Academic Vocabulary

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  • PPt Handout Research conducted in the past few years reveals that vocabulary knowledge is the single most important factor contributing to reading comprehension. Other researchers estimate the number of words that K-12 students will encounter in print to be about 85,000! Vocabulary instruction is necessary and is important. Importance of exposing a student to a word at least six times: Frequency studies indicate that most words appear very infrequently in written material. More than 90 percent of the words students come across while reading occur less than one time in a million words of text and about half occur less than one time in a billion words. Researchers state that “Research spanning several decades has failed to uncover evidence that word meanings are routinely acquired from context.” ( Teaching Reading in Social Studies , p. 20) Superficial instruction -- examples: Terms and their definitions – Students given time to study words without assistance from the teacher. Preteach and discuss specific vocabulary words that students will encounter in a designated passage of text. (i.e. – “Does anyone know what a peninsula is?”) As students read their text, they list the page numbers or numbers where they find the new word. Other suggestions – categorizing, mental imagery, and symbolic representation. Note to Facilitator: More information about vocabulary on page 18 and superficial instruction on page 22 of TRISS .
  • Let the students brainstorm all the words that they know that have the word “port” in it. Do this process with every base word that you want to teach.
  • Academic Vocabulary

    1. 1. Building Academic Vocabulary Buncombe County Schools Middle and High School Teachers November 29, 2012
    2. 2. Norms• Apply the information to your teaching situation.• Be open to the ideas of every person.• Be respectful to presenters and learners and give your full attention to the topics by: silencing phones, keeping sidebar conversations to a minimum, and not working on other things.
    3. 3. Prior Knowledge Place Mat• At your table, draw a circle map.• In the middle, write “academic vocabulary.”• Divide the circle into “pie pieces” equal to the number of participants at your table.• Choose the closest pie piece & record anything you know about academic vocabulary, including strategies you use or have seen.• Use words, pictures, and symbols.• Discuss your knowledge with your tablemates.
    4. 4. How do our students feel?When the lights suddenly went out, Ipurchased the nearest thing: anechinated vine! Such was my distressthat I immediately defenestrated theplant. 1. What object was echinated? 2. What happened to the plant?
    5. 5. Academic Vocabulary: A Two- Headed Monster!• Content Vocabulary = words or concepts specific to a single discipline• Academic Language = process or test words common to multiple disciplines
    6. 6. Vocabulary in my ContentUsing a text fromyour content area,make a list ofimportant vocabularyfor an upcoming unit.
    7. 7. Whose job is it to teach thisvocabulary to your students?
    8. 8. • So how do we go about teaching these concepts to our students?• What does the research say?
    9. 9. Research Says…Systematic vocabulary instruction is one of the most important instructional interventions that teachers can use,particularly with low-achieving students. Marzano, 2004
    10. 10. Page 134 RESEARCH CONNECTIONS• Students need to be exposed to a word at least six times in context to learn the meaning of the word.• Subject-specific terms are the best target for direct vocabulary instruction.
    11. 11. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Ask students to Ask students to Provide a restate the construct a description, description, picture, symbol, explanation, or explanation, or or graphic example of the example in their representing the new term. own words. term or phrase. Engage students Involve students in activities that Periodically ask periodically in help them add to students to games that allowtheir knowledge of discuss the terms them to play with the terms in their with one another. terms. notebooks. Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement Debra Pickering and Robert Marzano Page 135
    12. 12. Turn & TalkCan you name all of Marzano’s six steps to teaching vocabulary?
    13. 13. How do I decide which vocabulary is important to teach directly?– CCSS/ESS– EOCs/EOGs/Common Exams– Marzano’s Building Academic Vocabulary– National organizations– PLCs/Content Teams
    14. 14. Dividing and Conquering content vocabulary words need to know good to know nice to know content vocabulary words“I know that, and I could teach it myself” “I’m pretty sure I know it” “Huh?”
    15. 15. Content VocabularyCreate a tree map at your table,categorizing essential vocabulary from aunit in your content area. content vocabulary wordsneed to know good to know nice to know
    16. 16. Strategies for Student Self-Assessment• STRESSS Test/So That’s a Word? (knowledge rating charts)• 4 Corners• Say What???
