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2011 Parma Heights Walking Tour Update With Maps 6 And Do Not Copy Watermark On Page


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Parma Heights, Ohio Centennial Manual PowerPoint Slide Show 2012.

Parma Heights, Ohio Centennial Manual PowerPoint Slide Show 2012.

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  • 1. 2011 Parma Heights Walking Tour ----------------------------------------------------------------------- The Parma Heights Historical Society presents A Walking Tour of Parma Heights, Ohio as arranged by Ken Lavelle ------------------------------------------------------------------------We begin at the TOLLGATE HOUSE in the Greenbrier Commons.1. The Tollgate House is a replica of the one operated by the Brooklyn & Parma Plank Toll Road Company from 1876 to 1907. It was originally located at the intersection of Olde York and Pearl Road. Horses, local farm wagons, and stagecoaches rode on the wooden planks to avoid the mud. The wooden planks that were secured to the ground along the route were replaced by brick pavers and the Tollgate was no longer necessary as the cost and maintenance went from private investors to local county government control. Several interurban train routes were proposed along the Wooster Pike and Olde York Rd. starting in 1897 to 1915. None were ever built. The Tollgate House replica was built in 1980 with donated supplies and labor from the members of the Historical Society of Parma Heights. During the 2011 Centennial celebration held for the establishment of Parma Heights Village from the Parma Township in 1911, bricks were purchased by residents. Each brick had the purchaser’s name inscribed in it and placed in a walkway created leading to the wooden planks securely laid in front of the replica of the tollgate house in the Greenbrier Commons.2. The Bust of George Washington located in front of the Parma Heights Branch of The Cuyahoga County Library was sculptured by William McVey. “The young surveyor – soldier whose journey “to the Ohio” in 1754 made him aware of the tremendous potential of the “western country”. Dedicated July 4, 1976, the Bicentennial year by the citizens of Parma Heights, Ohio. At the base of the monument is a time capsule, various documents and gifts commemorating the Bicentennial were placed in the capsule for the future residents of Parma Heights. It is intended that the time capsule will be opened July 4, 2076. Parma Heights was created in 1911 by Parma Twp. residents who desired local representation; its own school system and safety forces (Town Marshall); local control of zoning, liquor licenses, and development. Also possibly for religious reasons in early documented records.3. The Parma Heights Branch Library operated by the Cuyahoga County Library System was built in 1963 by the City of Parma Heights. It is a busy place and offers many fine services to the community.The walking tour continues east on the exit driveway sidewalk.4. The Eternal Flame presented by American Legion Post 703 on July 4, 1969. The Freedom Walk consisting of a brick walkway and twelve raised Plexiglas panels dedicated August 30, 1992 the Eternal Flame. Along the brick walkway are raised panels depicting the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution; which comprise the Bill of Rights. The bricks in the walkway contain the names off individuals and local businesses that made contributions for its construction to celebrate the Bicentennial of the Bill of Rights.5. As we continue on the approach to Pearl Road we pause and note that at one time a blacksmith shop (C. Tieber’s) stood for many years at this location. This was near the toll house for the Brooklyn and Parma Wooden Plank Road Company (1876-1907). The wooden plank road began in South Brooklyn at State Road, continued southwest to Olde York Road and continued south along York Road where it ended at Sprague in North Royalton. In 1905, an electric interurban train route was planned along the Wooster Pike to Berea and south to Medina. It was called the Cleveland, Berea and Southern Ry. It was not built. Another electric interurban train route along the Wooster Pike was planned in 1906 and 1907 to use the 1 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 2. Brooklyn and Parma Wooden Plank Toll Road Company route. The Cleveland, Brooklyn & Elyria Railway Company was granted a twenty-five year franchise to operate along the Wooster Pike to Strongsville, then west to Elyria; with another branch route along York road south to Zanesville, Ohio by The Cuyahoga County Board of County Commissioners in 1907. The name of the interurban company changed to become the Cleveland & Ohio Central Electric Ry. in 1915. This planned, changed electric interurban train route to Columbus, Ohio was never built and no construction ever occurred here. The Cleveland Railway Co. used part of its route south of Brookpark Road to along Pearl to Ridge Road in Parma in 1917.  06/05/10 75 06/05/10 74 06/05/10 Kenneth Lavelle Kenneth Lavelle 14 15Parma had freight & passenger train service with the CL&W/B&O R.R. from 1895 to 1926. Parma was a Flag Station.We cross Pearl Road at Old York Road to view the Ohio Historical Marker. The route of the CL&W is on marker map. It was dedicated on August 3, 2003 during the celebration of the Bicentennial of the State of Ohio. The Ohio Historical Marker commemorates the fact that the First Rural Brick Road in the United States began at this intersection as a test road along the Wooster Pike using new paving bricks and ended four miles south at the Village of Albion, Ohio. Work for the first rural brick road was begun in 1893 and completed in 1896. This test road was successful and many brick roads were constructed elsewhere. The paving bricks in front of the Ohio Historical Marker in the tree lawn are each individually stamped with various brick company names. Each brick is an example of actual paving bricks produced from various brick manufacturing plants in Ohio. The bricks were donated from residents of the local community and from members of the Cleveland Chapter of the Society of Industrial Archeology (SIA). Now we cross Olde York at Pearl Road at the crosswalk to again proceed with the rest of our historical walk. We pause briefly to view the old style street clock and gazebo built in 2001. Nearby is a portion of steel beam from the World Trade Center September 9, 2001 destruction on display near the Fire Station since the P. H. Centennial in 2011.7. We view with pride The Parma-South Presbyterian Church. Organized in 1835 as a Congregational Church. In 1874, it changed to entirely Presbyterian. The first edifice was built in 1841. The present church was built in 1951. Rev. Withers said Parma Heights left Parma Village since there were many taverns. The open green space at 6143 Pearl between the Parma-South Presbyterian Church and Pearl 2 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 3. School, behind the GCRTA bus stop shelter, was the site of a hotel indicated on an 1874 Twp. map where stagecoach travelers could stop overnight along the Wooster Pike stagecoach route. Also, this was the former site of Temperance Hall. This community hall was built by the Parma Lodge No. 79 of the Independent Order of Good Templars in 1893. Having their presence in the Township suggests there was a possible liquor drinking problem existed that needed to be addressed and eliminated. The Parma Grange No. 1732 met there from 1909 to 1947 in the second floor meeting room. The community hall became the Parma Heights Village Hall in 1912. A small local library was established by the Cuyahoga County Library System in the rear area of the building in 1931 for the residents. In 1947, the building was used for a construction office for the GM Parma Chevy Parts Plant at Stumpf (now Chevy Blvd) and Brookpark Roads in Parma, Ohio. The building was torn down in 1951. The grassy site is now an access entry point into the underground southwestern interceptor sewer tunnel along Pearl Road created in 1988/1989. During construction each access point was fenced in and warning signs posted. There is interest expressed to erect an Ohio Historical Marker here for the first Parma Heights Village Hall.8. Pearl Road Elementary School was built in 1921. One of the three consolidated school buildings to replace the nine one-room school houses in the Parma Rural School District. The architect of the Pearl Road School was Charles W. Bates, who designed many brick school buildings in Ohio in the 1920s. It was planned to be closed in June 2012 along with other older buildings (Hanna, John Glenn, and State Rd) to reduce expenses of the Parma City School District (PCSD). Remodeling costs, safety, and location of smaller school population was considered.Walking north on Pearl Road let us reflect upon the scenes that we might have seen many years ago in arural, farming community. A two lane dirt road, a wooden plank road used by horse drawn wagons andstagecoaches traveling from Cleveland to Columbus and southward on York Road. Thoughts of how oftenrunaway slaves might have traveled to reach a local “safe station” along the Underground Railroad here to