionality “dict” library is a heavier, more feature-full option
  14. 14. Classes & objects Erlang is functional, and doesn’t have classes/objects However, it has records, which are a “named tuple” They are a compile-time feature, which is ANNOYING
  15. 15. Functions Named functions & anonymous functions (funs) Differ by arity (convention is [func_name/arity]) myfun/1 and myfun/2 are different functions
  16. 16. Pattern matching Pattern matching is awesome “=” is NOT an assignment operator! It is a pattern match operator Unbound variables will get bound during the match
  17. 17. Nested patterns You can match nested structures
  18. 18. Matching list elements It’s easy to grab one or more elements from a list
  19. 19. Matching function clauses Can have multiple named functions with the same arity, using pattern matching on arguments
  20. 20. Matching + functions
  21. 21. Conditionals Supports case and if statements, but they are very different from other languages Both have pattern matching support Both use “guards”, which are simple operations like comparisons (<, >, etc), is_atom, length(List), etc
  22. 22. Case statements
  23. 23. If statements Avoid them, as case is cleaner, even for true/false
  24. 24. Processes Erlang processes are sort of like threads, but without the headaches of shared state
  25. 25. Messages Each process has a message queue Easy to send messages around Common convention is to send a tuple where first element is an atom with the message type
  26. 26. Receiving messages Use a receive block to pull a message off the queue Usual pattern is a server “loop” that waits for messages
  27. 27. Synchronous messages Asynchronous by default But easy to implement synchronous messages Need to pass own pid along with message, so server can reply (self() returns pid of current process)
  28. 28. Actor model Erlang is built around the Actor model Think of a process like an object It handles incoming messages (like calling methods with arguments) It sends replies (like method return values) It incapsulates state (passed around explicitly)
  29. 29. Architecture = light-weight process with a built-in mailbox
  30. 30. Distributed architecture = light-weight process with a built-in mailbox
  31. 31. Networking patterns Erlang has built-in functions for common network operations, such as RPC OTP (“Open Telecom Platform”) libraries provide frameworks for many architecture patterns, such as servers and state machines gen_server is most common -- supports synchronous and asynchronous calls, and server state
  32. 32. Where to start “Programming Erlang” by Joe Armstrong (creator of Erlang) Slides & videos online! (I’ll post the link to the mailing list) http://www.erlang-factory.com/ conference/SFBayAreaErlangFactory2009
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