    17. 17. “Say What???”• Read the excerpt from a high school science text.• As you read, jot down any words a student might have difficulty with (one word per sticky note).• At your table, see if you can eliminate some of the sticky notes by defining words for one another.• Post remaining words on the “Say What” poster.
    18. 18. Stop and JotTake a minute to recordhow you might adaptthese vocabulary self-assessment strategies inyour classroom: • 4 corners • STRESS Test/ “That’s a Word” • Say What???
    19. 19. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Ask students to Ask students to Provide a restate the construct a description, description, picture, symbol, explanation, or explanation, or or graphic example of the example in their representing the new term. own words. term or phrase. Engage students Involve students in activities that Periodically ask periodically in help them add to students to games that allowtheir knowledge of discuss the terms them to play with the terms in their with one another. terms. notebooks. Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement Debra Pickering and Robert Marzano Page 135
    20. 20. Step 1: What are some strategies for introducing the vocabulary?• Assess prior knowledge• Show a picture, video, or digital image• Tell a story integrating the term• Use a contextual sentence• Use current events familiar to students• SEEP/ 3 column vocab/Dinner Party
    21. 21. S. E. E. P.Stem Examples Explanations Picture(prefix, root, or (from students) (whole class or (individual studentsuffix) small group) association)Mal- -Draco Malfoy (Harry Potter) Bad -Malificent (Sleeping Beauty) -Malpractice -Malevolent
    22. 22. Now You Try It• Create a SEEP Stem Examples Explanation Picture foldable using a root or affix from your content area.
    23. 23. Dinner PartyDirections: Find the “guests” who have place cards similar to yours. Sit down at atable for your “dinner party.” Discuss what you have in common.
    24. 24. Stop and JotTake a minute to record howyou might adapt these step 1(introduction) strategies inyour classroom: • Assess prior knowledge • Show a picture, video, or digital image • Tell a story integrating the term • Use a contextual sentence • Use current events familiar to students • SEEP/ 3 column vocab/Dinner Party
    25. 25. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Ask students to Ask students to Provide a restate the construct a description, description, picture, symbol, explanation, or explanation, or or graphic example of the example in their representing the new term. own words. term or phrase. Engage students Involve students in activities that Periodically ask periodically in help them add to students to games that allowtheir knowledge of discuss the terms them to play with the terms in their with one another. terms. notebooks. Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement Debra Pickering and Robert Marzano Page 135
    26. 26. Steps 2 & 3: What are some strategies for re-stating and illustrating the vocabulary?• SEEP/ 3 Column Vocabulary• Circle Map• Frayer Model• Cartoons• Charades
    27. 27. Circle Map
    28. 28. harsh or inhuman mad, frustrated, rumors, “When I broke up nasty with him, she started vicious rumors about me.” Angry vicious people and bullies often say vicious remarks from about the ones they“Confessions… cruel want to hurt. Bully” synonym
    29. 29. Frayer Model definition in picturestudent’s own words vocabulary conceptexamples other info/new thinking
    30. 30. Frayer Model in Math
    31. 31. How have you adaptedthe Frayer Model in your content? • Foldables • Examples/Non-Examples • Characteristics/Non-Characteristics • Use in a Sentence • Synonyms/Antonyms • Part of Speech • Inference/ “I Think” Statement • Other?
    32. 32. Now You Try. . .• Choose a content vocabulary word from your earlier list.• Create either a circle map or Frayer Model illustrating the concept.• Make sure to include a visual representation.
    33. 33. Stop and JotTake a minute to record how youmight adapt these step 2 & 3(re-state & illustrate) strategiesin your classroom: • SEEP/ 3 Column Vocabulary • Frayer Model • Circle Map • Cartoons • Charades
    34. 34. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Ask students to Ask students to Provide a restate the construct a description, description, picture, symbol, explanation, or explanation, or or graphic example of the example in their representing the new term. own words. term or phrase. Engage students Involve students in activities that Periodically ask periodically in help them add to students to games that allowtheir knowledge of discuss the terms them to play with the terms in their with one another. terms. notebooks. Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement Debra Pickering and Robert Marzano Page 135
    35. 35. Step 4: What are some activities to add to student knowledge about the vocabulary?• Dump & Clump• Tagxedo.com,Wordle.net• Thinking Maps• 3 X 3 Vocabulary Grid
    36. 36. Dump and Clump The Dumpster The Clumpster
    37. 37. Tagxedo.com
    38. 38. Wordle.net
    39. 39. Double-Bubble Map
    40. 40. Use the meaning of each part to write the definition of the whole word.Brace Map
    41. 41. Add themeaning ofeach part inparentheses.