reachfreedom in Canada. Pearl Road has been called the “Wooster Pike”, County “Highway 25”, the “three C highway”,and “U.S. State Route 42”. Several homes along Pearl Road are over 100 years old and have had wood plaquesattached to them identifying them as “Century Homes”. One of these early homes is the Asa Emerson Home, at 6103Pearl Rd. built in 1822. Several other homes were built at the turn of the 19th Century. Over the years, this section hasremained “strictly residential”. Pearl Road has been served by several bus companies including Greyhound, theCleveland Transit System (CTS), and the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (GCRTA) since 1974. CTSalong Pearl Road in 1958 had ‘zones’ to charge varying fares along the No. 51 bus route. The GCRTA eliminatedzones. Crile General Hospital along York Rd had a German/Italian P.O.W. Camp No. 243 (1943-1946) in WWII thatused prison labor to help operate the U.S. Military Army Hospital.9. The walk continues to the Parma Heights Cemetery. The cemetery is now maintained by the city. Originally it was called the Parma Township Cemetery, which was established in 1823 and many burials have occurred there since the 1830s. The Village of Parma maintained the cemetery from 1826 to 1911. The Parma Heights Cemetery Improvement Association maintained it from 1912 to 1956. The Parma Heights Cemetery Improvement Association in 1913 placed a plaque on large stone marking the location of the log cabin there that served as the first public school building and public meeting site for residents from 1826 until it burned down in 1841. The cemetery is now maintained by the City of Parma Heights since 1957. It is the site of the annual Memorial Day parade prayer service. The service begins with brief speeches by elected officials and visitors on the green of the Parma-South Presbyterian Church. A parade of various community groups including high school bands march and proceed to the cemetery where a memorial service is held for those soldiers who died or served in past wars are buried. Memorial Day has been observed here since 1868. The stone waiting vault storage building for unburied bodies was built in 1892 . One of the four local taverns was located across from the cemetery. Stagecoach travelers from the 1820s to 1891 would stop there overnight and then continue their journey the next day. A small sandstone quarry was located behind the cemetery for area building 3 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 4. The current aluminum fence was erected around the cemetery in 2003 with funds donated by the members of the Historical Society of Parma Heights. Some of the members of the Historical Society were also past members of the Parma Grange and Parma Cemetery Improvement Association. Below is the1874 Parma Township Map used on the cover of the book, “The Heritage of Parma Heights” 1969 indicating cemetery. There is interest expressed to erect an Ohio Historical Marker in the cemetery in the future. Parma Twp. 1874 Map. Jim Griffin - Parma Heights Historical Society Photo 2011 . 10. Before we leave the cemetery area, we pause and look eastward to the Parma Water Reservoir. This site is owned by the City of Cleveland and was purchased in 1924 from the heirs of Robert Hodgman, original owner of the property. The contractor for reservoir was the Hunkin-Conkey Company. Herman Kregelius was architect of the reservoir and water pump station. Mr. G. W. Hamlin was the designer of the concrete water tank basin. It was built between 1933 to 1935. It was operational on February 28, 1935. The twenty-one inch earthen roof, the outer brick and sandstone wall, and other improvements were completed in 1935-1937 with labor provided by the “Works Progress Administration”, better known as the W.P.A. There was some labor trouble during the construction of the outer brick wall in 1936. Pay checks were late, workers complained of cold weather working conditions, and government property was destroyed during a riot by workers. On January 26, 1936 the rioters lost their jobs and sheriffs deputies were assigned to protect the remaining workers. The Parma Reservoir building was originally dedicated and a plaque was mounted inside the pump station on a wall in 1936. In 1941, a lawsuit (Herzig v. Hunkin Conkey Const. Co., 101 N.E.2d 255, 1941 Ohio App. LEXIS 854, 60 Ohio L. Abs. 313 (Ohio Ct. App., Cuyahoga County 1941) was filed concerning the construction of the outer brick wall and related water supply pump buildings. The pump station was upgraded in 1967 and the plaque was placed in storage until 1999 when it found in a closet downtown. It was returned to be remounted on a wall. Public tours were given each May between 1993 and 1999 for residents during ‘Cleveland Water Week’ before needed repairs were done. A brief history of the Parma Reservoir was printed in the SIA Journal in 2000. The reservoir building roof and outer brick walls were repaired in 1999-2001. The grassy roof was replaced with stone gravel and the outer brick wall had sections replaced with new bricks. The reservoir building was illuminated at night and security measures were increased as a direct result of the terrorist attack at the World Trade Center on 9/11/2001 in New York City. In 2002, the reservoir building was rededicated after the repairs were completed. No public tours have been held at the facility since that time during Clean Water Week each May. The Parma Reservoir is now known as the Parma Heights Water Facility for the City of Cleveland since 2004. There is interest expressed to erect an Ohio Historical Marker at the Parma Reservoir in the future. Temperance Hall Parma Water Reservoir Members of Parma Parma Heights Village Hall Built between 1933-1937 Grange No.1732 in 1917 Parma Grange Hall No. 1732 06/05/10 57 06/05/10 06/05/10 06/05/10 06/05/10 45 06/05/10 43This is the end of your walking tour. We hope you have enjoyed learning more of this portion of the Western Reserve.This version of the walking tour was done with a handout for a PowerPoint presentation at P. H. Centennial 1911-2011. 4 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 5. 5 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 6. Ken thought one possible reason a “town hall” for Parma Twp. was indicated on a 1903 map along Wooster Pike near the No. 9 School House was theplanned development for an interurban train along Pearl Road. Local records and old newspaper accounts did not seem to exist to verify this in 2011.The anticipation of the planned interurban route along Wooster Pike in 1902 had the Twp. Trustees include a new town hall site on their Pamra Twp. map. H. B. Stranahan 1903 map. 6 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 7. 7 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 8. 1897 map indicating the location of Parma Station for the Cleveland, Lorain and Wheeling Railway in Rockport Twp. Good Historical Area Sources: Historical Markers, Newspapers, Local Residents, Elected Officials, Your County Archives and Library, Visit Your Local Historical Society, Maps and City Directories. Books by local authors.  This is the end of the slideshow. 06/05/10 06/05/10 70 Ken Lavelle with broom at left of Ohio Historical Marker Dedication August 3, 2003. 8 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 9. 1906 Rand McNally Pocket Map of Ohio Grafton & Brunswick Railroad Company Organized for development of Sandstone Quarries of Lorain and Medina Counties. Connecting at Grafton, Ohio, with the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Ry., and Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling R.R. Ten miles of track (standard gauge) and sidings in operation. Extensions will be made, controlling the output of a large number of quarries, producing an immense tonnage. (Brunswick Quarry was near present day Pearl and Rt. 303.) 1893 Official Guide to Railways page 379 (DjVu) 1902 advertisement in Official Guide to the 9 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 10. Proposed Electric and Steam Train Interurbans Railways along the Wooster Pike between 1896 and 1915 By Kenneth LavelleIn November 1896, an electrical railway was proposed to be built along the Wooster Pike from South Brooklyn, through Parma, Middleburg, Strongsville, and Brunswick, Medina and Wooster called the Wooster, Medina & Cleveland Electric Street Railway Co.Jos. Roof, of Cleveland and E.V. Hard, of Wooster, had agreed to begin construction in March 1897 and complete it by 1898. This proposed electrical railway along the Wooster Pike was never built. The idea was one to be proposed again by other local investors.The Wooster, Medina & Cleveland Ry. rights were transferred to and became part of the Cleveland & Southern Railway. Residents inMiddleburg Township filed a lawsuit against the Cleveland, Medina & Southern Ry. A court injunction ruling in favor of the plaintiffs endedall plans for this electric railway along the Wooster Pike in 1902. More electric and steam train railway investors continued to propose ideas. Mr. Charles H. Hubbell was not able to complete his plans begun in 1903. His franchise along the Wooster Pike was allowed to expire in1905. The idea was to offer electrical railroad service for the Parma area with the Cleveland, Berea & Southern Railway. Mr. Hubbell’splan was to be in competition with the existing Cleveland & Southwestern Traction Company and the Cleveland, Lorain & WheelingRy. Co. controlled by the B. & O. R .R. since 1901. The Cuyahoga County Board of Cuyahoga Commissioners had granted a franchise alongthe Wooster Pike route of the former Brooklyn and Parma Wooden Plank Road Company in 1905. The Brooklyn and Parma Wooden PlankRoad Company had operated since 1876 and ceased operations in 1907. The voters of Cuyahoga County had decided in November 1906 thatall three existing toll roads operated by private companies were to cease and those wooden plank roads were to be under county control again. Cuyahoga County was now responsible for the maintenance of the former wooden plank road route. Another group of local investors wereable to raise capital and were granted a twenty-five year franchise along the Wooster Pike and York Road route from the Cuyahoga CountyBoard of Commissioners in 1906. The company name of this new enterprise was the Cleveland, Brooklyn & Elyria Railway Company. Itscompany mission was to construct and operate an electrical railway southward from South Brooklyn along the Wooster Pike to Depot Road inStrongsvile Village, from there to the western portion of the Cuyahoga County line where a private right-of-way was to lead to Elyria, Ohio.The various consents of the property owners along the route were obtained and filed with the Cuyahoga County Commissioners for this route.A second south route branching off at Wooster Pike and York Road in Parma was later announced in local papers and trade journals in 1908.This second southern route along York Road was planned to travel through Parma, North Royalton, Richfield, Bath, Copley, Loyal Oak,Barberton, Johnstown, Hametown, Easton, Doylestown, Marshallville, Orrville, Maysville, Mount Hope, Benton, Millersburg, Beck’s Mill,Mound, Bloomfield, Keene, East Lewisville, Coshocton, Willis Creek, Adam’s Mills, Marquand, Ferncliff, Adamville and Sonora toZanesville, Ohio. A spur was planned to be built from Doylestown to Rittman. A branch was also planned to Cambridge, Ohio in 1909. Pearland York roads were eventually bricked on both sides for two lanes. Pearl Rd was widened in 1931. In 1972, a separate center turning lanewas made for vehicles along Pearl Rd.The investors of the proposed 1906 electrical railway were B.E. Ottman and W. E. Elliott, of Cleveland; L.J. Weadock and J. H. Knisley ofToledo; and O.A. Thomen of Elyria. The officers of the company were President, W.E. Brooks, Elyria; Vice-President, J. J. Breitinger,Cleveland; Secretary, J. H. Knisely, Jr. Toledo; Treasurer, B.E. Ottman, Cleveland. The company headquarters were located in the 319Citizen’s Building, Cleveland, Ohio. The name of the company changed several times from 1906 to 1915 when it was mentioned in localnewspapers and trade journals. The following is a list of name changes:Cleveland, Brooklyn & Elyria Railway 1906Cleveland, Orrville, Coshocton, Zanesville & Elyria Railway Company 1908Cleveland, Barberton, Coshocton & Zanesville Railway 1909Cleveland & Ohio Central Electric Ry. 1915-1916Harry Christiansen in his book, “New Northern Ohio’s Interurbans” (1983) wrote the following concerning the Cleveland, Brooklyn &Elyria: “No definite route was ever pegged”. Trade journal articles indicate that rail was purchased and laid in Barberton and Coshocton.However, no construction or operational activity seemed to have been done in the Cleveland or Parma area between 1906 and 1915. A1915 contract was awarded to Lathrop-Shea & Henwood Co. of Buffalo, N.Y. for 35 miles of line from Cleveland to Wooster for theCleveland & Central Ohio Electric Ry. In October 1915 the right-of-way was still not yet obtained. Why the 1915 contract was notcompleted in 1916 was uncertain. The name change with the amended extended 1915 route was Cleveland to Wadsworth, thence viaRittman, Smithville (1st division terminus) and later to Columbus, O. It was a proposed paper interurban and never built. The Cleveland& Ohio Central Electric Ry. had been part of the Columbus & Cleveland Southwestern Ry. since 1907, which would dissolve in1931. The former officers of the Cleveland, Barberton, Coshocton & Zanesville Ry. retired in 1915 with the new name and routechanges. Dr. J. W. Buchanan, its Trustee and President, worked with E. A. Norton who was the General Manager and Promoter of theCleveland & Ohio Central Electric Ry. Signed contracts in 1915 were to complete the planned route in 1917. Dr. Buchanan left Ohioby train in September 1916 to retire in the State of Georgia. On March 14, 1917 the Cleveland & Central Electric Ry. was no longer anactive Ohio Corporation according to the Ohio Secretary of State’s Office. The Cleveland Railway Company was granted a franchise onJuly 20, 1916 that extended the W.25 route from Brooklyn into Parma, O. along the Wooster Pike from Brookpark Road to Ridge Road 10 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 11. 1917. Later southward on Ridge Road to Ridgewood Drive in 1921. Buses took over in 1928. A CTS bus route later was extended toCrile General /VA Hospital from Ridgewood Drive to York Road in 1943-1964. In 2011, the GCRTA 45 bus travels part of this route toCCC’s Western Campus.Sources: Related Legal Case: SCHAAF ET AL. v. THE CLEVELAND, MEDINA & SOUTHERN RAILWAY COMPANY ET AL. 66 Ohio St. 215, 225-233; 64 N.E. 145; 1902 Ohio LEXIS 170. This 1897 interurban plan along the Wooster Pike ended with this court case injunction judgment and investors werelater successful with the CSW interurban franchise until it ceased operations in 1931.Trade Journals:The Engineering News –Supplement. November 19, 1896. Volume 36, No. 21, Page 179. The Cleveland, Medina & Wooster Electric Ry. contract with county.The Engineering Record. Vol . 47 No.9 February 28, 1903. page 237. C. H. Hubbell and A.E. Williams petitioned County Commissioners forroute along Wooster Pike and along Bagley Rd for an electric railway from South Brooklyn to Berea. It was not clear if any franchise was granted in 1903.Electrical World and Engineer. March 14, 1903. Vol. XLI No. 11 page 465. Ibid for C. H. Hubbell and A.E. Williams franchise South Brooklyn to Berea, Ohio.The Railway Age. Vol. XL No. 1 July 7, 1905 page 25. Mr. C. H. Hubbell was general manager of the Central District for Chicago Rock Island & PacificRailroad with headquarters at Davenport, Iowa. He was referred to as “C. H. (Time Clock) Hubbell later in Cleveland Plain Dealer in Mayor Koler interview.“Cleveland Road Seeks Suburban Grant”. Street Railway Journal Vol. 30, No. 9, August 31, 1907, page 330.“Cleveland, Ohio”. Electrical World. Vol. 57, No. 25, June 23, 1906, page 1318.“Arrangements Completed For financing Ohio Road”. Street Railway Journal Vol. 13, No. 12. March 31, 1907, page 467.“Cleveland, Brooklyn & Elyria (Electric)”. The Railroad Gazette. April 26, 1907, page 599.“Cleveland, Brooklyn & Elyria Railway, Cleveland, Ohio”. Electric Railway Journal. July 11, 1908. “Cleveland, Brooklyn & Elyria Railway, Cleveland, Ohio”. Electric Railway Journal. Vol. 43, No. 2. January 9, 1909, page 86.“Cleveland, O.” Municipal Journal And Engineer”. No. 13. March 31, 1909, page 555.“Cleveland, Brooklyn & Elyria Railway, Cleveland, Ohio”. Electric Railway Journal. Vol. 33, No. 15, April 10, 1909, page 709.“Cleveland & Ohio Central Electric”. Railway Age Gazette. Vol. 59, No. 8, August 20, 1915, page 368.Harry & Liz Christiansen, “New Northern Ohio’s Interurbans”. 1983. Published by7 Trolleyville U.S.A. Chapter 18: Paper Interurbans, page 824.Newspaper Articles:Cleveland, Berea & Southern Railway The Cleveland Plain Dealer. September 3, 1905. Page ?.Mr. Hubbell is granted a franchise along the Wooster Pike to Berea using private right-of-way.“ To Southern County Line. C. H. Hubbell Asks for Extension of His Electric Railway Franchise”The Cleveland Plain Dealer. September 14, 1905. Page 12. This route along the Wooster Pike to the southern county line was vague to cross over CSW to Medina.“Franchise Free For All is Over, County Commissioners Revoke Grant Given Last Summer”The Cleveland Plain Dealer. December 17, 1905. Page 5. Mr. Hubbell represented the interests of the Cuyahoga Traction Company. Incorporated September 1905?“Railroad Project Dead? New Traction Line to Berea and Medina will Probably Not Be Built”.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. December 18, 1905. Page 8. Mr. Hubbell was not able to raise the $5,000.00 needed to secure his franchise; andwas revoked. It is thought the backers of the Cleveland, Berea & Southern Ry. may have been some of the same backers of the Cleveland, Medina &Southern Railway from 1897 to 1902 in Middleburg Twp., Ohio. Documentation was limited and vague since Mr. Hubbell did not publicly identify anyof his backers of the interurban franchise. Ken was not able to discover much in an internet search concerning the “Cuyahoga Traction Company”.Cleveland, Brooklyn & Elyria Street Ry.“A New Trolley Road’s Knocking: The Projected Road to Connect South Brooklyn and Elyria”. The Cleveland Plain Dealer. June 20, 1906, Page 14.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. April 27, 1907.