    42. 42. Page 138 WORD PARTS “Teaching word parts enhances students’ understanding of terms.” Robert MarzanoBrace Map with manipulatives
    43. 43. Power Plantmitochondria Bridge Map
    44. 44. Bridge Map
    45. 45. Bridge Map
    46. 46. 3X3 Vocabulary Grid virus influenza pandemic vaccine replicate immunityimmune system antibodies infectious “In order to recover from influenza, your body must replicate antibodies to fight the virus.”
    47. 47. Now You Try It. . .• Using some of the words you chose earlier from your content text, create a Thinking Map or 3 X 3 Vocabulary Grid.• Make sure to include a summary sentence.
    48. 48. Stop and JotTake a minute torecord how youmight adapt thesestep 4 (activities)in your classroom: • Word Splash • Dump & Clump • Wordle • Thinking Maps • 3 X 3 Vocabulary Grid
    49. 49. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Ask students to Ask students to Provide a restate the construct a description, description, picture, symbol, explanation, or explanation, or or graphic example of the example in their representing the new term. own words. term or phrase. Engage students Involve students in activities that Periodically ask periodically in help them add to students to games that allowtheir knowledge of discuss the terms them to play with the terms in their with one another. terms. notebooks. Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement Debra Pickering and Robert Marzano Page 135
    50. 50. Step 5: What are some strategies for student discussion about the vocabulary?• Turn and Talk• Sentence Frames• AB Dyad• Vo-back-ulary
    51. 51. Sentence Frames• A ________ is different than a _________ because . . .” • mean/median • simile/metaphor • proton/neutron • socialist/communist• I am like a ________ because I . . .” • parabola • oxymoron • river basin • legislative branch
    52. 52. AB Dyad• Student “A” defines, describes, analyzes, etc. the vocabulary word.• Student “B” summarizes, adds to, corrects, etc. whatever was said by Student “A”
    53. 53. Vo-back-ulary• Pick a need-to-know word from your content area.• Write the word on a post-it note and place it on someone’s back (not at your table).• As the music plays, move around the room.• When the music stops, find a partner and provide each other clues to identify the words.• When word is identified, you may sit down.• Continue switching partners until word is identified or time is up.
    54. 54. Stop and JotTake a minute to recordhow you might adaptthese step 5 (discussion)strategies in yourclassroom: • Turn and Talk • Sentence Frames • AB Dyad • Vocabulary
    55. 55. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Ask students to Ask students to Provide a restate the construct a description, description, picture, symbol, explanation, or explanation, or or graphic example of the example in their representing the new term. own words. term or phrase. Engage students Involve students in activities that Periodically ask periodically in help them add to students to games that allowtheir knowledge of discuss the terms them to play with the terms in their with one another. terms. notebooks. Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement Debra Pickering and Robert Marzano Page 135
    56. 56. Step 6: What are some games that allow students to play with the vocabulary?• White Boards• Pictionary• Jeopardy• Twister• Definition Fishing• Looping (“I Have. . . Who Has?”)• Mile-a-Minute/Pyramid Game
    57. 57. Page 141After the game, students should record the clues, illustrations, examples that helped them guess each vocabulary word.
    58. 58. Now You Try. . . .(Let’s play the pyramid game)
    59. 59. Vocabulary Instruction Sentence Frayer Circle Map Say What??? Dump & Vo-Back-ularyAB Dyad frames Model Clump Tagxedo.com
    60. 60. Stop and JotTake a minute to record howyou might adapt these step 6(games) in your classroom: • White Boards • Pictionary • Jeopardy • Definition Fishing • Looping (“I Have. . . Who Has?”) • Mile-a-Minute/Pyramid Game
    61. 61. How can we help our students retain vocabulary concepts even after moving on to a new unit?• Word Walls• Concept Charts
    62. 62. Word WallsWord Wall = an ongoing, organized display ofkey words that provides visual reference forstudents throughout a unit of study or a term.These words are used continually by teachersand students during a variety of activities.http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/studentsuccess/thinkliteracy/files/ThinkLitWordWalls.pdf
    63. 63. Concept ChartsConcept Chart = in vocabulary, a labeleddisplay of key words organized in aconceptual arrangement.