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. May 9, 1907. Annual Meeting held.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. September 4, 1907. Legal Notice.“New Suburban Gets Franchise: Line Will Join Cleveland With Down State by Way of Elyria”.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. September 15, 1907. County Commissioners grant 25 year franchise. Page 4-A.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. March 12, 1908.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. May 9, 1908.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. December 26, 1908.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. March 21, 1909. Legal Notice. Work to begin within 90 days along route.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. April 9, 1909. Legal Notice of special meeting to be held.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. April 24, 1909. Legal Notice.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. May 1, 1909. Legal Notice.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. May 8, 1909. Legal Notice, Page 8.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. September 20, 1910.Brooklyn and Parma Wooden Plank Road CompanyThe Cleveland Plain Dealer. January 14, 1907, page 5. F. W, Tilby – President, Dr. S.B. Ingersoll –Secretary.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. May 25, 1907.The Cleveland Plain Dealer. July 23, 1934. K. K. Hodgman created the B&P Rd in 1876. Obituary. Pages 13,17. K. K. Hodgman was an Ohio State Senator in1911 when the village of Parma Heights was created according to July 14, 1911 , Plain Dealer Article ”BLACK EYE WINS AS VOTE GETTER” on page 8.Note: The Cuyahoga County Board of County Commissioners were replaced by Cuyahoga County Community Council Districts in 2010 by residents in aNovember 2010 election. Council members from each district decided as council group what Cuyahoga County was to do moving into the future 11 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 12. than a smaller three-member board.Kendrick Kane Hodgman (1852-1934).(Page 122) Photo - K. K. Hodgman Photo - Hodgman groupPhoto - Hodgman - Stroud family groupKendrick K. (Julia3 Jane2 John1 , , ) secured his education in the district school and in Richfield high school. Commencing in 1878 he taught 18terms in the schools of Parma and Brooklyn. He studied law under the direction of Anson W. Beman, Esq., of Cleveland, and in February, 1876, passedexamination at Columbus, Ohio, and was admitted to practice as an attorney and counselor at law. The year 1891 he spent in Columbus as assistantclerk of the Cuyahoga County Board of Equalization. He was census enumerator for Parma in 1890 and again in 1910. He served three years as justice ofthe peace. He was elected a Ohio State Senator and served between 1901 and 1911 in Columbus, Ohio.On October 12, 1881, he was married to Helen Louise Hauserman, who was born in Parma April 25, 1854. She was the daughter of Frederick andAngeline Snell Hauserman. Mr. and Mrs. Hodgman united with the Presbyterian church in 1891. Mr. H. was teacher of the Bible class many years andsince 1898 has been superintendent of a Mission S.S. Mrs. Hodgman has been a devoted S.S. teacher since she was 17 years old, and has been a willinghelper in all church work.ChildrenKenneth Ethelbert, b. Aug. 30, 1882.Hazel Helen, b. Jan. 17, 1885.Ethel Eliza, b. Sept. 3, 1887, d. Feb. 22, 1899.Oren, b. May 19, 1890, d. May 29, 1890.Merton William, b. Nov. 7, 1891.The children were all born at the homestead where their father was born.Source: Detailed FootnotesClevewland, Medina & Southern Electric Railway Co.American Street Railway Investments. A Supplement to The Street Raiway Journal. Cleveland, O. 1899. Page 70.Street railway extensions in Cleveland; mass protest meeting mentioned. The Plain Dealer, August 16, 1900. Page ? Thought not to be related to extensions in Parma Twp.Cleveland, Ohio. Electrical World & Engineer. Volume 37, No. 6. February 9, 1901. Page 257.Wooster, Medina & Cleveland Street Railway Co.“Report of the Ohio Secretary of State to Governor and Legislature. 1895”. “Street and Electric Railroad Companies”. Wooster, Medina & ClevelandStreet Railway Co. incorporated on August 21, 1894. Page 504.Cleve land Notes. Extension of Time. The Electrical World. Volume XXIX. No. 16. April 17. 1897. Page 518.American Street Railway Investments. A Supplement to The Street Railway Journal. Cleveland, Ohio. 1899. Page 70.Cleveland & Southern Ry.Cleveland, Ohio. Electrical World & Engineer. Volume 37, No. 6. February 9, 1901. Page 257.Medina, O. Electrical World & Engineer. Volume XL, No. 12. September 20, 1902. Page 474.Cleveland & Elyria & Western Ry. Part of The Cleveland & Southern Ry. Volume 75, Part 2. Street Railway. Supplement to The Commercial andFinancial Chronicle. November 15, 1902. Page 25.Cleveland, Lorain and Wheeling Ry.Railroad Stocks and Bonds. Investors’ Supplement. Volume LXXV. July, 1902. Page 49. CL&W is result of the consolidation of the C.L.&W. Railroadand the Cleveland Southwestern on November 23, 1893. On February 1, 1902 the B&O R.R. having acquired a majority of stock began to operate theroad. Parma Station seemed to be closed in 1904. Kenneth Lavelle Kenneth Lavelle 15 12 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 13. Cleveland & Ohio Central Electrical Railway CompanyElectrical World & Engineer. Volume 38, No. 2. July 13, 1901. Page 81.“New Ohio Road Perfecting Plans”. Electric Railway Journal. Volume XLVI No. 7. August 14, 1915. Page 286, 290.Cleveland & Ohio Central Electric. Railway Age Gazette. Volume 59, No. 8. August 20, 1915. Page 368.Cleveland & Ohio Central Electric. Railway Age Gazette. Volume 59, No. 9. August 27, 1915. Page 409.Cleveland & Ohio Central Electric. Railway Age Gazette. Volume 59, No. 12. September 17, 1915. Page 547.Cleveland, Ohio. Engineering and Contracting. Volume XLIV. No. 12 September 15, 1915. Page 24.Cleveland, Ohio. Engineering and Contracting. Volume XLIV. No. 12 September 22, 1915. Page 24.“Electric Railways”. Railway Review. Volume 57. August 28, 1915. Page 289. Address: 548 Rockefeller Bldg., Cleveland, O. E.A. Norton, GeneralManager. George J. Hewlett, Secretary.“Cleveland & Ohio Central Electric Railway, Cleveland, Ohio. Electric Railway Journal. Volume XLVI, No. 16 October 16, 1915, page 13 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 14. “Steps are being taken to secure final right-of-way for this company’s proposed line. Construction will be begun as soon as the right-of-way is obtained.E. A. Norton, Cleveland, general manager.”(Plans for route through Parma Twp. seemed to end on July 20, 1916 when Cleveland .Ry. granted Parma extension.)Statistical Report of Ohio Secretary of State 1916. Change of Name of Certain Corporations. Cleveland & Ohio Central Electric, Page 82.J.W. BUCHANAN, M.D. - "DIXIE LAKE, Ga. A DOCTOR’S DREAM" By Jack R. Mays,j.w..htmlDr. Buchanan retired to Ga. In September 1916. He had been a director of U.S. Steel in Canton, O. in 1915. He died in 1934. Railway review - Google Books Result Search. “Cleveland & Ohio Central Electric” - TransportationThe amended route of the Cleveland & Ohio Central Electric Ry. extends from Cleveland to Wadsworth, Ohio, thence by way of Rittman andSmithville to Wooster ... Engineering & contracting - Google Books - Technology & Engineering... Buffalo, NY, is reported to have been awarded contract for 35 miles of line from Cleveland, O., to Wooster for Cleveland & OhioCentral Electric Ry. ... Electric railway journal - Google Books - TransportationSteel car, light weight, *30 Cleveland & Ohio Central Electric Ry. : Proposed route, Changes in, 286 Cleveland Ry. : Crossing installation,*1133 ...Unfortunately, nearly all of the State of Ohio interurbans suffered from the general problem that most lines in the eastfaced; hostile railroads that were unwilling to engage in interchange services with them. As such, it made it very difficultfor these companies to develop any type of extensive freight business. Because these systems could not create anysignificant freight service they had to rely almost exclusively on passenger traffic except what less-than-carload (LCL)business that could be garnered or interchanged with other interurbans. This resulted in most going under when theindustry, in general, fell apart during the Great Depression (the mid-1920s through the mid-1930s). Source: Railway CompanyCleveland, Ohio. Electric Railway Journal. Volume XLVIII, No. 3. July 15, 1916. Page 125. Cleveland Ry. asked for a franchise in Parma Twp.Cleveland, Ohio. Electric Railway Journal. Volume XLVIII, No. 6. August 5, 1916. Page 252. “Cleveland Ohio The Cleveland Railway has received afranchise from the Cuyahoga County Commissioners for a single track extension on Pearl Road from the city limits to Parma Road Permissionfor double track will be given after the completion of the sewers. The extension must be completed within one year.”Ernest R. Kubasek. “The History of Parma: ...A Township, ...A Village, ...A City.” Published by Ernest R. Kubasek and Bernard Survoy. 1975.Photo of the single Cleveland Railway Co. track along Pearl Road is seen on page 91. It is labeled “Pearl Road Near Ridge Looking South -Circa – 1915”.American Electric Railway Association – 1918 Volume 6 No. 1 August 1917 Page 10 & 11.“Extensions In the case of roads under the regulation of the usual form of Public Service Commission the question of extension of line is largelya matter of the judgment of the Commission as to its necessity If in the opinion of the Commission an extension should be made the company isordered to make it and pay for it. Not so in Cleveland where in order to safeguard the low fare the company is not to be burdened withunprofitable lines Two instances will suffice to illustrate the point. The first is given by Doolittle: Recently he wrote in 1915 a delegation ofproperty owners requested a three mile extension of one of the suburban lines The City street Railroad Commissioner agreed to the extensionprovided the property owners contributed to the cost of construction 75 cents per foot of abutting land or $1.50 per foot of track At thepresent time something over $22,500 has been pledged and construction will begin in the near future. The fare from the City to the pointwhere the extension will be begun will be three cents. For each mile and one half of the extension an additional fare of three cents will becharged making a fare of nine cents from the center of the city to the end of the new track. The second instance is taken from the AnnualReport of the Cleveland Railroad Company for 1916. President Stanley saying On July 20 the Board of County Commissioners of CuyahogaCounty adopted a resolution granting to the company the right to construct a double track extension in Pearl road in the townships of Brooklynand Parma from the southerly boundary of Cleveland to Ridge Road in Parma township a distance of 9,600 feet. The rate of fare permitted bythe franchise is five cents per ride. The company agreed to accept the franchise and construct the extension on condition that the owners ofthe land benefited contribute about $25,000 towards the cost of its construction. The franchise has not yet been accepted because theinterested landowners have not subscribed the entire amount. By agreement with the city the amount collected from the land owners is to betreated as earnings of the extension so as to make good the probable early losses from operation. The first three days operation of this routeshowed earnings of 13.43 cents a mile a cent less than the operating allowance.”Harry Christiansen. “Trolley Trails Through Greater Cleveland and Northern Ohio. From the beginning until 1910” . Volume 2. Published byThe Western Reserve Historical Society: 1975. Page 230. Details of the Pearl Road dinkey the Cleveland Railway Co. operated between August1, 1917 to October 31, 1928. The Pearl Road dinkey began to ride down Ridge Road to Ridgewood Drive on April 15, 1921. Buses took over 14 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 15. 1906 Route of the Proposed Interurban Cleveland, Richfield & Akron on 1953 Topographic Map. Source: 15 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 16. A Brief History of The Parma Grange No 1732 By Kenneth J. LavelleArea farmers felt an economic and social need existed to establish a farm family organization to meet their futureexpectations. Thus, in December 1909, The Grange, was chosen to be their local model of a farm family organizationto be established in Parma, Ohio.The Grange, as an farm family organization, had been established in 1867 with several goals in mind by its founder, Mr.Kelly. He had seen the North and South of our country divided by civil war. He thought a farm family type oforganization was needed to help unite the North and South through agriculture. Two other goals were to pool economicresources together to allow farmers to purchase related farm items and increase the educational levels of their membersto be more equal level to those citizens who lived in the cities , who purchased their farm products. The Grange hasbeen said to be “ a school outside of the school”. Women were allowed to be vote on issues affecting them in thegrange hall meetings. Women were not allowed to vote on public issues in normal public elections until 1920. In thebeginning, the grange was a secret type of organization. The general public was not aware of who was a member. Secrethandshakes and use of code words were not unusual between members as they met fellow members.The Parma Grange was the fourteenth such local subordinate grange to be established in 1909 in Cuyahoga County,Ohio. It was to serve their rural farm family needs until it disbanded in 1974. In the beginning, the Parma Grange waslike most local subordinate granges. Each member had a specific `station’ or earned status. There were specific grangeceremonies, rituals, degrees and duties expected of each member. Grange pot luck suppers, dinners, dances, creatingdisplays at the local annual county fair in Berea, Ohio were encouraged and members played local baseball games thatwere held in the area. Social and legislative work on the local , state levels were encouraged to improve the members’lives. Some members joined the Parma Grange since it offered medical insurance benefits. The Parma Grange helped twomale members improve their speaking and administrative skills to later became public elected Mayors of the Village ofParma Heights, Ohio. They were Mayor Uhinck who served between 1934 - 1944 and Mayor Busch who served from1944 - 1952. Over time, the Parma Grange became a more social type of organization. The Parma Heights Village Town Hall. 6143 Pearl Road. Meeting place for The Parma Grange. Cleveland Press Newspaper Photograph dated July 26, 1933. From The Cleveland State University Cleveland Press Archive, Cleveland, Ohio. The building was built by the I.O. G.T. in 1893. 16 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 17. The Parma Grange met in two locations while it existed. One location was the in the second floormeeting room of the Parma Heights, Ohio Village Hall at 6143 Pearl Road . For many years, thisbuilding had been the only public owned building in Parma Township, Ohio where public meetingscould be held. This early public building has been called ‘Temperance Hall’ due to the factthe residents in the rural township met there to not allow alcohol to be available in the community.The building had been built in 1893 by a local temperance society called ‘The Independent Order ofTemplars’. It was built by ‘gift work’. When their land lease expired in 1898, the building wasmoved across Wooster Pike to the present Presbyterian Church property. When the 1835 PresbyterianChurch was destroyed by a fire in 1898, it used ‘Temperance Hall’ for church services until a newbuilding was constructed. It was inside this building in 1911, that a public vote approved the creationof Parma Heights Village out of a portion of Parma Township. Farmers in that area of Parmatownship had a perceived lack of representation concerning the local school board involving localControl of the one-room school house. A small community library was established there insidethe Parma Heights Village Hall building in the rear section in 1931.The elected officers in the Parma Grange had titles similar to other subordinate granges: Master,Overseer, Lecturer, Steward, Assistant Steward, Lady Steward, Lady Assistant Steward, Chaplain,Treasurer, Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Gatekeeper, Ceres, Pomona, Flora, and Trustee. TheCounty Pomona Grange No. 73 met some eight times a year at different subordinate countygrange halls. Each subordinate grange where the County Pomona Grange met acted as ‘hosts’that month and other grange members from other subordinate granges in the county visitedtoo. This 1918 photo of the Parma Grange was taken when there was such a County PomonaGrange meeting held at the Parma Heights Village Town Hall. The photo was sent to this authorfrom Mrs. Street of New York State. Her father was Mr. O. Kobelt, Master of the Parma Grangein 1925. Mrs. Street, is in the 1918 photograph. She is the young child with the bow in her hairfront row. Her grandfather was C.T. Huy who owned and operated a large dairy farm 17 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 18. near Brookpark and State Roads in Parma, Ohio. He delivered fresh milk daily in Cleveland,Ohio.Each year there was an annual inspection held by the County Deputy Grange Master, whoworked closely with the State Grange Master. The County Pomona Grange in Cuyahoga Countyhad been created in 1915 to help aid any subordinate grange in their activities, to form aworking unit for legislative activities, and to be for better acquaintances amongst the othersubordinate granges in the county. The Ohio State Grange had been established in 1873 to workon national grange issues headed by the State Grange Master.There was a specific program of awarded degrees to the Parma Grange members, who wishedcomplete them , which was done also in the other subordinate granges in Cuyahoga County,Ohio. This was the aspect, that the grange was considered to be ‘a school outside of a school’.Each member who sought a degree or a higher degree had to complete a specific amount ofwork, record it in a scrapbook, and present it for consideration to receive that degree: Thedegrees this author was aware of were as follows: Degree Name Theme Message 1st Degree Preparation Spring Agriculture was a noble occupation. 