    64. 64. Current Content Vocabulary
    65. 65. Moving Current Vocabulary to Conceptual Word Wall
    66. 66. Concept Chart
    67. 67. Concept Chart
    68. 68. Concept Chart
    69. 69. Structural Analysis Concept ChartPrefix Base Word Suffixtrans port ation re port port able
    70. 70. Vocabulary Gameswith Word Walls & Concept Charts
    71. 71. Vocabulary Games with Word Walls & Concept Charts• 20 Questions• Charades• 30 seconds• Mile-a-Minute• Mind-Reader
    72. 72. Mind-Reader• Choose a word from the word wall.• Moving from general to specific, create five clues about the word.• Ask students to number 1-5.• After each clue, students write a guess.
    73. 73. Who am I? Civil rights advocate ? U.S. president Brother killedPublished author “Ask not what your country . . . “
    74. 74. Turn and Talk• As the music plays, move around the room.• When the music stops, find a partner (not from your table).• Talk to each other about how you might use concept charts/word walls in your classroom.
    75. 75. Stop and JotTake a minute to record howyou might adapt conceptcharts/concept word walls inyour classroom.
    76. 76. Academic Language: “Bricks & Mortar”Bricks = Technical words specific to a disciplineMortar= General but sophisticated words used to communicate complex thoughts (process or test words & phrases, idioms)
    77. 77. Content Area Bricks (Content Mortar Words) (Academic Language)English Language Imagery, That is, implied,Arts alliteration, contains, leads us theme, metaphor to believeHistory/Social Revolution, Therefore, as aStudies monarchy, result, emancipation consequently, consist ofMath Reciprocal, If…then, end up hypotenuse, with, derive, take matrix, obtuse care ofScience Mitosis, gravity, Hypothesize, sublimation, force variable, infer, results in
    78. 78. Professional Article• Use the anticipation guide to record your beliefs about academic language.• Read “Narrow the Academic Language Gap to Reduce the Achievement Gap” looking for evidence to support or argue against your beliefs.• Revise your thinking on the guide.
    79. 79. Connect to your Content AreaWhat are some “mortar”words in your contenttext?
    80. 80. 3 Tiers of Vocabulary Academic VocabularyTier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3Everyday Words High Frequency Content Specific Multiple Meaning All Contents
    81. 81. What are some strategies forteaching these “mortar” words?•Diagnose the words students need to know. (Use Say What?, etc.) Turn & Talk at tables.•Implement instruction based on Marzano’s sixsteps. Turn & Talk at tables.•Increase Student Output. (Ask students totalk and write using the academic language).
    82. 82. How Do We Increase Student Output? •Use “mortar” words in learning targets and ask students to use and discuss them. •Use sentence starters or sentence frames that incorporate the “mortar words.” Students can use the frames in discussions or writing. •Ask students to annotate thinking as a formative assessment tool.
    83. 83. Use “mortar” words in learning targets and ask students to use and discuss them.I can identify soil forming factors thatinfluence the type and quality of soil.• What words might a 6th grade student not know? (Say What???)• What is the difference between “type” and “quality?” (Turn & Talk)• What thinking process does the word “influence” suggest?
    84. 84. Use sentence starters or sentence frames thatincorporate the “mortar words.” Students can use the frames in discussions or writing.“Say Something”
    85. 85. Ask students to annotate thinking as a formative assessment tool.• INSERT• Vocabulary Sort
    86. 86. Annotating Thinking as Formative Assessment Let’s practice how students might use academic language with EOG/ACT examples.
    87. 87. EOGs/EOCs/ACTs/Common Exams• Let’s look at some common test prompts: Jigsaw Reflection – In expert groups: • What academic language do you see that might hinder student comprehension? – In home groups: • Are there words that you found that are common to more than one subject?
    88. 88. Stop and JotTake a minute to record howyou might approach choosingacademic language andteaching students to use it.
    89. 89. So What’s Next???By February 15, 2013: 1st collaboration with a literacy coach (co-planning, co-teaching, class visit) Completion of Moodle assignmentsBy April 12, 2013: 2nd collaboration with a literacy coach (co-planning, co-teaching, class visit)
    90. 90. Thank you for your Participation!!!

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