2nd Degree Culture Summer Occupation was close to nature and God. 3rd Degree Harvest Fall Share the harvest they may have. 4th Degree Home Winter Enjoy the fruition of knowledge and children. th 5 Degree Pomona County Degree 6th Degree Ceres State Degree 7th Degree Flora National Degree Another theme message of the 3rd Degree was `we cultivate the spirit of charity and life’.The holders of the 7th Degree could be members of a club called ‘the Demeter Club’, who mettwice a year for a pot luck supper and a banquet. Demeter was the Greek goddess of crops.A subordinate grange would normally met twice a month. The Parma Grange met on the secondand fourth Tuesday of each month at 8:00 p.m. in 1925, for example. At that time, themeetings held in July, August, and September had been suspended for the last two years. In1925, their meeting place was referred to as the ‘Parma Heights School House on Pearl Road’ ,which is next to the Presbyterian Church according to the 1925 Official County Grange Roster.The author interpreted this 1925 reference to be the Parma Heights Village Town Hall. 18 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 19. Parma Grange met there at the Parma Heights Village Town Hall until 1947 and then moved totheir second meeting site in the City of Parma. In 1960, the Parma Grange met in the ParmaSavings Bank meeting room.The second meeting place for the Parma Grange. Photo From The History of Parma by Ernest R.Kubasek. 1975. Page 113. The Parma Town Hall later became ‘ Parma Memorial Hall’.The second location for the Parma Grange meetings were held in Parma Memorial Hall onRidge Road, next to Parma City Hall at 7711 Ridge Road. This building had been the new ParmaVillage Hall when it was constructed in 1926. The Parma Grange would have their meetingsthere until it disbanded in 1974 .There were from time to time, several public meeting notices in the local Parma Post paperconcerning the Parma Grange meetings. On April 15, 1948, the Parma Grange had a pubic notice that acard party and bake sale was to be held Saturday, April 17 at 8 p.m. in the Parma Community Hall.On January 4, 1952 there was another public notice For Parma Grange members to attend a pot lucksupper at 6:30 p.m. before the annual officers installation meeting. at the community hall. Anotherexample, on September 2, 1954 the Parma Grange members were encourage to bring any Sales TaxReceipt Stamps they had been given, in normal purchases to the next meeting so they could becollected. The Sales Tax Stamps were to be collected and returned to the State of Ohio, who themprinted them, so they could be redeemed at three percent of their value. This Parma Grange meetingwas scheduled for Friday, September 3, 1954 at 8:15 p.m. in the Memorial building on Ridge Road.In the 1950’s, the Parma Grange meetings were held on the first Friday of each month. In 1974, 19 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 20. met on the 1st Monday of each month. The author was not able to join the Parma Grange; he was in HighSchool. Hence, he learned of the Grange when he attended College.The normal practice of giving a consumer a paper sales tax receipt stamp when purchasing ataxable items in Ohio was common from 1935 to 1961 at the point of sale. Ohio retailers hadpaid sales tax to the State of Ohio before any goods were sold. The sales tax receipt stampscould be purchased a local bank by business owners. In 1962, receiving paper sales tax receiptstamps were eliminated. The amount of sales tax paid was indicated on a printed receipt to begiven to a consumer at a store. This a very common practice today in 2002. Very few consumersliving today remember the paper tax receipt stamps that were collected by the Parma Grangeand other nonprofit, charitable organizations such as schools to be returned to the State of Ohio,Department of Taxation for a monetary reimbursement of three percent of their value.There were very few public notices mentioned of the Parma Grange in the local newspapers in thelatter years of its existence. The Parma Grange disbanded in 1974 due to a lack of the requiredminimum number of 12 ‘active’ members to fill officer positions as mandated in the Grange bylaws.Active membership was low by 1974. There were only thirteen to fifteen persons who were still activemembers. Only the fifteen officers showed up for the monthly meetings. Non-farmers could not bemembers. Land development in Parma by 1974 had ended local farming as it was once known . TheGibbs farm along Ridge Road was the last operating farm in Parma, Ohio in 1975. In 1980, it 20 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 21. a working farm museum with animals, known as the Stearns Homestead operated by the Parma AreaHistorical Society. It was founded in 1972. The author presented this paper there at the StearnsHomestead on May 21, 2002. Source of Article : Parma Sun Post October 4, 2001. Page A3This author never saw any of the Parma Grange meeting minutes to mention any morehighlights of the family farm organization. It was no longer an active existing organization. Hebegan to research the Parma Grange in 1983. A detailed paper was written in 1998. However,he was able to locate a list of elected officers of the Parma Grange. This list obtained from theOhio State Grange in Columbus, Ohio maybe of some interest to the reader. It does provide apartial list of the active members in the Parma Grange over the years.The Parma Grange was established in the Township of Parma, Ohio ; Cuyahoga County, onDecember 1, 1909. It was organized by Burton F. White, Grange Deputy. It had some thirty-fourcharter members. There were only three officers mentioned amongst the names provided by theOhio State Grange to the author. The elected officers were as follows: 1st Master Russell J. Goss 2nd Master R. N. Hodgman 1st Secretary George J. HeffnerThe list of Charter Members were as follows: Russell J. Goss Alfred Glebb Werner Kobelt Albert W. Stevens E. W. Hutchinson Henry C. Wetsel William C. Stroud Irma W. Stevens J. E. Hoffman Mrs. John Hoffman John Hoffman M.D. Killmer E.R. Radway K. K. Hodgman Mrs. W. Kobelt O. S. Emerson Mrs. R. J. Goss Charles W. Hutchiinson Edward O. Nicholas John B. Hobart George Kitzel Miss E. Radcliffe S. H. Stumpf Miss Haxel Hodgman George J. Heffner Mrs. May Hobart G .S. Hutchinson Oswalt Kobelt J. M. Ackley Mary Akers James Helen C. E. AckleyFor a grange to exist, there had to be a minimum of twelve members. Any lower than thatnumber, the grange disbanded. Normally, there were sixteen elected positions in a local grange.Over time, it was evident in the later years, only a few persons were running the Parma Grangeas the membership became less active.In the book, Knights Of The Plow , Chapter 10 on page 172 described the Grange as follows:“The Grange borrowed much of its rituals from the techniques of the primary religions. Grangerituals were heavily influenced by Greek, Roman mythology and the Christian religion. Membersat the beginning of each meeting implored God bless their efforts, then called on pagandeities, present in their symbolic form as officers and teachers in the subordinate grange, 21 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 22. knowledge and guidance”. Specific messages and themes of each degree was detailed on pages173-175. In the 1860s and 1870s, there seemed to be separate forms of the first four degreesfor men and women. This author was not certain if these separate forms were still commonlyused when the Parma Grange was formed in 1909. However, reading these pages will give thereader the basic ideas what the grange members were taught. The Grange had songs that weresung at each meeting to reinforce fraternal bonds and specific goals. The Grange seemed topromote American Republican political ideals of public and individual virtue. Community serviceprojects were common. The Grange Aim was `To help rural life; to strengthen the ruralcommunity; and to give to agriculture the power and influence that can come only throughcommunity organization’. Many positive rural life improvements were made over the years formembers by the 22 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 23. A Brief History of the Parma Subordinate Lodge No. 79 of The Independent Order of Good Templars 1892-1915 by Kenneth J. LavelleThe Independent Order of the Good Templars was originally founded in Utica, New York in 1850 as the“Knights of Jericho”, a secret Men’s fraternal religious Masonic Temperance Society. It had five degreesestablished for its members. The rituals were based on the bible and led one to became a “Knights Templar”. The officers had titles such as “Worthy Chief”, “Vice Chief”, “Herald”, “Marshall” and “Chaplain”.However, disagreements arose concerning the organizational structure and confirming of ritual degrees (1*). In 1851, the name was changed to the Order of the Good Templars. As a result of the difference in opinions, the order was disbanded (1). Thirteen former Good Templar members decided to establish a new temperance society called the Independent Order of the Good Templars in 1852. This new organization allowed women to be members. It had three degrees used in ceremonies for members as they rose in the ranks of the order (1).The list of the three degrees were as follows: Name of Degree Robe Color Purpose of Degrees 1st Degree Degree of Fidelity (Heart) Blue Taught the duty of Man to himself. 2nd Degree Degree of Charity Red Taught the duty of Charity to others. 3rd Degree Degree of Royal Virtue Purple Taught the duty of Man to God.The 1864 ritual book of the I.O.G.T. mentions the following officers and their specific duties: Officer Title Initials Duties PerformedWorthy Chief Templar (WCT) President and Chief Executive of Local Lodge.Worthy Vice Templar (WVT) To assist WCT in preseving order; To allow none to Enter or retire during the Opening, Closing, or Initatory ceremonies, unless directed by WCT; to have charge of the anteroom of this lodge and in conjunction with the Guards, who enforce the rules of the Order. Issue nightly passwords to Guards.Worthy Financial Secretary (WFS) To keep accounts of local lodge and pay all money received to the WT.Worthy Treasurer (WT) To safely keep the money of the Local Lodge and pay accounts due on the order of the WCT and WS.Worthy Secretary (WS) To keep a correct written order of the proceeds of meetingsWorthy Chaplain (WC) Conduct the devotional exercises of the Local Lodge.Past Worthy Chief Templar (PWCT) Former President and Chief Executive of Local Lodge.Worthy Marshal (WM) To see that all present are qualified to remain; to keep the regalia in order; introduce candidates for the Order, and to attend to visiting 23 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 24. .Worthy Deputy Marshal (WD) To assist the WM.Worthy Inside Guard (WIG) To guard inside door of Local Lodge.Worthy Outside Guard (WOG) To guard outside door of Local Lodge.Right Hand Supporters (RHS) To support the WCT and assist him.Left Hand Supporters (LHS) To support the WCT and assist him.When installation of new officers in the lodge was held, the officers from the Grand Lodge visitedthe local lodge for the ritual ceremony. These officers were as follows:Officer Title Initials Duties PerformedGrand Worthy Chief Templar (GWCT) President and Chief Executive of Grand Lodge.Grand Worthy Vice Templar (GWVT) To assist the GWCT.Grand Worthy Financial Secretary (GWFS) To assist GWT.Grand Worthy Treasurer (GWT) To give control of the financial affairs to the WS and WFS .Grand Worthy Marshal (GWM) To clothe supports with regalia, conduct them to their places.The structure of the IOTG suggests to this author a military and church structure of the time.It was led by Protestants originally when it was established. This group pursued the common idealsof "temperance, brotherhood, and peace dedicated to the preservation of Swedish traditions. Theidea of preserving Swedish traditions seems to have resulted when there were a large number ofSwedish immigrants in the U.S., who were IOGT members. The initials mentioned here should behelpful to the reader in viewing the member ‘stations’ locations on the map Included with thispaper. The map was included in the 1864 ritual book. The reader may wish to compare the roomseating arrangement with that of ‘The Grange’, which was formed in 1867.Degrees were to given no later than three months after a new group of officers were chosen. Itwas possible to confer the degrees the following evening. New officers were chosen every threemonths. The Worthy Marshal would review each candidate’s knowledge and duty of what eachdegree involved in the Preparation Room before taking the person into the lodge for ceremonies.The Preparation Room contained the regalia items, and served as a storage/classroom formembers to study in This room is the unlabled space behind , to the right of the Officers’Stations and next to the Anteroom in the floor diagram of the Templar’s Hall included with thisreport. The Parma Grange later used the Preparation Room for similar purposes when theyoccupied the space in 1909.The IOTG had signs of recognition, test and passwords, grips and signals to use to contact fellowmembers. Every three months the password changed. The Grand Lodge located in each State,notifiedthe local lodge officials, who informed their members. The County or District Lodge meeting washeld quarterly. The Grand Lodge of each State held annual meetings, which was attended by adelegate from each subordinate Lodge. The National Lodge meeting consisting of members from theGrand Lodge of each State were held annually. The International Lodge meeting was held everytwo years in a different foreign country in the world. The organizational structure was thought tobe an improvement when compared to another temperance organization in that time periodknown as ‘The Sons of Temperance’ 24 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 25. Members wore collars and aprons similar to the regalia of the Masons. Members wore white collarsand officers with titles, wore blue collars with uniforms that were different from those of the members (1).The original motto of the temperance organization was ‘Faith, Hope, and Charity’. Later, the motto of the temperance organization was changed to `The World Is Our Field’ as the temperancemoment grew throughout the world . The name of the temperance organization was changed to beknown as the ‘International Order of Good Templars’ in 1902 (2).The existence of a such an temperance organization suggests that consummation of alcohol was aperceived problem in the 1890s in rural Parma Township, Ohio. Written diary entries record thatmembers paid their dues to the temperance organization and had pledged to not drink alcohol.The 1890s were a time period reflecting high levels of membership in a fraternal organization.The IOGT did not sell insurance to members and it admitted women on an equal basis.The Parma Lodge No. 79 of the Independent Order of Good Templars was established in 1892. Abuilding was constructed in 1892 on land leased from Mrs. Anna Tauber, who lived along Wooster Pike.This was near the present day intersection of Olde York Road and Pearl Road in Parma Heights, Ohio.Mrs. Tauber died in 1894. This early public building has been called ‘Temperance Hall’ due to the factthe residents in the rural township met there to not allow alcohol to be available in the community.The lodge building had been built in 1892 by a local temperance society called ‘The IndependentOrder of Templars’. It was also known as ‘The Parma Protective Society’ . The building was built by ‘giftwork’. When their land lease expired in 1898, the building was moved across Wooster Pike to thepresent Presbyterian Church property. When the 1835 Presbyterian Church was destroyed by a fire in1898, it used ‘Temperance Hall’ for church services until a new building was constructed. The ParmaGrange No. 1732 would later meet there in 1909. It was inside this building in 1911, that a public voteapproved the creation of Parma Heights Village out of a portion of Parma Township, Ohio (2A).The Parma Lodge met on Saturday Nights in their temperance hall on Wooster Pike. It waslocated in the 1st district of Ohio listed on a state map. This 1st district consisted of thefollowing counties: Cuyahoga, Summit, Medina, Lake, Wayne, and Stark countries. There was noknown list of members existing in 2002 to mention specific names in this account. In 1894, R. N.Hodgman was the Parma Lodge Deputy who attended the Ohio Grand Lodge Meeting. He was alocal lawyer and farmer (5). In 1895, Mrs. Luciha J. Standen was the Parma Lodge Deputy whoattended the Ohio Grand Lodge Meeting. Mrs. Standen worked along with her sister, MinevaEmerson, who was the Parma Post master in the 1890s. The Parma Post Office was located alongWooster Pike near Snow Road until 1901 when it was closed since Rural Free Delivery (RFD) wasnow in operation.Membership figures were not available to provide the reader any indication that more men thanwomen were members in the Parma Lodge. The Parma Lodge had three basic objectives, like mostsubordinate lodges, (1) destruction of the liquor threat (2) fulfillment of its role as a socialinstitution (3) perpetuation of itself. Lodge meetings activities were to be kept secret and memberswere not allowed to say what took place. The general public view of these closed secret meetingswere that of marked disapproval of secret societies. Good Templarism was not supported by localChristian Churches due to its masonic roots and rituals (2B) 25 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 26. It was not clear to this author what were the reasons why local residents joined the Parma Lodge. Theymay have interested in the cause of temperance at first and later were interested in their social activities.It is thought that at each lodge meeting the membership gathered to transaction lodge business, plannedfuture social activities, recommend and initiate new members, confer advanced degrees, hear lectures anddiscuss important issues in the community. Members voted on each new member who applied to jointhe lodge. If there were four black balls in the box when the ballot votes were counted, the person wasnot accepted in the lodge. Normally when the subordinate lodge was in session, members worn theircolorful regalia. It was not known, if the Parma Lodge ever held any open public meetings. Some lodgesdid have open public meetings. The author believed the Parma Lodge may have had a small privatelibrary for its members (2C).It is not known when Parma Lodge No. 79 ceased activities within Parma Township, Ohio. This may have been after1915 when local lodge members no longer agreed with the new international ideas that differed from its inceptionthat proclaimed the principles of an alcohol free life , sexual, and racial equality. Cuyahoga Countyland records indicate the Parma Protective Society existing in 1903 And the land parcel their buildingstood on was sold to Parma Hts. Village on June 30, 1915 (2D).This author had no list of elected officers and members to include with this historical account. Nolocal records or documentation existed in 2002 to mention any further specific details of this onceactive and secret temperance society. He was not certain if any of the original rituals were still usedduring time period the Parma Lodge existed. This author believed that the members of the ParmaLodge No. 79 helped to created Parma Heights Village out of Parma Township, Ohio in 1911.There seemed to be is evidence to suggest that both the Parma Lodge No. 79 and Parma Grange No. 1732 held meetings on different days of the month in Temperance Hall. It is known that The ParmaGrange met on the second and fourth Tuesday of each month at 8:00 p.m. and the Parma Lodge met onSaturday Nights at Temperance Hall. The author first thought the temperance society had dissolved andthat created a social void in the community. The Parma Grange was then established in part to fill thatcommunity social need and help the area farmers economically in 1909. However, since it was a secretsociety, both groups could have co-existed together until 1915 (2D). It was not known, if some arearesidents were members of both organizations.The author was told a few brief stories of the local temperance society in the early 1970s by Mr.Cogswell.However, specific details of how the organization functioned were never mentioned to recordhere in 2002. The temperance society members would meet and then `raid’ a local establishment servingalcohol in an effort to close it down. Sometimes, they were successful. It was said that the localtemperance society did not try to ‘ raid’ any establishments serving alcohol , if they were located outsideof Parma Township. If a owner of an tavern served alcohol , he was not accepted as a member of theParma Presbyterian Church, for example. There were several taverns along Wooster Pike (Pearl Road) inthe township. These taverns or inns were mentioned in some detail in the author’s paper concerning localstage routes and inns. The Wooster Pike was a major stagecoach route for mail delivery and passengersbetween Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio during the 1820s to 1890s.There were many local IOGT Lodges in the State of Ohio. Several had juvenile type lodges forchildren to be members of . There was a Juvenile Temple No. 85 in Brooklyn Village with MinnieBarlette as Superintendent in 1891. However, the Parma Lodge did not have any such juvenile typelodge in 1894-95 indicated by the limited and vague surviving records. The members visited otherlodges. D.R. Cogswell visited the one in Brooklyn. The following lodges existed in 1894 and 1895 inthe nearby Parma Township area: Berea No. 73; South Brooklyn No. 75; and Brooklyn Village No. 26 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 27. There seemed to be very few, if any records existing of these local lodges in 2002 (3).The organization and the Parma Lodge no longer exists. The Good Templars once claimed tohave 300,000 members. Many local lodges virtually disappeared in the early 1900s for severalpossible reasons, the author was aware of based on general knowledge of the time period andlimited information available in the Internet in 2002. The I.O.G.T. in general seemed to not allowU.S. citizens of ‘color’ (i.e. Negroes) to join their lodges after the Civil War (1861-1865) hadended. Thus, there were a limited number of possible white candidates to choose from to bemembers in some communities over time to replace those I.O.G.T. members who had died. Thisissue of racial discrimination forced some I.O.G.T. members in Ohio to join the more the liberalbranch in England who allowed members of ‘color’ (i.e. Negroes). In 1887, separate black lodgescould be established.Also, with the development of the movement toward Prohibition that became reality in 1919, thegoal of the American branch of the international organization was reached and no reason existedfor it to continue. In January, 1919 when the ramification of the 18th amendment to the U.S.Constitution was completed by States, after passage of the amendment in the U.S. Congress in1917, the goals had been reached. The Volstead Act of 1919 was latter repealed in 1933.Lastly, the increasing strength in movement of women gaining the right to vote in local andnational elections in 1920 divided the spare time of women I.O.G.T. members . This issue andcause in the early 1870s to the 1900s in the United States divided members of manyorganizations. It was not uncommon for a local lodge to fold, be suspended, or reorganized inOhio.The name of the organization was changed in 1902 to ‘The International Order of GoodTemplars’ (2). This reflected the change in the local focus of the U.S. based organization tobecome one of an international organization as its membership grew in foreign countries. Ithad become a more of An Swedish type of organization to preserve Swedish traditions thatincluded the former independent organization’s goals. ‘Internationalism’ is another possiblereason why many local U.S. lodges disbanded in the early 1900’s. The Swedish connection withthe IOGT began in 1879 when the movement was established there. The leadership of the IOGTwas under Swedish control and it remained that way between 1911 and 1930. Over theyears, the IOGT, as an temperance organization, has had little mention in the news mediathroughout the world.The ‘International Order of Good Templars’ changed its name again to be known as the ‘InternationalOrganization of Good Templars’ in 1992. The ‘International Organization of Good Templars’ carries onthe work of the former independent order. The national magazine is called The Good Templar. Itsgoverning body is the National Council. IOGT is a world-wide community. The aim of IOGT, has beensince it was founded in 1851, is the liberation of peoples of the world leading to a richer, freer andmore rewarding life. As a means of attaining this aim, IOGT today promotes a lifestyle free of alcoholand other drugs.The work of current IOGT and its member organizations is built on the principles of universal fellowshipand basic human democratic rights. The Good Templar movement believes that each individual is uniqueand has an infinite value. Everyone is entitled to personal freedom and is obliged to work for theimprovement of the quality of life for all people. IOGT seeks to promote democracy on all levels of society, 27 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 28. which means that all citizens must have the opportunity to actively participate in decision makingprocesses and freely express their opinions. The IOGT works for peace by promoting human developmentand dignity, democracy, tolerance, equality and justice. Furthermore, IOGT advocates the peaceful settlementof conflicts between individuals and groups. Member organizations are encouraged to work towards peacebetween nations. The IOGT recognizes that alcohol and other drugs constitute a serious threat to thedignity and freedom of many people and their societies. Today, it has only one degree for its members.There are no more rituals or regalia for their members to follow and wear.There seemed to be an renewed interest in the work and history of the IOGT on the Internet in 2002.However, no local interest in Parma, Ohio seemed evident to this author. The IOGT seemed to have beenforgotten as the area developed in the 20th century and after the former temperance hall building wastorn down in 1951 at 6143 Pearl Road in Parma Heights Village, Ohio. In fact, the beer businesses in2002 claimed Ohio was a major exporter to other states. So, it would appear the temperance movementhad failed in Ohio (4). The crusade to ban liquor and beer consumption did not succeed in Parma andParma Heights. The Former Good Templar Hall as it appeared in 1933 when the building was the Parma Heights Village Hall with the Cuyahoga County Public Library located in the 28 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 29. 1924 29 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 30. 1903 30 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 31. no date of 31 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle
  • 32. Electric Railway Journal Map of existing and planned Ohio interurbans (- - - -) dated January 1, 1910.The route of the proposed Cleveland, Barberton, Coshocton & Zanesville is indicated on this map on page 32 Wednesday, January 11, 2012 Kenneth J. Lavelle